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  • 1.
    Bello, L. L.
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Åkerberg, J.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Gidlund, M.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on New Perspectives on Wireless Communications in Automation: From Industrial Monitoring and Control to Cyber-Physical Systems2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1393-1396, article id 7938563Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Conmy, Philippa
    et al.
    University of York.
    Bate, Iain
    University of York.
    Component-based safety analysis of FPGAs2010In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 195-205Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based and modular software development techniques have become established in recent years. Without complementary verification and certification methods the benefits of these development techniques are reduced. As part of certification, it is necessary to show a system is acceptably safe which subsumes both the normal and abnormal (failure) cases. However, nonfunctional properties, such as safety and failures, are abstraction breakers, cutting across multiple components. Also, much of the work on component-based engineering has been applied to software-based systems rather than field programmable gate array (FPGA)-based systems whose use is becoming more popular in industry. In this paper, we show how a modular design embedded on a FPGA can be exhaustively analyzed (from a safety perspective) to derive the failure and safety properties to give the evidence needed for a safety case. The specific challenges faced are analyzing the fault characteristics of individual electronic components, combining the results across software modules, and then feeding this into a system safety case. A secondary benefit of taking this approach is that there is less uncertainty in the performance of the device, hence, it can be used for higher integrity systems. Finally, design improvements can be specifically targeted at areas of safety concern, leading to more optimal utilization of the FPGA device.

  • 3.
    Girs, Svetlana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Willig, Andreas
    University of Canterbury, UK.
    Uhlemann, Elisabeth
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Halmstad University.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Scheduling for source relaying with packet aggregation in industrial wireless networks2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 1855-1864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in wireless communication systems for industrial applications has grown significantly over the last years. More flexible, easier to install and maintain, wireless networks present a promising alternative to the currently used wired systems. However, reliability and timeliness requirements at present met by wired networks also need to be fulfilled by wireless solutions. Packet errors introduced when packets travel through wireless channels imply a significant challenge to fulfill these requirements. Relaying has been recognized to improve the reliability in industrial wireless networks without causing additional delay. Furthermore, the recent results have shown that relaying combined with packet aggregation significantly outperforms simple relaying. However, it is not always cost efficient to introduce additional relay nodes into an industrial network and hence, in this paper, we propose using a combination of relaying and packet aggregation at the source nodes. The results show that when relaying and aggregation are used at the source nodes, the transmission schedule plays a crucial role. A schedule adapting to the varying channel conditions improves performance substantially. By carefully choosing which packet to aggregate, even further improvements can be achieved.

  • 4.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Univ Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Pedreiras, Paulo
    Univ Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.
    Sauter, Thilo
    Inst Comp Technol, Vienna, Austria.
    Special Section on Communications in Automation-Innovation Drivers and New Trends2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 841-845Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of Catania, Italy.
    Bini, E.
    Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Italy.
    Patti, G.
    University of Catania, Italy.
    Priority-driven swapping-based scheduling of aperiodic real-time messages over EtherCAT networks2015In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 741-751, article id 6883138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time Ethernet (RTE) technologies are becoming increasingly popular, as they provide high bandwidth and are able to meet the requirements of industrial real-time communications. Among RTE protocols, the EtherCAT standard is suitable for motion control and closed-loop control applications, which require very short cycle times. As EtherCAT was specifically devised for periodic traffic, aperiodic real-time transmissions are far from being efficient, as they entail long cycle times. To overcome this limitation, this paper presents a general framework for priority-driven swapping (PdS)-based scheduling of aperiodic real-time messages over EtherCAT networks, which uniformly covers both dynamic and static priority and allows for very short cycle times. This paper provides a description of the PdS framework, a schedulability analysis for both static priority and dynamic priority scheduling, and simulative assessments obtained through OMNeT++ simulations.

  • 6.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Univ Catania, Catania, Italy..
    Mariani, Riccardo
    Intel Corp, Assago, Italy..
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saponara, Sergio
    Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy..
    Recent Advances and Trends in On-Board Embedded and Networked Automotive Systems2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1038-1051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern cars consist of a number of complex embedded and networked systems with steadily increasing requirements in terms of processing and communication resources. Novel automotive applications, such as automated driving, rise new needs and novel design challenges that cover a broad range of hardware/software engineering aspects. In this context, this paper provides an overview of the current technological challenges in on-board and networked automotive systems. This paper encompasses both the state-of-the-art design strategies and the upcoming hardware/software solutions for the next generation of automotive systems, with a special focus on embedded and networked technologies. In particular, this paper surveys current solutions and future trends on models and languages for automotive software development, on-board computational platforms, in-car network architectures and communication protocols, and novel design strategies for cybersecurity and functional safety.

  • 7.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mubeen, Saad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saponara, S.
    Ingegneria della Informazione, Universit di Pisa, Pisa, Italy.
    Mariani, R.
    Intel Corporation, Italy.
    Bordoloi, U. D.
    General Motors, United States.
    Guest editorial embedded and networked systems for intelligent vehicles and robots2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1035-1037, article id 8633998Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Markovic, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Carlson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Comparison of Partitioning Strategies for Fixed Points-based Limited Preemptive Scheduling2019In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 1070-1081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing industrial demand for handling complex functionalities has influenced the design of hardware architectures for time critical embedded systems, during the past decade. Multi-core systems facilitate the inclusion of many complex functionalities, while, at the same time, inducing cache related overheads, as well as adding partitioning complexity to the overall system schedulability. One of the efficient paradigms for controlling and reducing the cache related costs in real-time systems is Limited Preemptive Scheduling (LPS), with its particular instance Fixed Preemption Points Scheduling (LP-FPPS), that has been shown to outperform other alternatives as well as has been supported by and investigated in the automotive domain. With respect to the partitioning constraints, Partitioned Scheduling has been widely used to pre-runtime allocate tasks to specific cores, resulting in a predictable cache-related preemption delays estimations. In this paper we propose to integrate LP-FPPS and Partitioned Scheduling on fixed-priority multicore real-time systems in order to increase the overall system schedulability.We define a new joint approach for task partitioning and preemption point selection, that is based on the computation of the maximum blocking tolerance upon each allocation, thus being able to quantify the schedulability of the taskset on each processor. Furthermore, we investigate partitioning strategies based on different heuristics, i.e. First Fit Decreasing and Worst Fit Decreasing, and priority and density taskset orderings. The evaluation performed on randomly generated tasksets shows that in the general case, no single partitioning strategy fully dominates the others. However, the evaluation results reveal that certain partitioning strategies perform significantly better with respect to the overall schedulability for specific taskset characteristics. The results also reveal that the proposed partitioning strategies outperform Fully Preemptive and Non-Preemptive partitioned scheduling in terms of successful partitioning.

  • 9.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Passerone, Roberto
    University of Trento, Trento, Italy.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on Real-Time and (Networked) Embedded Systems2009In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. Article number 5196872-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Passerone, Roberto
    University of Trento, Italy.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on Real-Time and (Networked) Embedded Systems III2012In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 321-321Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Passerone, Roberto
    University of Trento.
    Guest Editorial Special Section on Real-Time and (Networked) Embedded Systems-II2010In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 475-478Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Nolte, Thomas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Shin, Insik
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Synchronization Protocol for Temporal Isolation of Software Components in Vehicular Systems2009In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 375-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method that allows for integration of individually developed functions of software components into a predictable real-time system. The method has been designed to provide a lightweight mechanism that gives temporal firewalls between functions, preventing unpredictable side effects during function integration. The method maps well to the AUTOSAR (AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture) software component model and can thus be used to facilitate seamless and predictable integration and isolation of AUTOSAR components that have been developed by different manufacturers. Specifically, this paper presents a protocol for synchronization in a hierarchical real-time scheduling framework. Using our protocol, a software component does not need to know, and is not dependent on, the timing behavior of software components belonging to other functions; even though they share mutually exclusive resources. In this paper, we also prove the correctness of our approach and evaluate its efficiency and cost in terms of system load in a vehicular context. 

  • 13.
    Norström, Christer
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Hansson, H. A.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Special section on factory communication systems2005In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 149-150Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Pozo, Francisco
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Self-Healing Protocol: Repairing Scheduels Online after Link Failures in Time-Triggered NetworksIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The time-triggered paradigm is not adaptive, a static schedule determines the time-triggered communication and, then, any unpredicted change, like a link failure, might result in the loss of frames. Using spatial redundancy or recomputing a new schedule for replacement achieves fault tolerance only in moderate-size networks. With the increase in size and complexity of cyber-physical systems, more scalable and cost-efficient mechanisms are needed in order to complement conventional solutions. We propose a distributed Self-Healing Protocol that instead of recomputing the whole schedule, repairs the existent schedule at runtime. The basis of our protocol is the collaboration of nodes in the network to individually adjust their local schedules for rerouting the frames affected by link failures. Our protocol exhibits a high success rate compared to full rescheduling, as well as remarkable scalability; it repairs the schedule in milliseconds, whereas rescheduling requires minutes.

  • 15.
    Ray, Apala
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB Corporate Research.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    ABB AB; Corporate Research, Sweden .
    An Industrial Device Deployment Framework using the Initial Trust Establishment WorkflowIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Shah, M. B. N.
    et al.
    Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Durian Tunggal, Malaysia .
    Husain, A. R.
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Malaysia .
    Aysan, Huseyin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Punnekkat, S.
    Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani, India.
    Dobrin, Radu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bender, F. A.
    Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Caxias do Sul, Brazil .
    Error Handling Algorithm and Probabilistic Analysis Under Fault for CAN-Based Steer-by-Wire System2016In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 1017-1034, article id 7435293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes an efficient way to handle fault in controller area network (CAN)-based networked control system (NCS). A fault in a bus line of CAN will induce a data error which will result in data dropout or time delay, and subsequently may lead to performance degradation or system instability. A strategy to handle fault occurrence in CAN bus is proposed to properly analyze the effect of the fault to CAN-based NCS performance. The fault occurrences are modeled based on fault interarrival time, fault bursts' duration, and Poisson law. Using fault and messages' attributes, response time analysis (RTA) is performed and the probability of control message missing its deadline is calculated. Utilizing the new error handling algorithm to replace the native error handling of CAN, the probability of a control message missing its deadline can be translated into the probability of data dropout for control message. This methodology is evaluated using steer-by-wire system of vehicle to analyze the effect of fault occurrences in CAN. It is found that the proposed error handling mechanism has resulted in better NCS performance and the range of data dropout probability for control message also could be obtained, which serves as crucial input for NCS controller design.

  • 17.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ermedahl, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Stärner, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Pinpointing Interrupts in Embedded Real-Time Systems using Hashed Execution Contexts2009In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 257-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic debugging is the process of iteratively re-executing a failed execution in order to determine the cause of the failure, i.e., the bug. In this process, being able to correctly reproduce the faulty execution is an absolute necessity. In sequential, deterministic, non-real-time software, this reproducibility is inherent. However, when the execution is preempted by interrupts, this has severe effects on program reproducibility, since, during the reproduction, it is required for interrupts to occur at the exact same instructions. Previously, this problem has been solved using instruction counters, that induce large execution time perturbations, or by special hardware solutions which impose a risk of inexact results. In this paper, we propose an alternative method for pinpointing interrupts using hashed values of selected parts of the program execution context. Although our method in some cases can be ambiguous, we show that it serves as a pragmatic method for pinpointing and reproducing interrupts in embedded real-time systems. Moreover, our method does not rely on special hardware or compilers, is simple to implement and use, and requires little execution time and memory.

  • 18.
    Tomasic, Ivan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Andersson, A.
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Mixed-Effect Models for the Analysis and Optimization of Sheet-Metal Assembly Processes2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 2194-2202, article id 7857795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assembly processes can be affected by various parameters, which is revealed by the measured geometrical characteristics (GCs) of the assembled parts deviating from the nominal values. Here, we propose a mixed-effect model (MEM) application for the purposes of analyzing variations in assembly cells, as well as for screening the input variables and characterization. MEMs make it possible to take into account statistical dependencies that originate from repeated measurements on the same assembly. The desirability functions approach was used to describe how to find corrective or control actions based on the fitted MEM. Objectives: To examine the usefulness of the MEM between the positions of the in-going parts as the input controllable variables and the measured GCs as the outputs. Methods: The data from 34 car frontal cross members (each measured three times) were experimentally collected in a laboratory environment by intentionally changing the positions of the in-going parts, assembling the parts, and subsequently measuring their GCs. A single MEM that completely describes the assembly process was fitted between the GCs and the positions of the in-going parts. Results: We present a modeling technique that can be used to establish which measured GCs are influenced by which controllable variables, and how this occurs. The fitted MEM shows evidence that the variability of some GCs changes over time. The natural variation in the system (i.e., unmodeled variations) is about two times larger than the variation between the assembled cross members. We also present two cases that demonstrate how to use the fitted MEM desirability functions to find corrective or control actions. Conclusion: MEMs are very useful tools for analyzing the assembly processes for car-body parts, which are nonlinear processes with multiple inputs and multiple correlated outputs. MEMs can potentially be applied in numerous industrial processes, since modern manufacturing plants measure all important process variables, which is the sole prerequisite for MEMs applications. 

  • 19.
    van den Heuvel, Martijn
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Lukkien, Johan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands .
    Transparent synchronization protocols for compositional real-time systems2012In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 322-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchical scheduling frameworks (HSFs) provide means for composing complex real-time systems from well-defined, independently analyzed components. To support resource sharing in two-level HSFs, three synchronization protocols based on the stack resource policy (SRP) have recently been presented for single-processor execution platforms, i.e., HSRP, SIRAP, and BROE. This paper presents a transparent implementation of these three protocols side-by-side in an HSF-enabled real-time operating system. Transparent synchronization interfaces make it possible to select a protocol during integration time based on its relative strengths.A timing interface describes the required budget to execute a component on a shared platform and an accessor's maximum critical- section execution time to global shared resources. These resources are arbitrated based on the available budget of the accessing task.We enable this explicit synchronization of virtual time with global time by means of a novel virtual-timer mechanism. Moreover, we investigate system overheads caused by each synchronization protocol, so that these can be included in the system analysis. Based on the analytical and implementation overheads of each protocol, we present guidelines for the selection of a synchronization protocol during system integration. Finally, we show that unknown task-arrival times considerably complicate an efficient implementation of SIRAP's self-suspension mechanism. We briefly discuss the implementation complexity caused by these arrivals for bandwidth-preserving servers, e.g., deferrable servers and BROE.

  • 20.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Performance Evaluations and Measurements of the REALFLOW Routing Protocol in Wireless Industrial Networks2017In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, p. 1410-1420, article id 7506102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) offer significant advantages to industrial automation. However, high reliability demands and hard communication deadlines pose challenges to its practical applications. To achieve this goal, flooding is considered as a promising approach due to multipath diversity and simplicity. In this paper, an enhanced version of REALFLOW, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSANs is presented. Compared to the original REALFLOW, network management and network stability are improved. REALFLOW is compared with four other flooding protocols via simulations. The simulation results show that REALFLOW has better performance in terms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors when considering deadlines. Compared with normal flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparable reliability performance with decreased redundancy. Measurements from a prototype implementation conducted in an industrial manufacturing workshop reveal that high reliability and low application failure rates can be achieved, giving more confidence in providing reliable wireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation

  • 21.
    Yu, Kan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Åkerberg, Johan
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Corp Res, ABB AB, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Performance Evaluation and Measurement of REALFLOW Routing Protocol in WirelessIndustrial NetworksIn: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(IWSAN) offer significant advantages to industrial automationsystems. Requirements on reliability are highly demanding formany industrial applications. Due to multipath diversity andsimplicity, flooding is an promising approach to provide reliabletransmissions.

    In this paper, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSAN(REALFLOW) is upgraded based on previous research, aimingfor high reliability. To provide efficient and directionaltransmission, a controlled flooding-based mechanism is applied.Network management is further improved for better efficiencyand stability. REALFLOW is first compared with other fourflooding protocols via simulation. The results exhibit that REALFLOWoutperforms other advanced flooding protocols interms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors. Evencompared with pure flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparablereliability performance with decreased forwarding redundancy.To demonstrate the solution promising in reality, a workableIWSAN prototype is built, as well as the full implementation ofthe whole protocol stack including REALFLOW. A measurementconducted in a industrial manufacturing workshop reveals thathigh reliability and low application failure probability can beachieved, which brings more confidence of providing both reliablewireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation systems.

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