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  • 1.
    An, Lin
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xinhai
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jie
    Univ Shanghai Sci & Technol, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    CO2 capture using a superhydrophobic ceramic membrane contactor2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2287-2292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting and fouling of membrane contactor result in performance deterioration of membrane gas absorption system for CO2 post-combustion capture of coal-fired power plants. To solve these problems, in this study, a superhydrophobic ceramic (SC) membrane contactor was fabricated by chemically modification using 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctylethoxysilane (FAS) solution. The membrane contactor fabrication costs for both SC membrane and PP (polypropylene) membrane contactors per unit mass absorbed CO2 were roughly the same. However, by using the SC membrane, the detrimental effects of wetting can be alleviated by periodic drying to ensure a high CO2 removal efficiency (>90%), whereas the drying does not work for the PP membrane. The SC membrane contactor exhibited a better anti-fouling ability than the PP membrane contactor because the superhydrophobic surface featured a self-cleaning function. To ensure continuous CO2 removal with high efficiency, a method that two SC membrane contactors alternatively operate combined with periodic drying was proposed.

  • 2.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Influence of light emitting diodes on indigenous microalgae cultivation in municipal wastewater2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 786-792Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs) on microalgae cultivation in municipal wastewater was examined in comparison to the fluorescent light. Two kinds of wastewater were evaluated: first one with low concentration of total phosphorous (TP) and second one with high TP concentration. The nutrient removal and biomass production using LEDs is efficient at photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 107-112 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) which is slightly higher than fluorescent light. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the applicability and distribution of light in wastewater where the environment is not defined. More importantly, winter and rainy periods contribute to dark condition and dilution of wastewater, intense LED light offers a feasible option for the functioning of closed micro algae based activated sludge (MAAS) process for recovery and reuse of nutrients. 

  • 3.
    Anna E., Frost
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Maher, Azaza
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Patterns and temporal resolution in commercial and industrial typical load profiles2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2684-2689Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Avelin, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Effect of different renovation actions, their investment cost and future potential2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 143, p. 73-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    65% of the buildings in Västerås, situated in the region of Mälardalen, Sweden were built before 1970. It is thus time for renovation. The situation is the same in most cities in Sweden and Northern Europe. The depth of renovation can be quite different. In this paper we evaluate some examples where cost is compared to energy saving effect. How to plan renovation to make use of the available capital in the cities is discussed. As a complement to direct renovation actions also behavior change with respect to energy is discussed and exemplified. The cost for energy actions in relation to other renovation aspects is discussed especially for the passive house case in Allingsås, Sweden. The passive house center calculate an extra cost for passive house standard to be 10 000 €/apartment while an external consultant has the figure 40 000 € of the total cost of 120 000 €. With this space heating can be 18 kWh/m2.year, or a reduction by 84 % with respect to space heating and 62% for overall heat and hot water demand. If you use the latter cost figure passive house standard is not motivated from an energy savings perspective while if using the lower figure it is very interesting. For the other less deep renovations we see that adding more insulation and three glass windows is motivated if the degradation has been strong, while a simpler renovation may be ok if the outer surface coating is not too bad. For these less deep renovations we see cost figures of 65 €/m2 respectively 28 €/m2 with reduction of heating and hot water demand of 56 % respectively 34 %. 

  • 5.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The burden of shading and location on the sustainability of South African solar home system program2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 308-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most contributions on the issues of sustainability of rural electrification projects have focused on the technology and business models used to drive the projects. The issues of user education and environmental impact on the technology have received little attention, despite the fact that these challenges affect lives of projects after commissioning. The usage pattern of solar home systems (SHS) by most users that placed their solar panels close to obstructing objects, results in shading of the panels, and geographic location of households in the concession areas of the South African SHS program affects the performances of the system. The non-optimal use of SHS is mainly due to lack of user education. Therefore this paper reports on the impact of geographic location and shading of panels on the economics and technical performance of SHS. The study was done by investigating the performance of 75 WP solar panels operated at two sites in South Africa (Upington in Northern Cape Province and Thlatlaganya in Limpopo Province), the performance of an optimized shaded SHS and a non-shaded one was also investigated. The results show that both geographic location and shading compromise the performance of the systems, the energy output of a solar panel located at Upington is increased by 19% and the state of charge of the battery (SOC) increased by 6%, compared to the panel situated at Thlatlaganya village. Also the life span of the battery is increased by about one year. The SOC of the partially shaded SHS is reduced by 22% and loss of power to the load increased by 20%. The geographical location of the SHS concession areas in South Africa and lack of adherence to the manufacturer's installation specification affects the economics of SHS and the energy output vis-a-vis the sustainability of the program due to reduction in life cycle of the batteries. 

  • 6.
    Bai, Q.
    et al.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Guo, Z.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jin, L.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental investigation on the solidification behavior of phase change materials in open-cell metal foams2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3703-3708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presented an experimental investigation on solidification behavior of fluid saturated in highly porous open-cell copper foams. Particular attention has been made on the effect of pore parameters (pore density and porosity) on the solidification behavior. A purposely-designed apparatus was built for experimental observations. Results showed that the copper foam had a great effect on solidification and the full solidification time can be saved up to 50%, especially preventing the decrease in solidification rate during the later stage of phase change. The smaller the porosity is, the faster the solidification rate will be. Pore density was found to have little influence upon the solidification rate. In addition, the local natural convection does exist but it has a slight effect on solidification, leading to the slant of the solid-liquid interface. 

  • 7.
    Benavente-Araoz, F.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, A.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cabrera, S.
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Lindbergh, G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Loss-of-load probability analysis for optimization of small off-grid PV-battery systems in Bolivia2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3715-3720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluates the use of energy storage technologies coupled to renewable energy sources in rural electrification as a way to address the energy access challenge. Characteristic energy demanding applications will differently affect the operating conditions for off-grid renewable energy systems. This paper discusses and evaluates simulated photovoltaic power output and battery state of charge profiles, using estimated climate data and electricity load profiles for the Altiplanic highland location of Patacamaya in Bolivia to determine the loss of load probability as optimization parameter. Simulations are performed for three rural applications: household, school, and health center. Increase in battery size prevents risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. Moreover, increase of PV module size leads to energy excess conditions for the system reducing its efficiency. The results obtained here are important for the application of off-grid PV-battery systems design in rural electrification projects, as an efficient and reliable source of electricity.

  • 8.
    Bhutani, Naveen
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research Center, Bangalore, India .
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    ABB AB Corporate Research, Sweden .
    Starr, Kevin
    ABB Process Automation Services, United States.
    Horton, Robert
    ABB Process Automation Services, United States.
    Energy assessment of Paper Machines2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 14, p. 955-963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large value in making Pulp and Paper mills more energy efficient. ABB has developed an energy assessment service where opportunities to save energy in the paper machine are identified. The energy assessment is done by quantifying energy flows, benchmarking energy users, data mining and steam sensitivity analysis and by experiments and additional measurements at the paper machine. Energy quantification helped in identifying main energy consumer, benchmarking was useful to assess the gap between operating performance and best performance whereas data mining and steam sensitivity analysis helped in studying the impact of key operating variables on performance of paper machines. After the assessment an action plan was presented to the mill for energy efficiency improvement together with a return on investment.

  • 9.
    Bonner, Richard F.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Mamchych, Tetyana I.
    RFB Consulting, Sweden.
    Classifying Households by the (Sobolev) Norms of their Electricity Consumption2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1870-1873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical time series, but especially periodic such, are characterized up to pertinent symmetries by families of norms. The electricity consumption by a household, recorded daily during a month’s time, say, may then be encoded in a sequence of numbers; for example, as follows: the mean daily consumption, the mean daily variation of the consumption, the variation of the variation, the variation of the variation of the variation, etc. Now, replacing each of these numbers by the digits 0, 1, or 2, to say that a number is “low”, “medium”, or “high”, in relation to a collection of households, one naturally partitions the collection by the strings of these three digits; the household labeled 102   has then medium daily consumption, low daily variation, but high variation of variation, etc. We generally discuss this innocent idea and examine it in three ways: by way of toy examples, through its mathematical model (in detail presented elsewhere) and by accordingly classifying some actual electricity consumption data.

  • 10.
    Budt, M.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology UMSICHT, Germany.
    Wolf, D.
    Heliocentris Industry GmbH, R and D Clean Energy Solutions, Germany.
    Span, R.
    Thermodynamics, Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Compressed air energy storage - An option for medium to large scale electricalenergy storage2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 698-702Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents the theoretical background of compressed air energy storage, examples for large scale application of this technology, chances and obstacles for its future development, and areas of research aiming at the development of commercially viable plants in the medium to large scale range.

  • 11.
    Bulut, Mehmet Börühan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Buildings as components of smart grids - Perspectives of different stakeholders2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1630-1633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides the perceptions of the energy and buildings sectors, municipalities and researchers in Sweden about active buildings that provide smart grid services to their inhabitants. As part of this study, we conducted 23 semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders to present the perspectives of stakeholders that are involved in the development process. Our study shows that there are several barriers to development of active buildings and points out the importance of energy policy mechanisms to support the development. It is necessary to introduce new measures in order to financially encourage the stakeholders and motivate the end-users to invest in smart grid technologies. The elimination of the intersectoral barriers and the promotion of cooperation amongst stakeholders could pave the way for a more efficient and smarter grid.

  • 12.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Leduc, S.
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Kim, M
    Korea Univ., Seul, Korea.
    Liu, J.
    Beijing Forestry Univ, Peoples R China.
    Kraxner, F.
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
    McCallum, I.
    IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm.
    Optimal grassland locations for sustainable photovoltaic water pumping systems in China2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 301-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Grassland is of strategic importance for food security of China because of the high number of livestock raised in those areas. Grassland degradation due to climate change and overgrazing is thus regarded as severe environmental and economic threat for a sustainable future development of China. Photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation can play an important role for the conservation of grassland areas, halting degradation, improving its productivity and farmers' income and living conditions. The aim of this paper is to identify the technically suitable grassland areas for the implementation of PVWP systems by assessing spatial data on land cover and slope, precipitation, potential evapotranspiration and water stress index. Furthermore, the optimal locations for installing PVWP systems have been assessed using a spatially explicit renewable energy systems optimization model based on the minimization of the cost of the whole supply chain. The results indicate that the PVWP-supported grassland areas show high potential in terms of improving forage productivity to contribute to supplying the local demand. Nevertheless, the optimal areas are highly sensitive to several environmental and economic parameters such as ground water depth, forage water requirements, forage price and CO2 emission costs. These parameters need to be carefully considered in the planning process to meet the forage yield potentials.

  • 13.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Quan, S. J.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, USA.
    Robbio, F. I.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ma, T.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Spatial optimization of residential urban district - Energy and water perspectives2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 38-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities around the world have reached a critical situation when it comes to energy and water supply, threatening the urban sustainable development. The aim of this paper is to develop a spatial optimization model for the planning of residential urban districts with special consideration of renewables and water harvesting integration. In particular, the paper analyses the optimal configuration of built environment area, PV area, wind turbines number and relative occupation area, battery and water harvester storage capacities, as a function of electricity and water prices. The optimization model is multi-objective which uses a genetic algorithm to minimize the system life cycle costs, and maximize renewables and water harvesting reliability. The developed model can be used for spatial optimization design of new urban districts. It can also be employed for analyzing the performances of existing urban districts under an energy-water-economic viewpoint. Assuming a built environment area equal to 75% of the total available area, the results show that the reliability of the renewables and water harvesting system cannot exceed the 6475 and 2500 hours/year, respectively. The life cycle costs of integrating renewables and water harvesting into residential districts are mainly sensitive to the battery system specific costs since most of the highest renewables reliabilities are guaranteed through the energy storage system.

  • 14.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Z.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Anders, Lundblad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Open-source Platform for Simulation and Optimization of Clean Energy Technologies2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is to describe an open-source code for optimization of clean energy technologies. The model covers the whole chain of energy systems including mainly 6 areas: renewable energies, clean energy conversion technologies, mitigation technologies, intelligent energy uses, energy storage, and sustainability. Originally developed for optimization of renewable water pumping systems for irrigation, the open-source model is written in Matlab® and performs simulation, optimization, and design of hybrid power systems for off-grid and on-grid applications. The model uses genetic algorithm (GA) as optimization technique to find the best mix among power sources, storage systems, and back-up sources to minimize life cycle cost, and renewable power system reliability. 

  • 15.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhu, Y.
    Chengdu University, China.
    Brugiati, Elena
    Università Degli Studi di Perugia, Italy.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    PV water pumping for irrigation equipped with a novel control system for water savings2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 949-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, PV water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation are normally designed based on the worst conditions, such as high water demand and low solar irradiation. Therefore, the installed PVWP systems become oversized in most of time. Since the conventional control systems don't optimize the water supply, the water losses are increased. To remedy the problems related to the operation of the oversized systems, a novel control system is proposed. The control unit interacts between water demand and water supply in order to pump only the amount required by crops. Moreover, the novel control system substitutes the conventional protection approach with a method based on the ground water resources availability and response. The novel control system represents an innovative solution for water savings in PV watering applications.

  • 16.
    Campillo, Javier
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Technology capacity assessment tool for developing city action plans to increase efficiency in mid-sized cities in Europe2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 16-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition towards energy efficient cities requires an effective upgrade of all the different areas of urban energy production, distribution and use. The paper presents a method for collecting the information required for analysing the technical variation of strengths and weaknesses in infrastructure capabilities in European medium-sized cities, as well as to help identify best practices and tools for enhancing the energy performance of city energy systems.

  • 17.
    Chen, S.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, M.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Study on the Oil Import/Export Quota Allocation Mechanism in China by Using a Dynamic Game-Theoretic Model2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3856-3861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid progress of oil market reform in China, independent refineries (small companies) get more and more oil import/export quotas, which will bring big impacts on the whole market and society. However, whether the impacts are positive or negative is highly dependent on the quota allocation mechanism and prices in global/domestic market markets. Therefore, in the present study, considering the game relationships among the six agents including state-owned companies, independent refineries, domestic and foreign oil product consumers, and domestic and foreign crude oil producers, in order to calculate the detailed impacts, a game-theoretic analysis model was developed. The impacts of different quota mechanism are analyzed and compared, and the optimal quota mechanism in different price scenarios is obtained based on the developed model. 

  • 18.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Comparison of Gas Quality from Black Liquor and Wood Pellet Gasification Using Modelica Simulation and Pilot Plant Results2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 992-998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to integrate biomass gasification with pulp & paper and CHP plants in order to complement the existing systems with production of chemicals, such as methane, hydrogen, and methanol etc. To perform system analysis of such integration, it is important to gain knowledge of relevant input data on expected synthesis gas composition by gasifying different types of feed stock. In this paper, the synthesis gas quality from wood pellets gasification (WPG) has been compared with black liquor gasification (BLG) through modeling and experimental results at pilot scale. In addition, the study develops regression models like Partial Least Squares (PLS) made from the experimental data. The regression models are then combined with dynamic models developed in Modelica for the investigation of dynamic energy and material balances for integrated plants. The data presented in this study could be used as input to relevant analysis using e.g. ASPEN plus and similar system analysis tools. 

  • 19.
    Danish, Muhammad
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Farooq, Usman
    Gujarat Univ, Gujrat, Pakistan.
    Naqvi, Salman
    Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Univ Teknol PETRONAS, Malaysia.
    Characterization of South Asian agricultural residues for potential utilization in future 'energy mix'2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2974-2980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper characterizes various locally available agricultural residues in South Asian region to evaluate their potential as feedstock for renewable energy production and contributing toward solving energy crisis and environmental issues. The thermo-chemical characterization has been performed in order to determine if the residues have potential to be used in biomass conversion technologies producing combined heat and power. The characterization methods for comparing different agricultural residues include proximate and ultimate analysis, heating value, ash content, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and structural composition analysis (SCA). Widely available agricultural wastes in South Asian region were selected for the characterization i.e. bagasse, almond shell, corn cob, cotton stalks, wheat straw, sawdust, corn leaf, rice husk, rice straw, and corn straw. The analysis showed that the corn cob had the highest moisture content that will result in low energy efficiency of the thermal conversion technology due to energy requirement for drying. Whereas almond shell had the lowest moisture content. Ash and volatile contents were found to be highest in rice straw and almond shell respectively. The thermo gravimetric analysis showed that most of the agricultural residues can be easily decomposed and represent potential feedstock for biomass flexible combined heat and power systems through pyrolysis or gasification. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 20.
    Daraei, Mahsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Avelin, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Evaluation of potential fossil fuel free energy system: Scenarios for optimization of a regional integrated system2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 964-970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth and urbanization have led to increases in energy demand and consequently, greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, the availability of the fossil fuel as the main source of energy supply has been changed. Utilization of renewable resources including solar, wind, and hydropower together with distributed energy systems could eliminate the dependency on fossil fuel energy sources. In this paper, energy use and supply trends have been studied for the Counties of Västmanland and Södermanland in Sweden in order to develop a scenario for the regional energy system in 2030. The aim is to use the scenario for evaluation of the impacts of regional renewable energy resources on the production planning of CHP plants. The scenario shows that there is not enough potential for electricity production from renewable resources such as solar, wind, and hydropower to fulfill the estimated demand in 2030. Around 75% of electricity needs in Västmanland and 89% of power demands in Södermanland need to be met by imported electricity to these regions. Efficiency improvements and a more complex energy system integrating also with other energy resources like biomass, waste and industrial waste heat are necessary to develop a sustainable energy system.

  • 21.
    Davidsson, H.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bernardo, R.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gomes, J.
    Solarus AB, Älvkarleby, Sweden.
    Gentile, N.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gruffmanc, C.
    ÅF AB, Gävle, Sweden .
    Chea, L.
    Universidade Eduardo Mondlane, Maputo, Mozambique .
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Construction of laboratories for solar energy research in developing countries2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 57, p. 982-988Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of photovoltaic systems have been installed in developing countries around the world during numerous projects. The goal is often to improve the quality of life in rural areas often lacking electricity. Many of these installations provide important services such as lighting and charging of various devices. However, when the projects are finished, there is a large risk that maintenance is not carried out properly and that malfunctions are never repaired. This situation can leave an otherwise well- functioning system unusable. A key problem is that there are not enough trained technicians that can maintain and repair the system locally. One reason for this is the lack of practical education in many developing countries. Furthermore, the availability of spare parts is essential for long term effectiveness. During 2011 a group of researchers from Lund University in Sweden built a small scale laboratory in Maputo, Mozambique, with local researchers. The project was successful and today the laboratory functions both as a teaching facility and as a measurement station for solar energy research for licentiates, masters and Ph.D. students. The main goal now is to widen the project in order to incorporate more universities in developing countries. We are now looking for new interested partners in developing countries who believe that such a laboratory could strengthen their ability to teach practical work and to perform research at a local university. Partners for planning and executing the project are also needed.

  • 22.
    Dibdiakova, Janka
    et al.
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Ås, Norway..
    Liang, Wang
    Sintef Energy Research, , Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Heating Value and Ash Content of Downy Birch Forest Biomass2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1302-1308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass from forestry sector provides an important contribution to meet the government's targets for increasing bioenergy production and utilization. Characterization of forest residues is critical for exploiting and utilizing them for energy production purpose. In present work, stem wood, stem bark, branches, top of trees from downy birch forest were sampled from different sites in South Norway and subjected to heating value and ash content measurement. Properties of different parts of trees vertically along the tree trunk and radially along the branch and crown level were assessed via the statistical model. The heating value of stem wood was in range 18.14-18.57 MJ/kg, of stem bark 18.50-18.72 MJ/kg and of branch wood 18.21-18.50 MJ/kg. The vertical dependence of heating value of downy birch stem wood was similar to that of stem bark. Regular decreasing of heating value towards the tree top was observed. Significantly higher heating value at level p<0.05∗of stem bark than the one of stem wood was observed. The ash content of downy birch branch wood did vary axially along the branch whereas there are only slight differences of ash content of branch within the crown. The stem bark has the highest ash content in range 2.0-2.5%, followed by branch wood in range of 1.0-1.6% and the lowest for stem wood in range of 0.3-0.5%.

  • 23.
    Dibdiakova, Janka
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest & Landscape Inst, Norway.
    Wang, Liang
    Sintef Energy Res, Trondheim, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Characterization of ashes from Pinus Sylvestris forest biomass2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient and profitable biomass combustion is often limited by ash related operational problems. Knowledge of the ash melting and sintering is of important, in terms of predict and reduce ash-related problems in biomass-fired boilers. In this study, chemical composition and melting behaviors of ashes from the four parts of P. sylvestris trees were investigated. The four parts from Pinus sylvestris trees are stem wood, bark, branch base and twigs. A simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) was used to characterize the melting behavior of selected biomass fuels in oxidizing atmosphere. Ash melting process was identified as the distinctive endothermic peaks on recorded DSC curves. The results showed that the stem wood of pine contains higher contents of most of the ash forming matters than other tree parts. Chemical composition of ashes from four parts of the pine tree is dominated by element Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P and Si. The K, Na and P contents in the twigs are significantly higher than that of stem wood, bark, and branch base indicating high tendency of ash melting and slagging. STA experiments indicated that the melting process of the studied fuel ashes start in the temperature range of 930-965 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Analyses results showed that the stem wood ash remains loose structure even after 1000 degrees C sintering treatment. But the ashes originated from top branch show sign of sintering at 1000 degrees C. The obtained results of present work can be considered as useful information within an industry interest for a prediction of the forest biomass ash melting behavior. 

  • 24.
    Efstathiadis, T.
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kalfas, A. I.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Seferlis, P.
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Rivarolo, M.
    Univ Genoa, Italy.
    Geometry Optimization of Power Production Turbine For A Low Enthalpy (<= 100 degrees C) ORC System2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1624-1630Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper is examining the geometry optimization of a power production turbine, in the range of 100kW(el), for a low enthalpy Organic Rankine cycle system (<= 100 degrees C). In the last years, accelerated consumption of fossil fuels has caused many serious environmental problems such as global warming, ozone layer destruction and atmospheric pollution. It is this reason that a growing trend towards exploiting low-enthalpy content energy sources has commenced and led to a renewed interest in small-scale turbines for Organic Rankine Cycle applications. The design concept for such turbines can be quite different from either standard gas or steam turbine designs. The limited enthalpic content of many energy sources imposes the use of organic working media, with unusual properties for the turbine. A versatile cycle design and optimization requires the parameterization of the main turbine design. There are many potential applications of this power-generating turbine, including geothermal and concentrate solar thermal fields or waste heat of steam turbine exhausts. An integrated model of equations has been developed, thus creating a model to assess the performance of an organic cycle for various working fluids such as R134a and isobutane-isopentane mixture. The most appropriate working fluid has been chosen, taking its influence on both cycle efficiency and the specific volume ratio into consideration. This choice is of particular importance at turbine extreme operating conditions, which are strongly related to the turbine size. In order to assess the influence of various design parameters, a turbine design tool has been developed and applied to define the geometry of blades in a preliminary stage. Finally, as far as the working fluid is concerned, the mixture of 85% isopentane-15% isobutane has been chosen as the most suitable fluid for the low enthalpy ORC system, since its output net power is 10% higher compared to the output net power of R134a. 

  • 25.
    Gao, X.
    et al.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Wei, P.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Xie, Y.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Zhang, S.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Niu, Z.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Lou, Y.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Yang, Xiaohu
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden; School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Jin, L.
    School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi'An Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Experimental investigation of the cubic thermal energy storage unit with coil tubes2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3709-3714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presented experimental investigations on the thermal performance of a thermal energy storage (TES) unit with coil tubes. A designed test rig was built and the melting heat transfer characteristics (melting front and temperature distribution) inside the TES unit were examined. The effects of charging flow rate on the overall phase change process were examined. The results showed that natural convection accelerated the thermal energy transport in the melt phase in the top region, but weakened the heat transfer in the bottom region; this resulted in the unmelt PCM at the bottom. The melting heat transfer was overall enhanced by the increase in inlet flow rate, indicating that the full charging time can be shortened by a larger flow rate. 

  • 26.
    Ghaviha, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bohlin, Markus
    SICS Swedish ICT, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Optimal Control of an EMU Using Dynamic Programming2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1913-1919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A model is developed for minimizing the energy consumption of an electric multiple unit through optimized driving style, based on Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation and Bellman's backward approach. Included are the speed limits, track profile (elevations), different driving modes and the train load. This paper includes aspects like the power loss in the auxiliary systems, time management, validation of the model regarding energy calculations and a study on discretization and the accuracy of the model. The model will be used as a base for a new driver advisory system. 

  • 27.
    Ghaviha, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Review of Application of Energy Storage Devices in Railway Transportation2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 4561-4568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regenerative braking is one of the main reasons behind the high levels of energy efficiency achieved in railway electric traction systems. During regenerative braking, the traction motor acts as a generator and restores part of the kinetic energy into electrical energy. To use this energy, it should be either fed back to the power grid or stored on an energy storage system for later use. This paper reviews the application of energy storage devices used in railway systems for increasing the effectiveness of regenerative brakes. Three main storage devices are reviewed in this paper: batteries, supercapacitors and flywheels. Furthermore, two main challenges in application of energy storage systems are briefly discussed. 

  • 28.
    Ghaviha, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Holmberg, C.
    Bombardier Transportation, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bohlin, M.
    RISE SICS, Västerås, Sweden.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Modeling of Losses in the Motor Converter Module of Electric Multiple Units for Dynamic Simulation Purposes2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 2303-2309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation of power consumption in electric trains is categorized in two categories: electrical power simulation and mechanical power simulation. The mechanical power is calculated as speed times tractive effort and it gives an overall view on the total energy consumption of the train during different driving cycles. Detailed calculation of losses in different components in the propulsion system is however done using complex electrical models. In this paper, we introduce a nonlinear regression model generated from validated electrical equations for the calculation of the power loss in the motor converter module of electric trains. The function can be used instead of efficiency maps to evaluate the trains’ performance during the operation or dynamic simulations.

  • 29.
    Guo, Kun
    et al.
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Metallic nanoparticles for enhanced heavy oil recovery: promises and challenges2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, p. 2068-2073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing global energy demand, great attention has been focused on utilizing heavy oil and bitumen, which are potentially located ultra-deep underground and cannot be easily recovered. Numerous recovery approaches have been proposed for successful extraction of heavy hydrocarbons from ultra-deep reservoirs. However, these approached are often accompanied by high energy consumption, large amounts of wastewater generation, and undesirable environmental damage. Nanotechnology has appeared as one of the promising technologies for in-situ heavy oil recovery, e.g., employing metal-based nanoparticles. In this article, we provide a brief overview of metallic nanoparticles for in-situ enhanced recovery of heavy oil. It gives a general introduction of the potential advantages of nanoparticle catalysts for heavy oil recovery and illustrates the improved recovery mechanism. Some technology challenges related to this promising technology will also be pinpointed. These technology challenges need to be solved through further research and development before field applications. 

  • 30.
    Guo, S.
    et al.
    MOE, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, J.
    MOE, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jin, G.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Wang, X.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Economic assessment of mobilized thermal energy storage for distributed users: A case study in China2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 656-661Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system can be an alternative of the conventional heating system to meet the heat demand for distributed users. This paper conducted a case study of the M-TES system in China. The operating strategies (OS) of the M-TES with different transportation schemes were compared. Moreover, the economic assessment was performed based on the project's net present value (NPV) and payback period (PBP). The OS with 6 trips per day is the most profitable with pay-back time of about 2, 3 and 5 years if the waste heat costs at the level of 0 €/MWh, 3300€/MWh, and 6600 €/MWh, respectively. 

  • 31.
    Haifang, Lyu
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, Ch.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, Ch.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bin, Xv
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum, Beijing, Ch.
    Research on Chinese Solar Photovoltaic Development Based on Green-trading Mechanisms in Power System by Using a System Dynamics Model2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 3960-3965Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Hallström, Olof
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Füldner, G.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Germany.
    Spahn, H. -J
    Vaillant GmbH, Germany.
    Schnabel, L.
    Fraunhofer-Institut für Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Germany.
    Salg, F.
    Vaillant GmbH, Germany.
    Development of collector integrated sorption modules for solar heating and cooling: Performance simulation2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 48, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar thermal cooling has difficulty to emerge as an economically competitive solution for small systems mainly due to high investment cost and system complexity [1]. Therefore developments of principally new system solutions are needed. This paper describes such a solution with sorption modules directly integrated into a solar thermal collector. The focus of the work has been to find key parameters influencing the module and the system efficiency. A validated model of a sorption collector has been implemented into a simplified system deck providing cooling, heating and domestic hot water to static loads in the system modelling environment TRNSYS [2]. Simulations have been conducted for different boundary conditions and at two locations with different climatic conditions. Thermal losses from the collector as well as internal thermal losses inside the collector were found to be the most important parameters influencing efficiency. The system simulations gave overall thermal cooling efficiencies in the range of 0.12-0.27 and electrical cooling efficiencies in the range of 15-45 depending on collector technology, climate and control strategy.

  • 33.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden AB.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Räftegård, Oskar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies suitable for use in district heating networks2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1721-1727, article id EGYPRO33942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in heat-to-power (HtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. HtP is used extensively in power generation via the steam Rankine cycle, but so far has not been used in district heating (DH). The aim of the study is to analyze the economic feasibility of using HtP technologies in a DH network. This is achieved by establishing suitable technologies and calculating the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) under conditions that may be found in DH. The result, for the vendors, temperatures and assumptions considered, is a range of 25–292 €/MWh, excluding the cost of heat. The breadth of this range in part reflects the importance of selecting appropriate products to match the heat source temperature.

  • 34.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Air-Gap Heat Transfer in Rotating Electrical Machines: A Parametric Study2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 4176-4181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than half of all electrical energy is consumed by motors and generators in an industrialized country. About 5-25% of this energy is lost and converted to heat. This heat produced by the losses has adverse effect on the lifetime and performance of a machine. A machine has to be operated at a given temperature to achieve maximum efficiency, therefore heat transfer study of machines is of special interest to rotating machines manufacturers. In this paper we investigate the heat transfer in the air-gap between the rotor and the stator of a simplified induction motor using Computational Fluid Dynamics. We consider three different air-gap widths and rotation speeds to explore the change in air-gap heat transfer when changing the air-gap width and the rotation speed. The simulated average heat transfer coefficients for all the models are in good agreement with the correlations from published literature. The Taylor-Couette vortical flow pattern is observed in the air-gap in our simulation results for the models with large air-gaps. The numerical results show that the presence of Taylor-Couette vortices in the air-gap enhance the heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in the rotation speed and decreases with the decrease in the air-gap width. 

  • 35.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Daneryd, Anders
    ABB, Sweden.
    Multi-Jet Impingement Cooling of a Hot Flat Steel Plate2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1835-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important steps to control the quality in steel hot rolling is the Runout Table (ROT) Cooling. In this investigation, the heat transfer of water jets impinging on a hot flat steel plate was studied under temperatures below the boiling point to understand the convection heat transfer phenomena which is a major step preceding the boiling. Single axisymmetric jet and a pair of interacting jets are simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The RANS model under steady and transient conditions as well as the k-Ɛ turbulence model are used for both 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. The water flow rate influence on the jets cooling characteristics is investigated.Two sets of boundary conditions, constant temperature and constant heat flux were applied at the surface of the steel plate and evaluated. The single jet numerical results are successfully compared to published data based on measurements and analytical models. The two jets thermal performance was found to be unaffected because the jets are too far from each other to generate any additional thermal interaction.

  • 36.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB Corp Res, Sweden.
    Fdhila, Rebei Bel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB Corp Res, Sweden.
    Literature Review of accelerated CFD Simulation Methods towards Online Application2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 3307-3314Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering advanced methods for example Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are heavily used to solve, design and model complex industrial applications. They provide high accuracy however, the simulation time is too long and this limit its generalized use dramatically as for control purposes. CFD tools and methods are often used to analyze the energy distribution and management in different industrial processes like hot rolling industries, furnaces and boilers as well as a number of areas where mixing and thermal management are of importance. Huge amounts of energy are often fed into such processes. A small amount of optimization can provide a very large energy saving. It is now an urgent need to have a tool like real-time CFD to analyze, control and optimize on-line various industrial processes. This tool or method can contribute to build efficient and sustainable energy systems. The scope of this work is to find alternative simulation techniques that can also address industrial applications and provide solutions within a decent accuracy and resolution. In this paper we provide a literature review of those methods that can be categorized as mesh based, mesh free and hybrid that are capable of providing appropriate results in some key areas of interest. As a next step one of these methods will be implemented and coupled to CFD simulation of cooling impinging jets used to control the heat transfer and temperature behavior of a hot flat surface in a hot rolling process where thermal energy and cooling water are used with excess. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 37.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fdhila, Rebei Bel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rönnberg, Kristian
    ABB AB, Corporate Research.
    Air-Gap Flow and Thermal Analysis of Rotating Machines using CFD2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 5153-5159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal management of the rotating electrical machines is a very challenging area which needs appropriate solutions for each machine and operating condition. The heat is generated by the electromagnetic losses and the mechanical friction during the rotation. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used in this study to predict and analyze the thermal performance of a rotating electrical machine where high speed rotation is coupled with small flow gaps. The investigation presented in this paper is based on a geometry used for model assessment and verification purposes. However, the approach outlined and the observations made are transferrable to other geometries. ANSYS Fluent has been used to perform CFD simulation where both the air velocity field and the temperature distribution are obtained. The results are qualitatively highly interesting to understand the thermal behavior within an electrical machine operations. The results show a periodic temperature distribution on the stator surface with similar periodic pattern for the heat transfer coefficient on the rotor surface. The simulated average heat transfer coefficient at the rotor surface is compared with the correlations from published literature with an overall good agreement.

  • 38.
    Hu, Y.
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedford, United Kingdom.
    Tewari, A.
    Cranfield University, Bedford, United Kingdom.
    Varga, L.
    Cranfield University, Bedford, United Kingdom.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    System dynamics of oxyfuel power plants with liquid oxygen energy storage2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3727-3733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional energy storage systems have a common feature: the generating of secondary energy (e.g. electricity) and regenerating of stored energy (e.g. gravitational potential, and mechanical energy) are separate rather than deeply integrated. Such systems have to tolerate the energy loss caused by the second conversion from primary energy to secondary energy. This paper is concerned with the system dynamics of oxyfuel power plants with liquid oxygen energy storage, which integrates the generation of secondary energy (electricity) and regeneration of stored energy into one process and therefore avoids the energy loss caused by the independent process of regeneration of stored energy. The liquid oxygen storage and the power load of the air separation unit are self-adaptively controlled based on current-day power demand, day-ahead electricity price and real-time oxygen storage information. Such an oxyfuel power plant cannot only bid in the day-ahead market with base load power but also has potential to provide peak load power through reducing the load of the air separation unit in peak time. By introducing reasoning rules with fuzzy control, the oxygen storage system has potential to be further extended by integrating renewable energy resources into the system to create a cryogenic energy storage hub. 

  • 39.
    Huang, J.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yang, J.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Tu, S. -T
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Energy-efficient extraction of fuel from chlorella combined with CO2 capture2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2805-2808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To combine the abilities of lipids extraction and CO2 capture by algae + IL system, chlorella hydrolysis integrating CO2 removal by ILs ([bmim][BF4], [bmim]Cl and [amim]Cl) to extract lipids energy-efficiently was demonstrated in this study. The addition of CO2 to [bmim][BF4] can increase the lipids yield from 14.2% to 15.6%. The value of net energy gain increased from 10.4 to 35.9 with the CO2 addition to [bmim][BF4] because of the compensated CO2 capture energy in the algae extraction process.

  • 40.
    Jiyang, Xie
    et al.
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhanyu, Ma
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China..
    Qie, Sun
    Shandong University, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zhongwei, Si
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Jun, Guo
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, China.
    Analysis of Key Factors in Heat Demand Prediction with Neural Networks2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 2965-2970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The development of heat metering has promoted the development of statistic models for the prediction of heat demand, due to the large amount of available data, or big data. Weather data have been commonly used as input in such statistic models. In order to understand the impacts of direct solar radiance and wind speed on the model performance comprehensively, a model based on Elman neural networks (ENN) was adopted, of which the results can help heat producers to optimize their production and thus mitigate costs. Compared with the measured heat demand, the introduction of wind speed and direct solar radiation has opposite impacts on the performance of ENN and the inclusion of wind speed can improve the prediction accuracy of ENN. However, ENN cannot benefit from the introduction of both wind speed and direct solar radiation simultaneously. 

  • 41.
    Kalai, D. Y.
    et al.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Stangeland, K.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    The effect of la on the hydrotalcite derived Ni catalysts for dry reforming of methane2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3721-3726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 20Ni-Mg-Al hydrotalcite-like (HT) precursors were prepared to study the influence of lanthanum (La) on the catalytic activity of the catalysts in the dry reforming of methane (DRM). The catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption-desorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). All catalysts presented ordered mesoporous structures with a large specific surface area. XRD confirmed the presence of HT structure for all of the precursors while the La promotion resulted in an additional phase of Lanthanum carbonate hydroxide. TPR study showed larger reduction degree for the catalysts but also reduction peaks that are shifted to higher temperatures. DRM reactions at 600 and 750°C revealed that the DRM activity was increased by the addition of La, while the stability of the catalysts was reduced at 600°C. 

  • 42.
    Kladovasilakis, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Aristotle Univ Of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Efstathiadis, Theofilos
    Aristotle Univ Of Thessaloniki.
    Aslanidou, Ioanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kalfas, Anestis
    Aristotle Univ Of Thessaloniki.
    Rotor Blade Design of an Axial Turbine using Non-Ideal Gases with Low Real-Flow Effects2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 1127-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe a design methodology for supersonic rotor blade geometry, depending on the working fluid, for a low enthalpy Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) system. Thus, the working fluid is a non-ideal gas with low impact of real flow effects. An innovate algorithm was developed, in order to generate the two-dimensional geometry of the rotor blade, for various working media. A design method, based on the principle of vortex flow field, was used for the blading design and, for the design of supersonic blades, the method of characteristics was selected as the most optimum. The geometry was tested using a commercial simulation software that uses a pressure-based solving algorithm named SIMPLE (Semi-implicit Method for Pressure-Linked Equations). Key advantages of this procedure are both its simplicity and precision of the results.

    The above procedure was applied for three working fluids, indicatively isobutane (R-600a), tetrafluroethane (R134a) and a mixture of 15% isobutane – 85% isopentane. Considering the ratio of specific heat capacities as constant, which is a realistic assumption for the operating conditions of these systems, the algorithm produces three different blade geometries. Results comparison indicates that every working fluid, for the same operating conditions and for the same design options, has a significantly differentiated geometry of the two-dimensional blade. Finally, the calculated total to total isentropic efficiency, for these rotor blades, is almost 92%. 

  • 43.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jamieson, M.
    Tranås Utbildningscentrum, Sweden .
    Kinyaga, V.
    Desert Research Foundation of Namibia, Namibia.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessing biogas potential of slaughter waste: Can biogas production solve a serious waste problem at abattoirs?2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 2600-2603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of solid waste and wastewater in Namibia is a growing concern. This study investigated the biogas potential of slaughter waste at a small stock abattoir in southern Namibia. Laboratory experiments with five different mixes of blood; stomach content and manure from sheep were tested. Preliminary findings suggest that the most optimum mixture of slaughter waste was relatively large amounts of stomach and intestine content. The blood proportion should be kept relatively low, since the high nitrogen contents in the blood may inhibit the biogas production. The substrate mixture reflecting the actual ratio of waste generated in the slaughter process resulted in the highest methane production. This suggests that it is possible to produce viable amounts of biogas only using the waste produced at the abattoir, without adding other green substrate. Findings presented here together with results from a larger biogas digester, will be elaborated in the full paper.

  • 44.
    Kovala, Tommy
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hallin, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Factors influencing industrial excess heat collaborations2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 88, p. 595-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden there is a potential to double the amount of industrial excess heat from todays 5 TWh that is delivered into district heating networks. This paper investigates factors that are influencing industrial excess heat collaborations. The paper presents result from qualitative interviews as well as answers through a more quantitative web based survey which has been sent out to stakeholders in existing Swedish industrial excess heat collaborations. This work provides new evidence on that economic motivations are the most common driver for starting up a collaboration, but well in place factors like transparency as well as investment sharing between the partners becomes important for a long-term successful collaboration.

  • 45.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Cranfield University, UK.
    Nalianda, Devaiah
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A NOx Emissions Correlation for Modern RQL Combustors2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 2323-2330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study begins with a review of existing emissions prediction methodologies for Rich-burn Quick-quench Lean-burn combustors. The need for a simple and adaptable NOx emissions correlation for such combustor designs as used in state-of-the-art civil turbofan engines is discussed. The derivation of a new correlation is consequently presented. The proposed model is computationally inexpensive and sufficiently accurate for use in aero-engine multi-disciplinary conceptual design tools. Furthermore, it is possible to adapt the correlation to model the NOx emissions of combustors designed for very aggressive future cycles. A case study is presented focusing on the NOx performance of advanced future cycles relative to current and future certification limits.

  • 46.
    Leduc, S.
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    Wetterlund, E.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kindermann, G.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis, Laxenburg, Austria.
    CHP or biofuel production in Europe?2012In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 20, p. 40-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the opportunity to invest in combined heat and power (CHP) plants and second-generation biofuel production plants in Europe is investigated. To determine the number and type of production plants, a mixed integer linear model is used, based on minimization of the total cost of the whole supply chain. Different policy scenarios are studied with varying values of carbon cost and biofuel support. The study focuses on the type of technology to invest in and the CO2 emission substitution potential, at constant energy prices. The CHP plants and the biofuel production plants are competing for the same feedstock (forest biomass), which is available in limited quantities. The results show that CHP plants are preferred over biofuel production plants at high carbon costs (over 50 EUR/tCO2) and low biofuel support (below 10 EUR/GJ), whereas more biofuel production plants would be set up at high biofuel support (over 15 EUR/GJ), irrespective of the carbon cost. Regarding the CO2 emission substitution potential, the highest potential can be reached at a high carbon cost and low biofuel support. It is concluded that there is a potential conflict of interest between policies promoting increased use of biofuels, and policies aiming at decreased CO 2 emissions.

  • 47.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China; KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China.
    Berretta, Sara
    Tan, Yuting
    Ningbo RX New Materials Tch. Co. Ltd., China; KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dynamic performance of the standalone wind power driven heat pump2016In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 103, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing energy consumption and increasing use of renewable energy in the building sector is crucial to the mitigationof climate change. Wind power driven heat pumps have been considered as a sustainable measure to supply heat forthe detached houses, especially those that even don’t have access to the grid. This work is to investigate the dynamic performance of a heat pump system directly driven by a wind turbine. The heat demand of a detached single familyhouse was simulated in details. To handle the intermittent characteristic of wind power, an electric energy storage system was included. According to the simulations, the wind turbine itself cannot always satisfy the electricity demand of the heat pump, and a larger size of the energy storage system can reduce the probability of load loss. However, it is different from the energy storage system that increasing the capacity of wind turbines may increase the probability of load loss instead, due to the different start-up speed of wind turbines. In order to maximize the system benefit, the capacity of the wind turbine and the size of the energy storage system should be optimized simultaneously based on dynamic simulations.

  • 48.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Daheem, Mehmood
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhixin, Yu
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Biomethane production via anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1172-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector accounts for the second biggest greenhouse gas emissionin the European Union (EU). In order to achieve the target of CO2 emission reduction there is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. Biomethane can be produced through anaerobic digestion or biomass gasification. Anaerobic digestion is a biochemical process. Since the raw gas contains approximately 65 vol% CH4 and 3 5vol%, an upgrading process is needed to remove CO2. Göteborg biomass gasification project (GoBiGas) is the world's first demonstration plant for large-scale production of biomethane through the gasification of forest residues. To achieve high purity CH4, a methanation process is required after gasification. This work compares these two technologies from the perspective of energy efficiency. Simulation results show that they have similar efficiencies: 62-64% for AE and ~65% for GoBiG.

  • 49.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hu, Yukun
    KTH, Sweden.
    Ditaranto, Mario
    SINTEF Energy Research, Trondheim, Norway .
    Willson, D
    Stanbridge Capital, New York, United States.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Optimization of cryogenic CO2 purification for oxy-coal combustion2013In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 37, p. 1341-1347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxyfuel combustion is a leading potential CO2 capture technology for power plants. As the flue gas (FG) consists of mainly H2O and CO2, a simpler and more energy-efficient CO2 purification method can be used instead of the standard amine-based chemical absorption approach. For the system of oxyfuel combustion with cryogenic CO2 purification, decreasing the oxygen purity reduces the energy consumption of the Air Separation Unit (ASU) but increases the energy consumption for the downstream cryogenic purification. Thus there exists a trade-off between the energy consumption of the ASU and that for cryogenic purification. This paper investigates the potential efficiency improvement by optimizing this trade-off. The simulated results show that there exists an optimum flue gas condensing pressure for the cryogenic purification, which is affected by the flue gas composition. In addition, decreasing the oxygen purity reduces the combined energy consumption of the ASU and the cryogenic purification, and therefore can improve the electrical efficiency. In summary, prior oxyfuel combustion analyses have assumed a high oxygen purity level of 95 mol% or 99 mol% for the combustion air, which achieves a high CO2 concentration in the flue gases. In this Paper, we demonstrate that a lower level of oxygen purity, such as 80 mol%, in conjunction with a more extensive cryogenic purification of the flue gases can lower the total energy consumption, thereby yielding a significant benefit. However, for oxygen purity levels lower than 75 mol%, it may not be possible to still use the two-stage flash system shown here to achieve a CO2 purity of 95 mol% and a CO2 recovery rate of 90% simultaneously.

  • 50.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Wenyan
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Univ Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    The performance of a heat pump using nanofluid (R22+TiO2) as the working fluid - an experimental study2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1838-1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been well known that the nano-particles, including metals, oxides, carbides, or carbon nanotubes, can increase the conduction and convection coefficients and consequently, enhance the heat transfer. Using nanofluids as working fluids in the refrigeration, air-conditioning and heat pump systems has attracted much attention. This work set-up a test rig to experimentally study the system performance of a heat pump with nanofluid as refrigerant, which was prepared by mixing 5wt% TiO2 with R22. Results show that adding the nano particle TiO2 didn't changed the heat absorbed in the evaporator clearly but increase the heat released in the condenser. As a results, compared to using pure R22, when using R22 + TiO2, the COP of the cooling cycle was decreased slightly, however, the COP of the heating cycle was increased significantly increased power consumption of compression.

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