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  • 1.
    Drogendijk, R.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Relationship Development in Greenfield Expansions2013In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 381-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates conceptually how new Greenfield subsidiaries develop relationships over time. We focus our analysis on the earliest start-up stage of new Greenfield subsidiaries, and on the dynamics of relationships development with five different groups of actors within the MNC and the local environment of the new Greenfield. We argue that relationship strength, or the intensity of interaction and resource exchange, depends on the new Greenfield's degree of dependence or interdependence within these relationships and develop propositions based on institutional theory, resource dependency theory and network approaches. In the concluding sections we suggest directions for future work to enhance understanding of the dynamics of relationship management in new Greenfield expansions.

  • 2.
    Ekman, Peter
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Pajuvirta, Andreas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Tit for tat and big steps: The case of Swedish banks' internationalization 1961-20102014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 6, p. 1049-1063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines four major Swedish banks' internationalization process patterns during the period 1961-2010. The study complements earlier studies by also considering the banks' levels of market commitment. One objective is to determine if 'Tit for tat'-behaviour seen in earlier studies of Swedish banks still prevails after the deregulation. Adding to earlier studies, this study also considers the level of market activities and commitments. A secondary purpose is to examine how the financial crisis has affected the banks with reference to the banks' internationalization patterns. The empirical study is based on archival data on the studied banks' foreign operations. The results show that the banks' behaviour follows 'Tit for tat'-behaviour but that the internationalization has accelerated after the deregulation, hence being carried out with 'big steps' rather than small steps. The analysis also shows that the mimetic behaviour is complemented by other types of internationalization behaviours. The differences in bank internationalization also mean that the effect of a financial crisis varies depending on how the banks have internationalized.

  • 3.
    Hadjikhani, A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Hadjikhani, Annoch Isa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Thilenius, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Uppsala University, Department of Business Studies.
    The internationalization process model: A proposed view of firms' regular incremental and irregular non-incremental behaviour2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 155-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commitment in the internationalization process model (IP-model) is challenged by the search for knowledge through experience and interactions. Critics opposing this logic even forced the founder of the model to call for the need for integration of other elements in order to understand irregular behaviour like rapid internationalization, loss of commitment and market exit. Aligned with this call, the paper raises the question of how the IP-model can be applied to analyse both regular/incremental and irregular/non-incremental behaviour of the firms. To reach an answer, the paper proposes a theoretical view by adding expectation and unknown uncertainty to the IP-model and examines this in a case study. The contribution is a further development of the IP-model by merging these two concepts that provide tools for understanding irregular behaviour. The paper analyses a Swedish firm's internationalization in different foreign markets for the period of 1995-2009. Conclusions support the understanding of how the model can describe regular incremental and irregular non-incremental commitment behaviour.

  • 4.
    Mäkelä, K.
    et al.
    Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Seppäle, T.
    Aalto University School of Economics, Finland.
    Interpersonal similarity and knowledge sharing within multinational organizations’2012In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 439-451Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has established that interpersonal similarity can influence knowledge sharing in such a way that similar people are more likely to share knowledge than those who are dissimilar. We contribute to the literature by showing that in the MNC context, cultural and functional similarity can become more powerful sources of bias than more commonly assumed demographic characteristics such as gender or seniority. This may be driven by the salience of such boundaries in the MNC: while demographic characteristics are more broadly distributed, cultural and functional barriers create more defined and observable faultlines, often coinciding with unit boundaries. We further argue that it may not be similarity as such that matters but rather its positive impact on different dimensions of social capital, which mediate the relationship between similarity and knowledge sharing. These microfoundations of inter-unit knowledge exchange point to important theoretical and practical implications for international management.

  • 5.
    Nell, P.
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    The complexity of the business network and its effect on subsidiary relational (over-) embeddedness’2013In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 1087-1098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many studies have focused on the effects of MNC subsidiaries' external relational embeddedness. Little attention has been given to its antecedents and especially to the potential effect that the business network context might have. We try to fill this gap and attempt to explain variation among subsidiaries' degree of relational embeddedness. Our results show a strong and robust effect of the business network context - i.e. the network context in which the direct business relationships between the subsidiary and its partners are embedded - on the degree of relational embeddedness. However, contrary to previous literature, we find an inverted u-shaped relationship. We discuss our findings with regard to the issue of over-embeddedness and the literature on the strength of weak vs. strong ties. 

  • 6.
    Perri, Alessandra
    et al.
    Ca' Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark.
    Knowledge outflows from foreign subsidiaries andthe tension between knowledge creation and knowledge protection: Evidence from the semiconductor industry2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 63-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we build a conceptual framework suggesting that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firmlevel antecedents of FDI-mediated local knowledge outflows, as well as to the broad IB literature in the relationship between subsidiaries and their host regions. The implications for managers and policymakers are also discussed.

  • 7.
    Rovira Nordman, Emilia
    et al.
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolstoy, Daniel
    Stockholm Sch Econ, Dept Mkt & Strategy,POB 6501, S-11383 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does relationship psychic distance matter for the learning processes of internationalizing SMEs?2014In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study builds on two theoretical assumptions: (1) Because SMEs tend to internationalize fast on a wide global scale, their market selections do not seem to be dictated by distance measures. (2) Business relationships seem to be vital for these firms when acquiring knowledge and developing their ongoing businesses in foreign markets. Based on these assumptions, this study applies Linear Structural Relations (LISREL) analysis to investigate the relationships of 314 Swedish SMEs and their most important foreign customers. In specific, we investigate what potential effects relationship psychic distance has on SMEs’ knowledge transfer in ongoing foreign customer relationships. The results demonstrate, rather counter-intuitively, that relationship psychic distance actually enhances knowledge transfer in the investigated customer relationships.

  • 8.
    Ryan, Paul
    et al.
    Trinity Coll Dublin, Sch Business, Dublin 2, Ireland..
    Giblin, Majella
    Natl Univ Ireland, Dept Management, JE Cairnes Sch Business & Econ, Galway, Ireland..
    Andersson, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Clancy, Johanna
    Natl Univ Ireland, Dept Management, JE Cairnes Sch Business & Econ, Galway, Ireland..
    Subsidiary knowledge creation in co-evolving contexts2018In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 915-932Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore how the MNE subsidiary's role internally within its corporation evolves through knowledge creation in accordance with an evolving external local knowledge network, and the extent to which the interwoven coevolving context matters for, and may be guided by the subsidiary. We conducted a qualitative investigation of purposely selected subsidiaries as case studies and longitudinally tracked the interwoven co-evolving contexts of their internal corporate role and external knowledge network. We show why role evolution may be differential and illustrate how competence-creating subsidiaries can balance and simultaneously manage the guided co-evolution of both contexts to advance their roles for knowledge creation. We develop a dynamic framework of subsidiary role evolution at the nexus of these interwoven co-evolving contexts. This advances theory on the dual embedded subsidiary as previous studies have predominantly been cross-sectional and static rather than evolutionary.

  • 9.
    Safari, Aswo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation. Uppsala University.
    Chetty, S.
    Uppsala University.
    Multilevel psychic distance and its impact on SME internationalization2019In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 754-765Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We expand the conceptualization of psychic distance and use a multilevel framework by studying it as a founder's psychic distance in the pre-entry phase of entering a specific foreign market, and the SMEs (firm) psychic distance in the post-entry phase of entering that specific foreign market. Based on qualitative research involving six SMEs’ with 18 internationalization events, we found that psychic distance at country and business levels causes difficulties for SMEs in the post-entry phase because of their lack of knowledge. Bridge-makers possessing knowledge about target markets help SMEs to overcome psychic distance challenges. Trust in the relationship with the bridge-maker is an important ingredient to gain knowledge that alleviates the SMEs’ psychic distance challenges. Finally, we go beyond country-business levels of psychic distance by showing that psychic distance also matters at bridge-maker level. This relates to their lack of knowledge about the target market and SMEs’ routines.

  • 10.
    Yamin, M.
    et al.
    Manchester Business School, UK.
    Andersson, Ulf
    Copenhagen Business School, Denmark .
    Subsidiary importance in the MNC: What role does internal embeddedness play?2011In: International Business Review, ISSN 0969-5931, E-ISSN 1873-6149, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 151-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the issue of how a subsidiary's internal and external embeddedness interact in generating the importance of the subsidiary vis-a-vis the MNC as a whole. We take previous findings of the positive impact of external embeddedness on a subsidiary's importance as our starting point and consider two questions: (a) how does the internal embeddedness of a subsidiary affect its organisational importance, and (b) how do a subsidiary's internal and external embeddedness interact in generating organisational importance? We test hypotheses reflecting these questions on data from 97 foreign subsidiaries belonging to Swedish multinationals. We find that internal embeddedness is negatively related to a subsidiary's importance to product development but unrelated to its importance to production development. We also find that internal embeddedness dilutes the positive impact of external embeddedness on a subsidiary's importance to production development. We discuss the findings in the light of the extant literature and consider implications for future research and MNC managers.

1 - 10 of 10
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