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  • 1.
    Carlson, E. -S
    et al.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport, Borås, Sweden; Lund Univ, Div Fire Safety Engn, Lund, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport, Borås, Sweden.
    Zakirov, A.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport, Borås, Sweden; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dederichs, A.
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport, Borås, Sweden; Tech Univ Denmark, Dept Civil Engn, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Evacuation tests with elevated platforms in railway tunnels2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 108, article id 102840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the purpose to increase the knowledge on human behaviour when evacuating along elevated platforms, an experiment was carried out at the subway station of Skarpnäck, Stockholm, in October 2016. The overall project objective was to develop basic data for guidelines regarding fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The experiment was designed as a group experiment divided into five different scenarios. In total, 111 persons of mixed gender and age participated. The results from the experiment show that the flow rate along the elevated platform decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. It could also be seen that along the first half of the walkway, where a train was located on the rail track next to the elevated platform, the flow rate was higher and the width of the walkway was used to a lager extent compared to the second half of the walkway where the platform was open to the track area. One of three wheelchair users who participated in the experiment expressed discomfort caused by the height and the width of the walkway and nearly half of the participants experienced problems with passing others walking slower than themselves. 

  • 2.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    An Engineering tool to calculate heat release rates of multiple objects in underground structures2011In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 194-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects have been carried out. The results were compared to fire experiments in a model tunnel using wood cribs placed at equal distance from each other. Three different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the wood cribs. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other two methods use an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The two methods using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisites, that the methods should be kept relatively simple to be of practical use and that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be of uniform composition, were fulfilled.

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  • 3.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Heat release rate measurements of burning mining vehicles in an underground mine2013In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 61, p. 12-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat release rates from two full-scale fire experiments with mining vehicles in an underground mine are presented. The mining vehicles involved were a wheel loader and a drilling rig typical for mining operations. The calculated peak heat release rate of the loader was 15.9 MW and occurred after approximately 11 min from ignition. The calculated peak heat release rate of the drilling rig was 29.4 MW and occurred after approximately 21 min from ignition. The heat release rate was calculated from measured data of gas concentrations of oxygen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, measured gas velocity and measured gas temperatures. The fuel load of the wheel loader consisted mainly of the tyres, the hydraulic oil and the diesel fuel. The fuel load of the drilling rig consisted mainly of the hydraulic oil and the hydraulic hoses. The calculated heat release rate curves were controlled by comparing the summed up energy contents of the participating components with the integrated heat release rate curves. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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  • 4.
    Hansen, Rickard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Heat Release Rates of Multiple Objects at Varying Distances2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 52, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple theoretical calculations of the overall heat release rate (HRR) of multiple objects at both constant and varying distances have been carried out. The results were compared to both fire experiments in a longitudinal ventilated model tunnel (scale 1:15) using piles of wooden pallets placed at varying distance from each other and with model scale fire experiments (scale 1:4) conducted with a freight truck commodity without roof over the piles of wooden pallets. Two different methods are presented which are based on physical relations for fire spread between the piles of wooden pallets. The first method uses a critical heat flux as ignition criteria while the other method uses an ignition temperature. The method using the critical heat flux as ignition criteria shows very good agreement with the corresponding experimental results used. The method using the ignition temperature as ignition criteria did not agree well with the corresponding experimental results. The prerequisite that the burning objects should not necessarily have to be positioned at equal distance was fulfilled.

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  • 5.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Design fire curves in tunnels2009In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 259-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various ways exist to represent a design fire curve for tunnels. These can include different fire growth rates or combinations of fire growth rates with constant levels of Heat Release Rate (HRR) coupled to a decay period. This means that the curve has to be represented with different mathematical expressions for different time periods. A more convenient way is to describe the design fire curve with a single mathematical expression. Such a curve has been presented by the author [1] but it does not include a constant HRR period. This paper presents a new, single exponential, design fire curve with a constant maximum HRR. A presentation of available design curves is given as well. 

  • 6. Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation2010In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 45, p. 371-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a series of tests in a model tunnel (1:23) are presented. Tests were carried out with longitudinal ventilation under different fire conditions. Wood cribs were used to simulate the fire source, which was designed to correspond to a scaled-down HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) fire load. The parameters tested were: the number of wood cribs, type of wood cribs, the longitudinal ventilation rate and the ceiling height. The heat release rate, fire growth rate, maximum gas temperature beneath the ceiling, temperature distribution, total heat flux at floor level, flame length, and back-layering length were investigated. Correlations for these parameters were investigated and proposed for longitudinal flow in tunnels.

  • 7.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Lei, Bo
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Study of critical velocity and backlayering length in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2010In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, no 45, p. 361-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimental tests and theoretical analyses were conducted to investigate the critical velocity together with the backlayering length in tunnel fires. The experiments were performed in two longitudinally ventilated model tunnels. The proposed correlations for critical velocity are found to comply well with experimental data in both tunnels. The critical Froude Number and the critical Richardson Number were analyzed using the experimental data. The backlayering length was related to the ratio of longitudinal ventilation velocity to critical velocity. Experimental data shows that the relation between the ratio of ventilation velocity to critical velocity and the dimensionless backlayering length follows an exponential relation. A correlation based on experimental data to predict the backlayering length is proposed. Further, comparison of experimental data of critical velocity and backlayering length with results from large-scale tests shows that there is a good agreement in both scales. The effect of accident vehicle obstruction on critical velocity and backlayering length was also analyzed. Experimental data shows that the decrease rate of critical velocity due to obstruction is slightly greater than the ratio of cross-section area of the model vehicle to tunnel cross-section area, and the backlayering length with an accident vehicle set inside the tunnel gets smaller.

  • 8.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    SP Brandteknik.
    Hedekvist, Per-Olov
    SP Mätteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    Gas temperature measurements using fibre Bragg grating during fire experiments in a tunnel2008In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 119-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas temperature measurements with thermocouples are affected by radiation.  This effect means the temperature measured by a thermocouple can be far from the actual gas temperature. To study this effect and to compare the thermocouple readings with the readings of a fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor, fire experiments were performed in a model-scale tunnel. In this paper the results from two such fire experiments are presented. The temperatures measured using thermocouples with different diameters and the FBG sensor are compared and discussed. The “true” gas temperature, corrected for radiation effects from the thermocouples, was calculated from the results from the thermocouples with different diameters. The results show that the temperature measured by the FBG sensor is closer to the “true” gas temperature than is the case for any of the thermocouples used in these tests.

  • 9.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. SP Brandteknik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Brandteknik.
    In response to the letter: On the measurement of gas temperatures in a simulated tunnel fire2009In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 923-923Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Nyman, Hans
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Temperature stratification in tunnels2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 48, no 1, p. 30-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of previously established correlations between gas temperature distribution and smoke stratification in mines has been carried out for tunnel applications. The investigated correlations are based on excess gas temperature ratios and Froude number scaling. This paper describes a comparison between two large scale tests carried out in a road tunnel and two well defined model scale tests. In each of the tests, a longitudinal flow was maintained. The temperature data obtained at different locations and different heights have been used for the comparison. A good correspondence between the experimental data and the correlations has been found when the gas temperature data were used. However, the correspondence between the previously established correlation of gas temperature stratification and Froude number, was not reliable. It is postulated that the main reason for this may be the way the experiments were carried out. New correlations between the temperature stratification and the Froude number are also explored.

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