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  • 1.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Illuminated but not electrified: An assessment of the impact of Solar Home System on rural households in South Africa2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 155, p. 354-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of the off-grid electrification program in South Africa using the Solar Home System (SHS) was a central component of the government policy aimed at bringing development to un-electrified households. An assessment of the performance of SHS in many countries provided little evidence to support the development impact of the system. The general perception is that the SHS program is wasting government funds and has no hope of achieving the set objectives. Previous scientific reports have concluded that SHS is the most viable technology for bringing about socio-economic development to rural households. Most of these conclusions have been based on one sided arguments and largely on anecdotal evidence. This study provides a pluralistic view of the subject from the perspective of the energy service companies (ESCOs) and the households using the equipment. The development impact of SHS is subjected to scientific analysis by investigating the economic and social dimensions of the program. Additionally, the sustainability of the South African SHS program is assessed by investigating the challenges facing the ESCOs and the households. The study reveals that illumination provided by SHS electricity has profound impact on the livelihoods of rural households. Due to the limited capacity of SHS for productive and thermal use, there are limited direct economic benefits to the households. The associated economic impact is peripheral to the secondary usage of SHS electricity. SHS has improved the productivity of small scale business owners who utilize the light from SHS to do business at night. Irregularities in payment of subsidy funds and energy bills, high operation cost, non-optimal use of SHS, grid encroachment, and lack of customer satisfaction contribute to make the business unsustainable for the ESCOs.

  • 2.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An assessment of unforeseen losses resulting from inappropriate use of solar home systems in South Africa2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 136, p. 336-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the challenges to the sustainability of the Solar Home System (SHS) electrification program in South Africa is equipment theft. In response to this, communities susceptible to solar panel theft resort to mounting their panels flat on the ground so they can be looked after during the day and taken indoors at night for safe keeping. Other households use their security lights to illuminate their environment and provide security for pole and roof mounted solar panels at night. These actions have consequential effects on the performance of the SHS. Several studies have detected resentment from households regarding the low power quality from these systems. Most scientific contributions on the issue of low power from SHS have focused on the challenges based on the technical designs of the systems. The power losses due to the usage pattern of the system has not received much attention. This study therefore reports on the technical losses as a result of the deviation from the designed and installed specification of the system by the users in order to protect their systems. It also investigates the linkage between the technical and economic losses which affects the sustainability of SHS program. A case study was performed in Thlatlaganya village within Limpopo province in South Africa. Technical analysis using PVSYST solar software revealed that the energy output and performance of the battery is compromised as a result of these practices. Economic analysis indicates that the battery life and the economics of owning and operating SHS are affected negatively. The study recommends solutions to mitigate these losses, and proposes a cost effective way of optimizing the operation of SHS using a Bench-Rack system for mounting solar panels.

  • 3.
    Bartusch, Cajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Exploring variance in residential electricity consumption: Household features and building properties2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 637-643Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved means of controlling electricity consumption plays an important part in boosting energy efficiency in the Swedish power market. Developing policy instruments to that end requires more in-depth statistics on electricity use in the residential sector, among other things. The aim of the study has accordingly been to assess the extent of variance in annual electricity consumption in single-family homes as well as to estimate the impact of household features and building properties in this respect using independent samples t-tests and one-way as well as univariate independent samples analyses of variance. Statistically significant variances associated with geographic area, heating system, number of family members, family composition, year of construction, electric water heater and electric underfloor heating have been established. The overall result of the analyses is nevertheless that variance in residential electricity consumption cannot be fully explained by independent variables related to household and building characteristics alone. As for the methodological approach, the results further suggest that methods for statistical analysis of variance are of considerable value in indentifying key indicators for policy update and development.

  • 4.
    Budt, M.
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental Safety, Germany.
    Wolf, D.
    Heliocentris Industry GmbH, Germany.
    Span, R.
    Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A review on compressed air energy storage: Basic principles, past milestones and recent developments2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 170, p. 250-268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades a variety of different approaches to realize Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) have been undertaken. This article gives an overview of present and past approaches by classifying and comparing CAES processes. This classification and comparison is substantiated by a broad historical background on how CAES has evolved over time from its very beginning until its most recent advancements. A broad review on the variety of CAES concepts and compressed air storage (CAS) options is given, evaluating their individual strengths and weaknesses. The concept of exergy is applied to CAES in order to enhance the fundamental understanding of CAES. Furthermore, the importance of accurate fluid property data for the calculation and design of CAES processes is discussed. In a final outlook upcoming R&D challenges are addressed. 

  • 5.
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    et al.
    Univ So Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia; Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chen, Guangnan
    Univ So Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.
    Yusaf, Talal
    Univ So Queensland, Toowoomba, Qld 4350, Australia.
    Chen, Shulin
    Washington State Univ, Pullman, WA 99164 USA.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable energy and climate protection solutions in agriculture2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 114, p. 735-736Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Cabeza, Luisa F.
    et al.
    GREA Innovació Concurrent, Universitat de Lleida, Edifici CREA, Pere de Cabrera s/n, 25001 Lleida, Spain.
    Martin, Viktoria
    Royal Institute of Technology,.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Advances in energy storage research and development: The 12th International Conference on Energy Storage Innostock 20122013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 109, p. 291-292Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jige Quan, S.
    Georgia Institute of Technology, US.
    Robbio, F.I.
    ABB AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ma, Tao
    Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Optimization of a residential district with special consideration on energy and water reliability2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 751-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many cities around the world have reached a critical situation when it comes to energy and water supply, threatening the urban sustainable development. From an engineering and architecture perspective it is mandatory to design cities taking into account energy and water issues to achieve high living and sustainability standards. The aim of this paper is to develop an optimization model for the planning of residential urban districts with special consideration of renewables and water harvesting integration. The optimization model is multi-objective which uses a genetic algorithm to minimize the system life cycle costs, and maximize renewables and water harvesting reliability through dynamic simulations. The developed model can be used for spatial optimization design of new urban districts. It can also be employed for analyzing the performances of existing urban districts under an energy-water-economic viewpoint.

    The optimization results show that the reliability of the hybrid renewables based power system can vary between 40 and 95% depending on the scenarios considered regarding the built environment area and on the cases concerning the overall electric load. The levelized cost of electricity vary between 0.096 and 0.212 $/kW h. The maximum water harvesting system reliability vary between 30% and 100% depending on the built environment area distribution. For reliabilities below 20% the levelized cost of water is kept below 1 $/m3 making competitive with the network water tariff.

  • 8.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dynamic modelling of a PV pumping system with special consideration on water demand2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 635-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The exploitation of solar energy in remote areas through photovoltaic (PV) systems is an attractive solution for water pumping for irrigation systems. The design of a photovoltaic water pumping system (PVWPS) strictly depends on the estimation of the crop water requirements and land use since the water demand varies during the watering season and the solar irradiation changes time by time. It is of significance to conduct dynamic simulations in order to achieve the successful and optimal design. The aim of this paper is to develop a dynamic modelling tool for the design of a of photovoltaic water pumping system by combining the models of the water demand, the solar PV power and the pumping system, which can be used to validate the design procedure in terms of matching between water demand and water supply. Both alternate current (AC) and direct current (DC) pumps and both fixed and two-axis tracking PV array were analyzed. The tool has been applied in a case study. Results show that it has the ability to do rapid design and optimization of PV water pumping system by reducing the power peak and selecting the proper devices from both technical and economic viewpoints. Among the different alternatives considered in this study, the AC fixed system represented the best cost effective solution.

  • 9.
    Chiaramonti, D.
    et al.
    Univ Florence, Italy.
    Liden, G.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Advances in sustainable biofuel production and use: The XIX international symposium on alcohol fuels2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Chiaramonti, D.
    et al.
    Univ Florence, Italy.
    Maniatis, K.
    Univ Florence, Italy.
    Tredici, M.R
    Univ Florence, Italy.
    Verdelho, V.
    EABA, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Life Cycle Assessment of Algae Biofuels: Needs and challenges2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 154, p. 1049-1051Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Chisti, Yusuf
    et al.
    Massey University.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energy from algae: Current status and future trends: Algal biofuels – A status report2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 10, p. 3277-3279Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Choi, Byungchul
    et al.
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Park, Su Han
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Chiarmonti, David
    RE CORD Renewable Energy COnsortium R&D, Garbagnate Monastero, LC, Ital.
    Bae, Hyeun-Jong
    Chonnam Natl Univ, South Korea.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sustainable alcohol fuels promoting mobility and climate stabilization: The 21st International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 160, p. 561-565Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Chua, K. J.
    et al.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore.
    Chou, S. K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore .
    Yang, W. M.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Mech Engn, Singapore .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Achieving better energy-efficient air conditioning - A review of technologies and strategies2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, p. 87-104Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Air conditioning is essential for maintaining thermal comfort in indoor environments, particularly for hot and humid climates. Today, air conditioning, comprising cooling and dehumidification, has become a necessity in commercial and residential buildings and industrial processes. It accounts for a major share of the energy consumption of a building or facility. In tropical climates, the energy consumed by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) can exceed 50% of the total energy consumption of a building. This significant figure is primarily due to the heavy duty placed on cooling technologies to remove both sensible and latent heat loads. Therefore, there is tremendous potential to improve the overall efficiency of the air-conditioning systems in buildings. Based on today's practical technology for cooling, the major components of a chiller plant are (I) compressors, (2) cooling towers, (3) pumps (chilled and cooling water) and (4) fans in air handling units. They all consume mainly electricity to operate. When specifying the kW/R ton of a plant, there are two levels of monitoring cooling efficiency: (1) at the efficiency of the chiller machines or the compressors which consume a major amount of electricity; and (2) at the overall efficiency of cooling plants which include the cooling towers, pumps for moving coolant (chilled and cooling water) to all air-handling units. Pragmatically, a holistic approach is necessary towards achieving a low energy input per cooling achieved such as 0.6 kW/R ton cooling or lower by considering all aspects of the cooling plant. In this paper, we present a review of recent innovative cooling technology and strategies that could potentially lower the kW/R ton of cooling systems - from the existing mean of 0.9 kW/R ton towards 0.6 kW/R ton or lower. The paper, broadly divided into three key sections (see Fig. 2), begins with a review of the recent novel devices that enhances the energy efficiency of cooling systems at the component level. This is followed by a review of innovative cooling systems designs that reduces energy use for air conditioning. Lastly, the paper presents recent developments in intelligent air-control strategies and smart chiller sequencing methodologies that reduce the primary energy utilization for cooling. The energy efficient cooling technology, innovative systems designs, and intelligent control strategies described in the paper have been recently researched or are on-going studies. Several have been implemented on a larger scale and, therefore, are examples of practical solutions that can be readily applied to suit specific needs. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Cuneo, A.
    et al.
    Thermochemical Power Group, Università di Genova, Italy.
    Zaccaria, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tucker, D.
    U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, United States.
    Sorce, A.
    Thermochemical Power Group, Università di Genova, Italy.
    Gas turbine size optimization in a hybrid system considering SOFC degradation2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 855-864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coupling of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a gas turbine has been proven to result in extremely high efficiency and reduced emissions. The presence of the gas turbine can improve system durability compared to a standalone SOFC, because the turbomachinery can supply additional power as the fuel cell degrades to meet the power request. Since performance degradation is an obstacles to SOFC systems commercialization, the optimization of the hybrid system to mitigate SOFC degradation effects is of great interest. In this work, an optimization approach was used to innovatively study the effect of gas turbine size on system durability for a 400 kW fuel cell stack. A larger turbine allowed a bigger reduction in SOFC power before replacing the stack, but increased the initial capital investment and decreased the initial turbine efficiency. Thus, the power ratio between SOFC and gas turbine significantly influenced system economic results.

  • 15.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hartwell, Philip
    BioRegional MiniMills Ltd, UK.
    Experimental and numerical investigation of pellet and black liquor gasification for polygeneration plant2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, p. 1066-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to perform system analysis on integrated biomass gasification in chemical recovery systems in pulp and paper and heat and power plants for polygeneration applications. The proposed integration complements existing pulp and paper and heat and power production systems with production of chemicals such as methane and hydrogen. The potential to introduce gasification-based combined cycles comprising gas turbines and steam turbines to utilize black liquors and wood pellets also merits investigation. To perform such analysis, it is important to first build knowledge on expected synthesis gas composition by gasifying at smaller scale different types of feed stock. In the present paper, the synthesis gas quality from wood pellets gasification has been compared with black liquor gasification by means of numerical simulation as well as through pilot-scale experimental investigations. The experimental results have been correlated into partial least squares models to predict the composition of the synthesis gas produced under different operating conditions. The gas quality prediction models are combined with physical models using a generic open-source modelling language for investigating the dynamic performance of large-scale integrated polygeneration plants. The analysis is further complemented by considering potential gas separation using modern membrane technology for upgrading the synthesis gas with respect to hydrogen content. The experimental data and statistical models presented in this study form an important literature source for future use by the gasification and polygeneration research community on further integrated system analysis.

  • 16.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Evaluation of a regional bioenergy system with local production of biofuel for transportation, integrated with a CHP plant2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 92, p. 739-749Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable liquid fuels (ethanol, fatty acid methyl ester, biogas, and renewable electricity) in the total transportation fuel in Sweden, has increased by the end of 2009 to such level that e.g. domestic bioethanol production is unable to satisfy current ethanol fuel demand. Regional small-scale ethanol production can assist the region in covering the regional needs in transport fuel supply.

    Current case study system includes the production of ethanol, biogas, heat and power from locally available cereals straw. A mixed integer programming (MIP) model is developed for cost optimization of regional transport fuel supply (ethanol, biogas and petrol). The model is applied for two cases, one when ethanol production plant is integrated with an existing CHP plant (polygeneration), and one with a standalone ethanol production plant.

    The optimization results show that for both cases the changes in ethanol production costs have the biggest influence on the costs for supplying regional passenger car fleet with transport fuel. Petrol fuel price and straw production costs have also a significant effect on costs for supplying cars with transport fuel for both standalone ethanol production and integrated production system.

    By integrating the ethanol production process with a CHP plant, the costs for supplying regional passenger car fleet with transport fuel can be cut by 31%, from 150 to 104 €/MW h fuel, which should be compared with E5 costs of 115 €/MW h (excl VAT).

  • 17.
    Desideri, U.
    et al.
    Università di Perugia.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Analysis and comparison between a concentrating solar and a photovoltaic power plant2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 113, p. 422-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is a source, which can be exploited in two main ways to generate power: direct conversion into electric energy using photovoltaic panels and by means of a thermodynamic cycle. In both cases the amount of energy, which can be converted, is changing daily and seasonally, causing a discontinuous electricity production. In order to limit this drawback, concentrated solar power plants (CSP) and photovoltaic plants (PV) can be equipped with a storage system that can be configured not only for covering peak-loads but also for the base-load after the sunset or before the sunrise. In CSP plants it is the sun's thermal energy to be stored, whereas in PV applications it is the electrical energy to be stored in batteries, although this is not economically and environmentally feasible in large-scale power plants.The main aim of this paper is to study the performance of concentrated solar power plants equipped with molten salts thermal storage to cover a base load of 3MWel. In order to verify the possibility of storing effectively the thermal energy and to design a plant for base load operation, two locations were chosen for the study: Gela in southern Italy, and Luxor in Egypt. The electricity production of the CSP facilities has been analyzed and then compared with the electricity production of PV plants. Two different comparisons were done, one by sizing the PV plant to provide the same peak power and one using the same collectors surface. This paper has also highlighted some important issues in site selection and in design criteria for CSP plants used for base load operation.The high variability of the direct normal radiation during the year in southern Italy may cause several problems in CSP facilities, mainly related to the wide range of energy input from the sun. The more uniform and higher values of the solar radiation in the Egyptian location mitigates this problem and allows achieving higher efficiencies than in southern Italy. In most cases the electricity produced by the CSP plant is higher than that produced by a similar PV plant, because the presence of the storage system guarantees the continuity of electricity production even without solar radiation. An economic analysis based on the estimation of the levelized electricity cost (LEC) for both CSP and PV power plants located both in south of Italy and Egypt was carried out in order to investigate which is the most cost effective solution. In all the cases considered, the CSP facilities resulted the best option in terms of cost of electricity produced due to the continuity of energy production during the night hours.

  • 18.
    Desideri, U
    et al.
    Univ Perugia, Italy.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Clean energy technologies and systems for a sustainable world2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no SI, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ding, Jing
    et al.
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Du, Lichan
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Pan, Gechuanqi
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Lu, Jianfeng
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wei, Xiaolan
    South China Univ Technol, Sch Chem & Chem Engn, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jiang
    Natl Supercomp Ctr Guangzhou, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Engn, Guangzhou 510006, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Energy Proc Div, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Molecular dynamics simulations of the local structures and thermodynamic properties on molten alkali carbonate K2CO32018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 220, p. 536-544Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Molten carbonate salts have received particular attention for high-temperature thermal energy storage and heat Molecular dynamics simulation transfer applications due to desirable thermal characteristics, such as wide operating temperature range, low Molten alkali carbonates causticity and excellent thermal stability. In this study, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed Local structures on molten alkali carbonate K2CO3 based on an effective pair potential model, a Born-Mayer type combined with Thermodynamic properties a Coulomb term. The radial distribution functions (RDF) and coordination number curves of the molten salt were characterized to explore the temperature dependences of macroscopic properties from microscopic view. The results suggest that the distance between K2CO3 particles is getting larger with temperature increasing, resulting in the increase of molar volume and the diminished ability of resistance to shear deformation and heat transfer by vibration between ions. Besides, it can be concluded that the structure of CO32- is inferred reasonably to be ortho-triangular pyramid from the comprehensive analysis of local structures including the angular distribution functions (ADF). Moreover, the thermodynamic properties were simulated in detail from 1200 to 1600 K including the density, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat capacity, sheer viscosity, thermal conductivity and ion self-diffusion coefficient, which was hard to be measured from experiments under high-temperature extreme conditions, All the simulation results are in satisfactory agreement with available experimental data with high accuracy, and the minimum simulation error is as low as 1.42%.

  • 20.
    Ding, Y.
    et al.
    College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaCollege of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaCollege of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaCollege of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaCollege of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, ChinaCollege of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Shao, C.
    College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Division of Energy Processes, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Song, Y.
    College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Zhang, C.
    Division of Energy Processes, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Guo, C.
    College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.
    Economical flexibility options for integrating fluctuating wind energy in power systems: The case of China2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 426-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The inherent stochastic nature of wind power requires additional flexibility during power system operation. Traditionally, conventional generation is the only option to provide the required flexibility. However, the provision of the flexibility from the conventional generation such as coal-fired generating units comes at the cost of significantly additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. Fortunately, with the development of the technologies, energy storage and customer demand response would be able to compete with the conventional generation in providing the flexibility. Give that power systems should deploy the most economic resources for provision of the required operational flexibility, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the economic characteristics of these key flexibility options. The concept of “balancing cost” is proposed to represent the cost of utilizing the flexible resources to integrate the variable wind power. The key indicators are proposed respectively for the different flexible resources to measure the balancing cost. Moreover, the optimization models are developed to evaluate the indicators to find out the balancing costs when utilizing different flexible resources. The results illustrate that exploiting the potential of flexibility from demand side management is the preferred option for integrating variable wind power when the penetration level is below 10%, preventing additional fuel consumption and carbon emissions. However, it may require 8% of the customer demand to be flexible and available. Moreover, although energy storage is currently relatively expensive, it is likely to prevail over conventional generation by 2025 to 2030, when the capital cost of energy storage is projected to drop to approximately $ 400/kWh or lower.

  • 21.
    Du, F.
    et al.
    Department of Electronic and Electric Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Zhang, J.
    Department of Electronic and Electric Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Galloway, S.
    Department of Electronic and Electric Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Lo, K. L.
    Department of Electronic and Electric Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Modelling the impact of social network on energy savings2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 178, p. 56-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is noted that human behaviour changes can have a significant impact on energy consumption, however, qualitative study on such an impact is still very limited, and it is necessary to develop the corresponding mathematical models to describe how much energy savings can be achieved through human engagement. In this paper a mathematical model of human behavioural dynamic interactions on a social network is derived to calculate energy savings. This model consists of a weighted directed network with time evolving information on each node. Energy savings from the whole network is expressed as mathematical expectation from probability theory. This expected energy savings model includes both direct and indirect energy savings of individuals in the network. The savings model is obtained by network weights and modified by the decay of information. Expected energy savings are calculated for cases where individuals in the social network are treated as a single information source or multiple sources. This model is tested on a social network consisting of 40 people. The results show that the strength of relations between individuals is more important to information diffusion than the number of connections individuals have. The expected energy savings of optimally chosen node can be 25.32% more than randomly chosen nodes at the end of the second month for the case of single information source in the network, and 16.96% more than random nodes for the case of multiple information sources. This illustrates that the model presented in this paper can be used to determine which individuals will have the most influence on the social network, which in turn provides a useful guide to identify targeted customers in energy efficiency technology rollout programmes.

  • 22.
    Duic, Neven
    et al.
    Univ Zagreb.
    Guzovic, Zvonimir
    Univ Zagreb.
    Kafarov, Vyatcheslav
    Ind Univ Santander, Ctr Sustainable Dev Ind & Energy, Bucaramanga, Colombia.
    Klemes, Jiri Jaromir
    Univ Pannonia, Hungary.
    Mathiessen, Brian vad
    Aalborg Univ.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 101, p. 3-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 6th Dubrovnik Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems (SDEWES Conference), attended by 418 scientists from 55 countries representing six continents. It was held in 2011 and dedicated to the improvement and dissemination of knowledge on methods, policies and technologies for increasing the sustainability of development, taking into account its economic, environmental and social pillars, as well as methods for assessing and measuring sustainability of development, regarding energy, transport, water and environment systems and their many combinations.

  • 23.
    Epple, B.
    et al.
    Technische Universität Darmstadt.
    Lyngfelt, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Adanez, J.
    Department of Energy and Environment, Miguel Luesma Castán .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The 2nd International Conference on Chemical Looping 20122014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 113, p. 1827-1829Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Feng, J. -C
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yu, Z.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Zeng, X.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Xu, W.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Case study of an industrial park toward zero carbon emission2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 209, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial park shoulders heavy responsibilities for economic development, and in the meantime, acts the role as energy consumer and carbon emitter. Under the background of holding the average global temperature increase limited in 2 °C compared to the pre-industrial level, which was proposed in the Paris Agreement, the development of zero carbon emission at the industrial park level is of great importance. This study investigated how to realize zero carbon emission at an industrial park level. In addition, a practical case study of the Southern China Traditional Chinese Medicine Industrial Park located in the Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province of China was conducted. Scenario analyses were projected to realize zero carbon emission in this industrial park and the results show that zero carbon emission can be realized under all the three scenarios. Economic assessments found that purchasing carbon offsets get the minimum cost effectiveness under current market situation. However, purchasing carbon offset may not be the best choice from the aspect of absolute reduction. Sensitivity analyses illustrate that the cost effectiveness of carbon reduction is remarkably influenced by the carbon price and solar energy cost reduction ratio. Meanwhile, applying large-scale renewable energy and producing more carbon offset can harvest more economic and carbon reduction benefits when the current solar energy cost has been reduced by 90%. Moreover, challenges of building zero-carbon industrial park as well as the corresponding solution schemes were discussed.

  • 25.
    Geng, Y.
    et al.
    Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, China .
    Wei, Y. -M
    Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, China.
    Fischedick, M.
    Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Energy and Environment, Germany.
    Chiu, A.
    De La Salle University, Philippines .
    Chen, B.
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Recent trend of industrial emissions in developing countries2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 166, p. 187-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from industrial sectors are increasing, particularly in the developing world where pursuing industrialization has been highly addressed. This calls for further studies to learn and share experiences for developing countries. In order to fill in such a research gap, this special issue focuses on examining the recent trend of industrial emissions in developing countries. Among the manuscripts submitted to the Special Issue, twelve papers have been accepted after review, covering assessment indicators, tools and methods, and policies. Key industrial sectors, including cement, lime, aluminum, coal, mining, glass, soda ash, etc, have been investigated. Valuable policy insights have been raised, including wide scale upgrading, replacement and deployment of best available technologies, integrated information platforms, cross-cutting technologies and measures, a shift to low carbon electricity, radical product innovations, carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), demand on new and replacement products, systematic approaches and collaboration among different industries. These useful suggestions could be shared or learned by industrial policy makers or managers in the developing world so that the overall GHG emissions from their industrial sectors can be mitigated by considering the local realities.

  • 26.
    Goldberg, C.
    et al.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Nalianda, D.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Sethi, V.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Pilidis, P.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Singh, R.
    Cranfield University, Bedfordshire, United Kingdom.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Assessment of an energy-efficient aircraft concept from a techno-economic perspective2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 221, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increase in environmental awareness in both the aviation industry and the wider global setting has led to large bodies of research dedicated to developing more sustainable technology with a lower environmental impact and lower energy usage. The goal of reducing environmental impact has necessitated research into revolutionary new technologies that have the potential to be significantly more energy efficient than their predecessors. However, for innovative technologies in any industry, there is a risk that adoption will be prohibitively expensive for commercial application. It is therefore important to model the economic factors of the new technology or policy at an early stage of development. This research demonstrates the application of a Techno-economic Environmental Risk Assessment framework that may be used to identify the economic impact of an energy-efficient aircraft concept and the impact that environmental policy would have on the viability of the concept. The framework has been applied to a case study aircraft designed to achieve an energy saving of 60% in comparison to a baseline 2005 entry-into-service aircraft. The model compares the green aircraft concept to a baseline conventional aircraft using a sensitivity analysis of the aircraft direct operating cost to changes in acquisition and maintenance cost. The research illustrates an economically viable region for the technology. Cost margins are identified where the increase in operating cost due to expensive novel technology is counterbalanced by the reduction in cost resulting from low energy consumption. Viability was found to be closely linked to fuel price, with a low fuel price limiting the viability of energy-efficient aviation technology. In contrast, a change in environmental taxation policy was found to be beneficial, with the introduction of carbon taxation incentivising the use of an environmentally optimised aircraft.

  • 27.
    Guo, S.
    et al.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, W.
    Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jin, G.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Zhang, Z.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Gu, J.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Niu, Y.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Numerical study of the improvement of an indirect contact mobilized thermal energy storage container2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 161, p. 476-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the melting and solidification behaviours of the PCM in an indirect contact mobilized thermal energy storage (ICM-TES) container were numerically investigated to facilitate the further understanding of the phase change mechanism in the container. A 2D model was built based on the simplification and assumptions of experiments, which were validated by comparing the results of computations and measurements. Then, three options, i.e., a high thermal conductivity material (expanded graphite) addition, the tube diameter and the adjustment of the internal structure of the container and fin installation, were analyzed to seek effective approaches for the improvement of the ICM-TES performance. The results show that the optimal parameters of the three options are 10vol.% (expanded graphite proportion), 22mm (tube diameter) and 0.468m2 (fin area). When the three options are applied simultaneously, the charging time is reduced by approximately 74% and the discharging time by 67%.

  • 28.
    Guo, Shaopeng
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, China .
    Li, Xun
    Tianjin University, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Numerical simulation study on optimizing charging process of the direct contact mobilized thermal energy storage2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 1416-1423Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system is considered as an attractive alternative to supply heat to distributed heat users, especially when the waste heat from industries is used as a heat source. From our previous study it was known that the charging time of M-TES system was more than four times of the discharging time, which was a critical issue for the application of M-TES. To improve the charging performance of the system and further understand the mechanism of melting process, a 2-dimensional (2D) numerical simulation model was developed in ANSYS FLUENT. The model was validated by the experimental measurements. The results showed that the model could be used for the engineering analysis. With the validated model, different options to shorten the charging time were investigated including increasing flow rate of thermal oil, creating channels before charging and adding wall heating. Correspondingly, around 25%, 26% and 29% of the charging time could be reduced respectively compared to the experiment with a thermal oil flow rate of 9.8 L/min, according to the numerical simulation. In addition, if the last two options could be applied simultaneously, more than half of the melting time might be shortened without changing the flow rate of thermal oil. 

  • 29.
    Guo, Shaopeng
    et al.
    Inner Mongolia Univ Sci & Technol, China.
    Zhao, Jun
    Tianjin Univ, China..
    Wang, Weilong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jin, Guang
    Inner Mongolia Univ Sci & Technol, China..
    Wang, Xiaotong
    Inner Mongolia Univ Sci & Technol, China..
    Techno-economic assessment of mobilized thermal energy storage for distributed users: A case study in China2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 481-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES) system is a promising alternative to conventional heating systems to meet the heat demand for distributed users. This paper provided a techno-economic assessment of the M-TES system based on a case study in China. According to the analysis of the design specifications of the heating system, the suitability of matching the M-TES with existing heating systems was analyzed. The results show that the M-TES is appropriate for use with heating systems with a fan-coil unit and under-floor pipe. Containers and operating strategies for the M-TES with different transportation schemes were also designed. The maximum allowed load of the M-TES container is 39 t according to the discussion of transportation regulations on the road. The cost and income of the M-TES in the study case were estimated, and the net present value (NPV) and payback period (PBP) were also calculated. The best operating strategy is the use of 2 containers and 4 cycles of container transportation per day, with a PBP of approximately 10 years. The M-TES is applicable for middle and small-scale heat users in China. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, M.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Myhren, J. A.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Bales, C.
    Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Holmberg, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact. 

  • 31.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Daianova, Lilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Influence of drying process on the biomass-based polygeneration system of bioethanol, power and heat2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 90, no 1/SI, p. 32-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the by-products from bioethanol production using woody materials is lignin solids, which can be utilized as feedstock for combined heat and power (CHP) production. In this paper, the influence of integrating a drying process into a biomass-based polygeneration system is studied, where the exhaust flue gas is used to dry the lignin solids instead of direct condensation in the flue gas condenser (FGC). The evaporated water vapor from the lignin solids is mixed with the drying medium for consequent condensation. Thus, the exhaust flue gas after the drying still has enough humidity to produce roughly the same amount of condensation heat as direct condensation in the existing configuration. The influence of a drying process and how it interacts with the FGC in CHP production as a part of the  polygeneration system is analyzed and evaluated. If a drying process is integrated with the polygeneration system, overall energyefficiency is only increased by 3.1% for CHP plant, though the power output can be increased by 5.5% compared with the simulated system using only FGC.

  • 32.
    Hao, Y.
    et al.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Li, W.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Tian, Z.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190, China.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Jin, H.
    Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Integration of concentrating PVs in anaerobic digestion for biomethane production2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 231, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas produced from anaerobic digestion processes is considered as an important alternative to natural gas and plays a key role in the emerging market for renewable energy. Aiming at achieving a more sustainable and efficient biomethane production, this work proposed a novel energy system, which integrates concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (C-PV/T) hybrid modules into a biogas plant with chemical absorption for biogas upgrading. The investigated energy system was optimized based on the data from an existing biogas plant, and its techno-economic feasibility was evaluated. Results show that about 7% of the heat consumption and 12% of the electricity consumption of the biogas plant can be covered by solar energy, by using the produced heat in a cascade way according to the operating temperature of different processes. The production of biomethane can also be improved by 25,800 N m3/yr (or 1.7%). The net present value of the integrated system is about 2.78 MSEK and the payback period is around 10 years. In order to further improve the economic performance, it is of great importance to lower the capital cost of the C-PV/T module. 

  • 33.
    Hedin, N.
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Andersson, L.
    Stockholm University.
    Bergström, L.
    Stockholm University.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Adsorbents for the post-combustion capture of CO2 using rapid temperature swing or vacuum swing adsorption2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, p. 418-433Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, the post-combustion capture of CO2 is costly; however, swing adsorption processes can reduce these costs under certain conditions. This review highlights the issues related to adsorption-based processes for the capture of CO2 from flue gas. In particular, we consider studies that investigate CO2 adsorbents for vacuum swing or temperature swing adsorption processes. Zeolites, carbon molecular sieves, metal organic frameworks, microporous polymers, and amine-modified sorbents are relevant for such processes. The large-volume gas flows in the gas flue stacks of power plants limit the possibilities of using regular swing adsorption processes, whose cycles are relatively slow. The structuring of CO2 adsorbents is crucial for the rapid swing cycles needed to capture CO2 at large point sources. We review the literature on such structured CO2 adsorbents. Impurities may impact the function of the sorbents, and could affect the overall thermodynamics of power plants, when combined with carbon capture and storage. The heat integration of the adsorption-driven processes with the power plant is crucial in ensuring the economy of the capture of CO2, and impacts the design of both the adsorbents and the processes. The development of adsorbents with high capacity, high selectivity, rapid uptake, easy recycling, and suitable thermal and mechanical properties is a challenging task. These tasks call for interdisciplinary studies addressing this delicate optimization process, including integration with the overall thermodynamics of power plants. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 34.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Towards smart thermal grids: Techno-economic feasibility of commercial heat-to-power technologies for district heating2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 228, p. 766-776Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent improvements in low-temperature heat-to-power (LTHtP) technologies have led to an increase in efficiency at lower temperatures and lower cost. LTHtP has so far not been used in district heating. The aim of the study is to establish under what conditions the use of existing LTHtP technology is technically and economically feasible using a district heating system as the heat source. The organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is identified as the most interesting LTHtP technology, due to its high relative efficiency and the commercial availability of devices operating at temperatures in the district heating operating range. The levelised cost of electricity of several ORC devices is calculated for temperatures found in district heating, assuming a zero cost of heat. A case study from Sweden is used to calculate the levelised cost of electricity, the net present value and payback period, based on income from the electricity produced, excluding taxes. Hourly spot market electricity prices from 2017 are used, as well as forecast scenarios for 2020, 2030 and 2040. A sensitivity study tests the importance of electricity price, cost of heat and capital/installation cost. Based on the case study, the best levelised cost of electricity achieved was 26.5 EUR/MWh, with a payback period greater than 30 years. Under current Swedish market conditions, the ORC does not appear to be economically feasible for use in district heating, but the net present value and payback period may be significantly more attractive under other countries’ market conditions or with reduced capital costs. For a positive net present value in the Swedish market the capital cost should be reduced to 1.7 EUR/W installed, or the average electricity price should be at least 35.2 EUR/MWh, if the cost of heat is zero. The cost of heat is an important factor in these calculations and should be developed further in future work.

  • 35.
    Hoggett, R.
    et al.
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Bolton, R.
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Candelise, C.
    Imperial College London, UK.
    Kern, F.
    University of Sussex, UK.
    Mitchell, C.
    University of Exeter, UK.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Supply chains and energy security in a low carbon transition2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 123, p. 292-295Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Daneryd, Anders
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Heat transfer by liquid jets impinging on a hot flat surface2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 164, no 15, p. 934-943Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Runout Table (ROT) cooling is one of the most important factors for controlling quality of hot rolled steel. ROT cooling uses large quantities of water to cool the steel plate. Optimizing heat transfer in the ROT would reduce the amount of water used, which will lower the amount of energy needed for pumping, filtering, storage and use of water. Optimization will therefore result in a direct energy saving as well as increasing the product quality.

    This study investigates heat transfer by turbulent water jets impinging on a hot flat steel plate at temperatures below the boiling point in order to understand convection heat transfer phenomena. This is an important stage that precedes the boiling and addresses the applicability of the heat transfer correlations available in the literature.

    A single axisymmetric jet and a pair of interacting jets are simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model under steady and transient conditions and the kɛ turbulence model are used in both 2D axisymmetric and 3D simulations. We investigate the influence of the water flow rate on the jet cooling characteristics and develop a correlation for the radial position of the maximum Nusselt number based on numerical results.

    Two sets of boundary conditions – constant temperature and constant heat flux – are applied at the surface of the steel plate and evaluated. The single jet numerical results compare favourably with published data based on measurements and analytical models. The thermal performance of a two-jet system was found to be no better than a single jet because the jets were too far from each other to generate any additional thermal interaction.

  • 37.
    Hosain, Md Lokman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bel Fdhila, Rebei
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kristian, Rönnberg
    ABB AB, Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Taylor-Couette flow and transient heat transfer inside the annulus air-gap of rotating electrical machines2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 207, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Losses in an electric motor amount to between 4–24% of the total electrical power, and are converted to heat. The maximum hot spot temperature is one of the design constraints of thermal and electrical performance. Several studies have explored flow and thermal characteristics inside the air-gap between two concentric rotating cylinders such as those found in electric motors, however the transient flow and thermal effects still remain a challenge. This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict the thermal behaviour of a machine rotating at the kind of speed usually encountered in motors. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes model together with the realizable k-ε turbulence model are used to perform transient simulations. Velocity profiles and temperature distribution inside the air-gap are obtained and validated. The transient flow features and their impact on thermal performance are discussed. The numerical results show turbulent Taylor vortices inside the air-gap that lead to a periodic temperature distribution. When compared to correlations from published literature, the simulated average heat transfer coefficient at the rotor surface shows overall good agreement. The transient effects introduce local impacts like oscillations to the Taylor-Couette vortices. These flow oscillations result in oscillations of the hotspots. However, this transient oscillatory behaviour does not show any additional impact on the global thermal performance.

  • 38.
    Hu, Y.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Numerical investigation of heat transfer characteristics in utility boilers of oxy-coal combustion2014In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 130, no 1, p. 543-551Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxy-coal combustion has different flue gas composition from the conventional air-coal combustion. The different composition further results in different properties, such as the absorption coefficient, emissivity, and density, which can directly affect the heat transfer in both radiation and convection zones of utility boilers. This paper numerically studied a utility boiler of oxy-coal combustion and compares with air-coal combustion in terms of flame profile and heat transferred through boiler side walls in order to understand the effects of different operating conditions on oxy-coal boiler retrofitting and design. Based on the results, it was found that around 33vol% of effective O2 concentration ([O2]effective) the highest flame temperature and total heat transferred through boiler side walls in the oxy-coal combustion case match to those in the air-coal combustion case most; therefore, the 33vol% of [O2]effective could result in the minimal change for the oxy-coal combustion retrofitting of the existing boiler. In addition, the increase of the moisture content in the flue gas has little impact on the flame temperature, but results in a higher surface incident radiation on boiler side walls. The area of heat exchangers in the boiler was also investigated regarding retrofitting. If boiler operates under a higher [O2]effective, to rebalance the load of each heat exchanger in the boiler, the feed water temperature after economizer can be reduced or part of superheating surfaces can be moved into the radiation zone to replace part of the evaporators

  • 39.
    Hu, Y.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology .
    Li, X.
    Tianjin University, School of Mechanical Engineering, China .
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Peak and off-peak operations of the air separation unit in oxy-coal combustion power generation systems2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 112, p. 747-754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introducing CO2 capture and storage (CCS) into the power systems requires the re-investigation of the load balance for the electrical grid. For the oxy-coal combustion capture technology, the energy use of ASU can be shifted between the peak-load and off-peak-load periods, which may bring more benefits. In this paper, peak and off-peak (POP) operations for the air separation unit (ASU) with liquid oxygen storage were studied based on a 530MW coal-fired power system. According to the simulation results, the oxy-coal combustion power system running POP is technically feasible that it can provide a base load of 496MW during the off-peak period and a peak load of 613MW during the peak period. And the equivalent efficiency of the power system running POP is only 0.3% lower than the one not running POP. Moreover, according to the economic assessments based on the net present value, it is also economically feasible that the payback time of the investment of the oxy-coal combustion power system running POP is about 13years under the assumptions of 10% discount rate and 2.5% cost escalation rate. In addition, the effects of the difference of on-grid electricity prices, daily peak period, investment for POP operations, and ASU energy consumption were also analyzed, concerning the net present value.

  • 40.
    Hu, Yukun
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Techno-economic evaluation of the evaporative gas turbine cycle with different CO(2) capture options2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 303-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The techno-economic evaluation of the evaporative gas turbine (EvGT) cycle with two different CO(2) capture options has been carried out. Three studied systems include a reference system: the EvGT system without CO(2) capture (System I), the EvGT system with chemical absorption capture (System II), and the EvGT system with oxyfuel combustion capture (System III). The cycle simulation results show that the system with chemical absorption has a higher electrical efficiency (41.6% of NG LHV) and a lower efficiency penalty caused by CO(2) capture (10.5% of NG LHV) compared with the system with oxyfuel combustion capture. Based on a gas turbine of 13.78 MW, the estimated costs of electricity are 46.1 $/MW h for System I. while 70.1 $/MW h and 74.1 $/MW h for Systems II and III, respectively. It shows that the cost of electricity increment of chemical absorption is 8.7% points lower than that of the option of oxyfuel combustion. In addition, the cost of CO(2) avoidance of System II which is 71.8 $/tonne CO(2) is also lower than that of System III, which is 73.2 $/tonne CO(2). The impacts of plant size have been analyzed as well. Results show that cost of CO(2) avoidance of System III may be less than that of System II when a plant size is larger than 60 MW.

  • 41.
    Hu, Yukun
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Li, Hailong
    Effects of flue gas recycle on oxy-coal power generation system2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 97, no SI, p. 255-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examined and assessed various configuration options about emission removal including particles. SOx and NOx in an oxy-coal combustion system for CO2 capture. A performance analysis was conducted in order to understand the impacts of those options concerning process design, process operation and system efficiency. Results show that different flue gas recycle options have clear effects on the emissivity and absorptivity of radiating gases in boiler due to the change of flue gas compositions. The maximum difference amongst various options can be up to 15% and 20% for emissivity and absorptivity respectively. As a result, the heat transfer by radiation can vary about 20%. The recycle options also have impacts on the design of air heater and selective-catalytic-reduction (SCR) preheater. This is due to that the largely varied operating temperatures in different options may result in different required areas of heat exchangers. In addition, the dew point of flue gas and the boiler efficiency are affected by the configurations of flue gas recycle as well.

  • 42.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production: A case study from a Finnish province2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, p. 676-686Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production was formulated and tested for a Finnishprovince, North-Savo. By using the model the aim was to support decision making for reducing greenhousegas (GHG) emissions and increasing renewable energy (RE) production in the studied region inthe biogas electricity production system. The system boundary of the model included transportation ofwaste, biogas production, heat and electricity production, as well as the delivery of heat and digestateto the end users. When electricity production was maximized in the studied region, the electricity productionand GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and 24 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. WhenGHG emissions were minimized, the electricity production and GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and23 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. By producing electricity of 20 GW h/year, the maximumGHG reductions were roughly 74% of the theoretical maximum GHG emissions of 90 kt/year of CO2 equivalentin both cases. The regional electricity production potential of 20 GW h/year was only 21% of themaximum electricity production potential of 94 GW h/year. The locations of biogas plants, regional relativeGHG emissions, potential feedstocks and regional electricity production were optimized in bothcases in the studied region.

  • 43.
    Ilic, Danica Djuric
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University.
    District heating and ethanol production through polygeneration in Stockholm2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 214-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethanol can be produced with little impact on the environment through the use of polygeneration technology. This paper evaluates the potential of integrating a lignocellulosic ethanol plant into a district heating system by case study; the plant has an ethanol capacity of 95MW with biogas, electricity and heat as by-products. Stockholm's district heating system is used as the case study, but the results may be relevant also for other urban areas. The system has been studied using MODEST - an optimisation model framework. The results show that introducing the plant would lead to a significant reduction in the cost of heat production. The income from the biofuels and electricity produced would be about €76million and €130million annually, respectively, which is an increase of 70% compared to the income from the electricity produced in the system today. Assuming that the electricity produced will replace marginal electricity on the European electricity market and that the biofuel produced will replace gasoline in the transport sector, the introduction of the polygeneration plant in the district heating system would lead to a reduction of global CO2 emissions of about 0.7million tonnes annually

  • 44.
    Javed, Fahad
    et al.
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan.
    Arshad, Naveed
    LUMS Sch Sci & Engn, Dept Comp Sci, Lahore, Pakistan .
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Forecasting for demand response in smart grids: An analysis on use of anthropologic and structural data and short term multiple loads forecasting2012In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 96, p. 150-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electric grid is changing. With the smart grid the demand response (DR) programs will hopefully make the grid more resilient and cost efficient. However, a scheme where consumers can directly participate in demand management requires new efforts for forecasting the electric loads of individual consumers. In this paper we try to find answers to two main questions for forecasting loads for individual consumers: First, can current short term load forecasting (STLF) models work efficiently for forecasting individual households? Second, do the anthropologic and structural variables enhance the forecasting accuracy of individual consumer loads? Our analysis show that a single multi-dimensional model forecasting for all houses using anthropologic and structural data variables is more efficient than a forecast based on traditional global measures. We have provided an extensive empirical evidence to support our claims.

  • 45.
    Jiang, Xi
    et al.
    Univ Lancaster, Dept Engn, Chair Energy Use & Transport, Lancaster LA1 4YR, England..
    Kraft, Markus
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Selected papers from the Twelfth International Conference on Combustion and Energy Utilisation (12th ICCEU) Preface2015In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 156, p. 747-748Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    On the trade-off between aviation NOx and energy efficiency2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, p. 1506-1516Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the trade-off between the ever-increasing energy efficiency of modern aero-engines and their   performance. The work builds on performance models previously developed to optimise the specific fuel consumption of future aero-engine designs. As part of the present work a simple and adaptable   emissions correlation for Rich-burn Quick-quench Lean-burn combustor designs is derived. The proposed model is computationally inexpensive and sufficiently accurate for use in aero-engine multi-disciplinary conceptual design tools. Furthermore, it is possible to adapt the correlation to model the   emissions of combustors designed for very aggressive future cycles. An approach to lean-burn combustor   emissions modelling is also presented. The simulation results show that improving engine propulsive efficiency is likely to have a benign effect on  emissions at high altitude; at sea-level conditions   emissions are particularly likely to reduce. Improving engine thermal efficiency however has a detrimental effect on   emissions from RQL combustors, both at high altitude and particularly at sea-level conditions. LDI combustor technology does not demonstrate such behaviour. Current legislation permits trading   emissions engine efficiency and hence reduce   emissions. If we are to reduce the contribution of aviation to global warming, however, future certification legislation may need to become more stringent and comprehensive.

  • 47.
    Lam, H. L.
    et al.
    Hon Loong Lam Centre of Excellence for Green Technologies, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Malaysia.
    Varbanov, P. S.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Klemeš, J. J.
    University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Green Applied Energy for sustainable development2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 161, p. 601-604Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue of Applied Energy contains articles developed from initial ideas related to the 17th Conference Process Integration, Modelling and Optimisation for Energy Saving and Pollution Reduction (PRES 2014) held in Prague, Czech Republic, during 23-27 August 2014. The conference has been organised jointly with CHISA 2014. Both events have benefitted from the shared pool of participants as well as the expanded opportunities for exchanging ideas. From all contributions presented at the conference, high-quality ones suitable for Applied Energy, have been invited. Overall, 37 extended manuscripts have been invited as candidate articles. Of those, after a thorough review procedure, 11 articles have been selected to be published. The topics attained in the focus of this Special Issue include Process Integration and Energy Management, CO2 capture, and Green Energy Applications. 

  • 48.
    Leduc, S.
    et al.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundgren, J.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Franklin, O.
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, E.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Location of a biomass based methanol production plant: A dynamic problem in northern Sweden2010In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerning production and use of biofuels, mismatch between the locations of feedstock and the biofuel consumer may lead to high transportation costs and negative environmental impact. In order to minimize these consequences, it is important to locate the production plant at an appropriate location. In this paper, a case study of the county of Norrbotten in northern Sweden is presented with the purpose to illustrate how an optimization model could be used to assess a proper location for a biomass based methanol production plant. The production of lignocellulosic based methanol via gasification has been chosen, as methanol seems to be one promising alternative to replace fossil gasoline as an automotive fuel and Norrbotten has abundant resources of woody biomass. If methanol would be produced in a stand-alone production plant in the county, the cost for transportation of the feedstock as well as the produced methanol would have great impact on the final cost depending on where the methanol plant is located. Three different production plant sizes have been considered in the study, 100, 200 and 400 MW (biomass fuel input), respectively. When assessing a proper location for this kind of plant, it is important to also consider the future motor fuel demand as well as to identify a heat sink for the residual heat. In this study, four different automotive fuel- and district heating demand scenarios have been created until the year 2025. The results show that methanol can be produced at a maximum cost of 0.48 €/l without heat sales. By selling the residual heat as district heating, the methanol production cost per liter fuel may decrease by up to 10% when the plant is located close to an area with high annual heat demand.

  • 49.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    a.International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria;b.Division of Energy Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, SE-97187 Luleå, Sweden.
    Natarajan, Karthikeyan
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    McCallum, Ian
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Obersteiner, Michael
    International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA), A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimizing biodiesel production in India2009In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, no 1, p. S125-S131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    India is expected to at least double its fuel consumption in the transportation sector by 2030. To contributeto the fuel supply, renewable energies such as jatropha appear to be an attractive resource for biodieselproduction in India as it can be grown on waste land and does not need intensive water supply. In orderto produce biodiesel at a competitive cost, the biodiesel supply chain – from biomass harvesting to biodieseldelivery to the consumers – is analyzed. A mixed integer linear programming model is used in order todetermine the optimal number and geographic locations of biodiesel plants. The optimization is based onminimization of the costs of the supply chain with respect to the biomass, production and transportationcosts. Three biodiesel blends are considered, B2, B5 and B10. For each blend, 13 scenarios are consideredwhere yield, biomass cost, cake price, glycerol price, transport cost and investment costs are studied. A sensitivityanalysis is carried out on both those parameters and the resulting locations of the plants. The emissionsof the supply chain are also considered. The results state that the biomass cost has most influence onthe biodiesel cost (an increase of feedstock cost increases the biodiesel cost by about 40%) and to a lowereffect, the investment cost and the glycerol price. Moreover, choosing the right set of production plant locationshighly depends on the scenarios that have the highest probability to occur, for which the productionplant locations still produce a competitive biodiesel cost and emissions from the transportation are minimum.In this study, one set of plant locations happened to meet these two requirements

  • 50.
    Lee, M.
    et al.
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Keller, A. A.
    University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, United States.
    Chiang, P. -C
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Den, W.
    Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan.
    Wang, H.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Hou, C. -H
    National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Wu, J.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Wang, X.
    Tongji University, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tongji University, Shanghai, China; Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden.
    Water-energy nexus for urban water systems: A comparative review on energy intensity and environmental impacts in relation to global water risks2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 205, p. 589-601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the interdependence between water and energy, also known as the water-energy nexus, is well recognized. The water-energy nexus is typically characterized in resource use efficiency terms such as energy intensity. This study aims to explore the quantitative results of the nexus in terms of energy intensity and environmental impacts (mainly greenhouse gas emissions) on existing water systems within urban water cycles. We also characterized the influence of water risks on the water-energy nexus, including baseline water stress (a water quantity indicator) and return flow ratio (a water quality indicator). For the 20 regions and 4 countries surveyed (including regions with low to extremely high water risks that are geographically located in Africa, Australia, Asia, Europe, and North America), their energy intensities were positively related to the water risks. Regions with higher water risks were observed to have relatively higher energy and GHG intensities associated with their water supply systems. This mainly reflected the major influence of source water accessibility on the nexus, particularly for regions requiring energy-intensive imported or groundwater supplies, or desalination. Regions that use tertiary treatment (for water reclamation or environmental protection) for their wastewater treatment systems also had relatively higher energy and GHG emission intensities, but the intensities seemed to be independent from the water risks. On-site energy recovery (e.g., biogas or waste heat) in the wastewater treatment systems offered a great opportunity for reducing overall energy demand and its associated environmental impacts. Future policy making for the water and energy sectors should carefully consider the water-energy nexus at the regional or local level to achieve maximum environmental and economic benefits. The results from this study can provide a better understanding of the water-energy nexus and informative recommendations for future policy directions for the effective management of water and energy.

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