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  • 1.
    Azimoh, Chukwuma Leonard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Mbohwa, Charles
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Electricity for development:: Mini-grid solution for rural electrificationin South Africa2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, no 110, p. 268-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of most rural electrification programs in the developing world is to bring about socioeconomicdevelopment to households. Governments have put in place a number of measures to achievethis goal. Previous studies on rural electrification programs in developing countries show that solar homesystems and mini-grid systems are the dominant technologies. Assessments of a pilot hybrid mini-gridproject at Lucingweni village have concluded that mini-grid projects are not feasible due to high electricityproduction costs. As a result efforts toward rural electrification have been focused on the solar homesystem. Nevertheless, previous studies of the South African solar home system program have shown thatthe development objectives of the program are yet to be met more than a decade after commissioning.Therefore, this study investigates the viability of a hybrid mini-grid as a solution for rural developmentin South Africa. Investigations were based on Lucingweni and Thlatlaganya, two rural Villages where themini-grid and solar home system have been introduced. The mini-grid systems were designed taking intoconsideration available natural resources and existing load profiles. The results show that a village of 300households needs about 2.4 kW h/household/day of electricity to initiate and sustain income generatingactivities and that the solar home system is not capable of supporting this level of demand. We also showthat in locations with hydro resources, a hybrid mini-grid system has the most potential for meeting theenergy needs of the households in a cost effective manner. The assessment shows that with adequateplanning and optimization of available resources, the cost of electricity production can be reduced.

  • 2.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Holmberg, Aksel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Pettersson, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Hangula, A.
    Namibia Energy Institute, Namibia University of Science and Technology, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Araoz, F. B.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhang, Y.
    School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science & Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 42, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An open-source optimization tool for solar home systems: A case study in Namibia2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 130, no 15, p. 106-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar home systems (SHSs) represent a viable technical solution for providing electricity to households and improving standard of living conditions in areas not reached by the national grid or local grids. For this reason, several rural electrification programmes in developing countries, including Namibia, have been relying on SHSs to electrify rural off-grid communities. However, the limited technical know-how of service providers, often resulting in over- or under-sized SHSs, is an issue that has to be solved to avoid dissatisfaction of SHSs’ users. The solution presented here is to develop an open-source software that service providers can use to optimally design SHSs components based on the specific electricity requirements of the end-user. The aim of this study is to develop and validate an optimization model written in MS Excel-VBA which calculates the optimal SHSs components capacities guaranteeing the minimum costs and the maximum system reliability. The results obtained with the developed tool showed good agreement with a commercial software and a computational code used in research activities. When applying the developed optimization tool to existing systems, the results identified that several components were incorrectly sized. The tool has thus the potentials of improving future SHSs installations, contributing to increasing satisfaction of end-users.

  • 3.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhang, J.
    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China .
    Liu, J.
    Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 95, p. 32-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor.

  • 4.
    Dai, B.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Qi, H.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, S.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Ma, M.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Zhong, Z.
    Foreign Economic Cooperation Office, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of the People's Republic of China, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Song, M.
    Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Sun, Z.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Evaluation of transcritical CO 2 heat pump system integrated with mechanical subcooling by utilizing energy, exergy and economic methodologies for residential heating2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 192, p. 202-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transcritical CO 2 heat pump (HP) system for residential space heating integrated with direct dedicated mechanical subcooling (DMS) is proposed, and mathematical models are developed to study the annual energetic and economic performances considering the influence of frosting. The operation characteristics by adopting different heating terminals used in five typical cities are also assessed. The results show a maximum coefficient of performance (COP) is achieved at the optimum discharge pressure and subcooling degree. The COP is promoted by 24.4% and the discharge pressure is decreased by 2.093 MPa at the ambient temperature of −10 °C and water supply/return temperature of 45/40 °C. The seasonal performance factor (SPF) is enhanced more noticeably for severe cold region. For the case of Harbin using floor-coil radiator (FCR) or normal fan-coil unit (N-FCU) as heating terminal, SPF is improved by 32.0%. The highest SPF is achieved when small temperature difference fan-coil unit (STD-FCU) is employed. The exergy efficiency can also be apparently improved, especially for the cities located in severe cold region and using FCR or N-FCU as heating terminal due to the reduction in throttling loss of CO 2 system. The purchased equipment cost and electricity cost of the CO 2 HP with DMS are both lower than those of traditional CO 2 heat pump system. The CO 2 HP DMS system using STD-FCU as heating terminal shows superior economical efficiency to traditional system, with levelized annual total cost reduced by 7.51–15.27%. 

  • 5.
    Guezgouz, M.
    et al.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Mostaganem University, Mostaganem, Algeria.
    Jurasz, Jakob
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Faculty of Management, Department of Engineering Management, AGH University.,Cracow, Poland.
    Bekkouche, B.
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Mostaganem University, Mostaganem, Algeria.
    Ma, T.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Javed, M. S.
    School of Mechanical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China.
    Kies, A.
    Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
    Optimal hybrid pumped hydro-battery storage scheme for off-grid renewable energy systems2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, article id 112046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of energy storage systems paves the way towards a high integration of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation sector. Considering above, this paper introduces a new energy management strategy to efficiently coordinate a hybrid energy storage system based on pumped hydro storage (long term bulk storage) with batteries (short term, more flexible). For the purpose of this analysis, hourly time series of irradiation, wind speed, temperature and real measured load (characteristic for farmstead) covering one year were gathered for the selected site in Algeria. The optimal size of the system is determined based on a multi-objective optimization using a grey wolf optimizer implemented in MATLAB software. The results indicate that the hybrid storage system enables achieving higher reliability at lower cost in comparison to a system with single storage technology. The use of hybrid storage also reduces the curtailment of renewable generation. Further findings reveal that the cost of an optimal energy supply system with 97.5% reliability is 0.162 €/kWh, 0.207 €/kWh and 1.462 €/kWh for hybrid storage, battery and pumped storage, respectively. However, sensitivity analysis shows that the optimal hybrid storage configuration is less resilient when changes in irradiation/temperature/load are considered. This indicates that special actions (upscale of installed power) must be undertaken to avoid lower performance of hybrid storage systems. In summary, the hybrid storage system seems to be better sized for consideration in optimized solar/wind conditions, but by avoiding oversizing they are less resilient to future potential changes in renewable energy availability.

  • 6.
    Guo, S.
    et al.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Liu, Q.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Tianjin, China.
    Jin, G.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, 014010, China.
    Wu, W.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jin, H.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
    Mobilized thermal energy storage: Materials, containers and economic evaluation2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transportation of thermal energy is essential for users who are located far away from heat sources. The networks connecting them achieve the goal in efficient heat delivery and reasonable cost, especially for the users with large heat demands. However, it is difficult to satisfy the heat supply of the detached or emergent users with the existing pipelines. Therefore, a promising alternative, called mobilized thermal energy storage (M-TES), was proposed to deliver the heat flexibly without the restriction of networks. In this paper, a review of studies on M-TES is conducted in terms of materials, containers and economic evaluation. The potential candidates of materials, such as sugar alcohols, hydrated salts, alkalies and zeolite are reviewed and compared based on their thermophysical properties, price, advantages and disadvantages. Various containers, including the shell-and-tube, encapsulated, direct-contact, detachable and sorptive types, are discussed from the aspects of configuration, performance and utilization. Furthermore, the studies on the economic evaluation of M-TES systems are summarized and discussed based on the analysis of the economic indicators, including initial cost, operating cost, revenue, subsidy and energy cost. Finally, the challenges and future perspectives for developing M-TES are presented. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd

  • 7.
    Lee, Duu-Jong
    et al.
    Natl Taiwan Univ Sci & Technol, Taiwan.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chou, Siaw-Kiang
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore.
    Desideri, Umberto
    Univ Perugia, Perugia, Italy.
    Clean, efficient, affordable and reliable energy for a sustainable future Preface2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Larsson, Eva K.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Xinhai
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Feasibility study on combining anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to increase the production of biomethane2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 100, p. 212-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rapid growing interest in using biomethane as fuel for transport applications. A new concept is proposed to combine anaerobic digestion and biomass gasification to produce biomethane. H-2 is separated from the syngas generated by biomass gasification in a membrane system, and then is used to upgrade raw biogas from anaerobic digestion. Simulations have been conducted based on the real operation data of one full scale biogas plant and one full scale biomass gasification plant in order to investigate the feasibility of the new concept. Results show that although less power and heat are generated compared to the gasification plant, which results in a lower overall efficiency, much more biomethane can be produced than the biogas plant; and the new concept can achieve a higher exergy efficiency. Due to the increasing price of biomethane, the novel concept demonstrates a big potential of income increase. For example, at a biomethane price of 12.74SEK/kg, the annual income can be increased by 53% compared to the total income of the biogas and gasification plant. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Liu, L.
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yin, H.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Ren, X.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wennersten, R.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Evaluating the benefits of Integrating Floating Photovoltaic and Pumped Storage Power System2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 194, p. 173-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Floating Photovoltaic systems have developed very fast in recent years. Compared to individual Floating Photovoltaic systems, further advantages, such as grid connectivity and energy storage, can be obtained when Floating Photovoltaic operates collaboratively with Pumped Storage Power Systems. This paper proposed an Integrated Floating Photovoltaic-Pumped Storage Power System and quantitatively assessed the potential of the integrated system in electricity generation and conservation of water and land resource. The study developed a coordinated operation model for the Integrated Floating Photovoltaic-Pumped Storage Power System, which employed a dual-objective optimization, namely to maximize the benefits of electricity generation and to minimize the energy imbalance at the same time. The dual-objective optimization was solved using the genetic algorithm method. Other benefits of the Integrated Floating Photovoltaic-Pumped Storage Power System, namely conservation of water and land resource, were also assessed. The proposed methodology was applied to a 2 GW Floating Photovoltaic farm and a 1 GW Pumped Storage Power System. Results indicated that the Integrated Floating Photovoltaic-Pumped Storage Power System has a great potential for gaining the benefits of electricity generation (9112.74 MWh in a typical sunny day averagely) and reducing energy imbalance (23.06 MW aggregately in one day). The coordinated operation provides the possibility to achieve a higher generation benefits without affecting the reliability of the grid, while the optimization method plays a key role of efficient coordination. In addition, the system would help to save 20.16 km 2 land and 19.06 million m 3 water a year due to the reduction in evaporation loss. The synthetic benefits greatly improve the economic and environmental feasibility of photovoltaic systems in reality.

  • 10.
    Liu, Shengchun
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Wu, Sicheng
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Hu, Yukun
    University College London, UK.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Comparative analysis of air and CO2 as working fluids for compressed and liquefied gas energy storage technologies2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. feb, p. 608-620Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the large-scale use of intermittent renewable energy worldwide, such as wind energy and solar energy, energy storage systems are urgently needed and have been rapidly developed. Technologies of compressed gas energy storage (CGES) and liquefied gas energy storage (LGES) are playing an important role, and air has been commonly used as working fluid. CO2 is another potential working fluid and attracting more and more attention due to the rise of CO2 capture and utilization. However, it is still unclear which is the better working fluid. This paper comparatively analyzed the performance of CGES and LGES systems using air and CO2 as working fluids. Both diabatic and adiabatic CGES are considered. Simulation results show that except diabatic CGES systems, using CO2 could achieve a similar or even higher round-trip efficiency than using air. In addition, the use of CO2 instead of air as a working fluid has additional advantages, such as a lower storage temperature can be achieved at the same storage pressure for the adiabatic CGES system; and a higher condensing temperature can be achieved at the same condensing pressure for the LGES system, which can benefit the system design and operation.

  • 11.
    Mirmoshtaghi, Guilnaz
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    The influence of different parameters on biomass gasification in circulating fluidized bed gasifiers2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 126, p. 110-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism of biomass gasification has been studied for decades. However, for circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifiers, the impacts of different parameters on the gas quality and gasifiers performance have still not been fully investigated. In this paper, different CFB gasifiers have been analyzed by multivariate analysis statistical tools to identify the hidden interrelation between operating parameters and product gas quality, the most influencing input parameters and the optimum points for operation. The results show that equivalence ratio (ER), bed material, temperature, particle size and carbon content of the biomass are the input parameters influencing the output of the gasifier the most. Investigating among the input parameters with opposite impact on product gas quality, cases with optimal gas quality can result in high tar yield and low carbon conversion while low tar yield and high carbon conversion can result in product gas with low quality. However using Olivine as the bed material and setting ER value around 0.3, steam to biomass ratio to 0.7 and using biomass with 3 mm particle size and 9 wt% moisture content can result in optimal product gas with low tar yield.

  • 12.
    Olsson, Alexander
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lind, Marten
    ZeroMission, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 169-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a novel model for analysing carbon sequestration activities in dry land agriculture considering the water-food-energy-climate nexus. The paper is based on our on-going studies on photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential. It is concluded that the economic water productivity, i.e. how much water that is needed to produce an amount of grass, of grassland restoration is low and that there is a need to include several of the other co-benefits to justify the use of water for climate change mitigation. The co-benefits are illustrated in a nexus model including (1) climate change mitigation, (2) water availability, (3) downstream water impact, (4) energy security, (5) food security and (6) moisture recycling. We argue for a broad approach when analysing water for carbon sequestration. The model includes energy security and food security together with local and global water concerns. This makes analyses of dry land carbon sequestration activities more relevant and accurate. Without the nexus approach, the co-benefits of grassland restoration tend to be diminished. 

  • 13.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Impact of retrofitting existing combined heat and power plant with polygeneration of biomethane: A comparative techno-economic analysis of integrating different gasifiers2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 152, p. 250-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to identify and evaluate the optimal gasifier configuration that could be integrated with existing or new combined heat and power (CHP) plants to maximize the utilization of boiler operating capacity during off-peak hours with minimal effect on the boiler performance. This study aims to identify technically and economically most suitable gasification configuration and the reasonable operational limits of a CHP plant when integrated with different types of gasifiers. The selected gasifiers for the study are, (i) indirectly heated dual fluidized bed gasifier (DFBG), (ii) directly heated circulating fluidized bed gasifier (CFBG), and (iii) entrained flow gasifier (EFG). The gasifiers are selected on their ability to produce high-quality syngas from waste refused derived fuel (RDF). The syngas from the gasifiers is utilized to produce biomethane, whereas the heat and power from the CHP plant are consumed to run the gasification process. A detailed techno-economic analysis is performed using both flexible capacity and fixed capacity gasifiers and integrated with the CHP plant at full load. The results reveal that the integration leads to increase in operating time of the boiler for all gasifier configurations. The indirectly heated DFBG shows the largest biomethane production with less impact on the district heat and power production. Extra heat is available for biomethane production when the district heat and biomethane are prioritized, and the electric power is considered as a secondary product. Furthermore, the economic indicators reflect considerable dependency of integrated gasification performance on variable prices of waste biomass and biomethane. 

  • 14.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Tomas Aparicio, Elena
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Integration of torrefaction in CHP plants - A case study2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 90, p. 427-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Torrefied biomass shows characteristics that resemble those of coal. Therefore, torrefied biomass can be co-combusted with coal in existing coal mills and burners. This paper presents simulation results of a case study where a torrefaction reactor was integrated in an existing combined heat and power plant and sized to replace 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of the fossil coal in one of the boilers. The simulations show that a torrefaction reactor can be integrated with existing plants without compromising heat or electricity production. Economic and sensitivity analysis show that the additional cost for integrating a torrefaction reactor is low which means that with an emission allowance cost of 37 €/ton CO2, the proposed integrated system can be profitable and use 100% renewable fuels. The development of subsidies will affect the process economy. The determinant parameters are electricity and fuel prices.

  • 15.
    Tan, Y.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Property impacts on Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) processes: A review2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 118, p. 204-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of thermodynamic and transport properties of CO2-mixtures is important for designing and operating different processes in carbon capture and storage systems. A literature survey was conducted to review the impact of uncertainty in thermos-physical properties on the design and operation of components and processes involved in CO2 capture, conditioning, transport and storage. According to the existing studies on property impacts, liquid phase viscosity and diffusivity as well as gas phase diffusivity significantly impact the process simulation and absorber design for chemical absorption. Moreover, the phase equilibrium is important for regenerating energy estimation. For CO2 compression and pumping processes, thermos-physical properties have more obvious impacts on pumps than on compressors. Heat capacity, density, enthalpy and entropy are the most important properties in the pumping process, whereas the compression process is more sensitive to heat capacity and compressibility. In the condensation and liquefaction process, the impacts of density, enthalpy and entropy are low on heat exchangers. For the transport process, existing studies mainly focused on property impacts on the performance of pipeline steady flow processes. Among the properties, density and heat capacity are most important. In the storage process, density and viscosity have received the most attention in property impact studies and were regarded as the most important properties in terms of storage capacity and enhanced oil recovery rate. However, for physical absorption, physical adsorption and membrane separation, there has been a knowledge gap about the property impact. In addition, due to the lack of experimental data and process complexity, little information is available about the influence of liquid phase properties on the design of the absorber and desorber for chemical absorption process. In the CO2 conditioning process, knowledge of the impacts of properties beyond density and enthalpy is insufficient. In the transport process, greater attention should focus on property impacts on transient transport processes and ship transport systems. In the storage process, additional research is required on the dispersion process in enhanced oil recovery and the dissolution process in ocean and saline aquifer storage.

  • 16.
    Tao, J.
    et al.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Lu, Q.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Dong, C.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Du, X.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, China.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Effects of electric current upon catalytic steam reforming of biomass gasification tar model compounds to syngas2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 100, p. 56-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical catalytic reforming (ECR) technique, known as electric current enhanced catalytic reforming technique, was proposed to convert the biomass gasification tar into syngas. In this study, Ni-CeO<inf>2</inf>/γ-Al<inf>2</inf>O<inf>3</inf> catalyst was prepared, and toluene was employed as the major feedstock for ECR experiments using a fixed-bed lab-scale setup where thermal electrons could be generated and provided to the catalyst. Several factors, including the electric current intensity, reaction temperature and steam/carbon (S/C) ratio, were investigated to reveal their effects on the conversion of toluene as well as the composition of the gas products. Moreover, toluene, two other tar model compounds (benzene and 1-methylnaphthalene) and real tar (tar-containing wastewater) were subjected to the long period catalytic stability tests. All the used catalysts were analyzed to determine their carbon contents. The results indicated that the presence of electric current enhanced the catalytic performance remarkably. The toluene conversion reached 99.9% under the electric current of 4 A, catalytic temperature of 800 °C and S/C ratio of 3. Stable conversion performances of benzene, 1-methylnaphthalene and tar-containing wastewater were also observed in the ECR process. H<inf>2</inf> and CO were the major gas products, while CO<inf>2</inf> and CH<inf>4</inf> were the minor ones. Due to the promising capability, the ECR technique deserves further investigation and application for efficient tar conversion.

  • 17.
    Wang, F.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Technical and economic analysis of integrating low-medium temperature solar energy into power plant2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 112, p. 459-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to mitigate CO2 emission and improve the efficiency of the utilization of solar thermal energy (STE), solar thermal energy is proposed to be integrated into a power plant. In this paper, seven configurations were studied regarding the integration of STE. A 300 MWe subcritical coal-fired plant was selected as the reference, chemical absorption using monoethanolamine solvent was employed for CO2 capture, and parabolic trough collectors and evacuated tube collectors were used for STE collection. Both technical analysis and economic evaluation were conducted. Results show that integrating solar energy with post-combustion CO2 capture can effectively increase power generation and reduce the electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO2 capture. Among the different configurations, Config-2 and Config-6, which use medium temperature STE to replace high pressure feedwater without and with CO2 capture, show the highest net incremental solar efficiency. When building new plants, integrating solar energy can effectively reduce the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). The lowest LCOE, 99.28 USD/MWh, results from Config-6, with a parabolic trough collector price of 185 USD/m2. When retrofitting existing power plants, Config-6 also shows the highest net present value (NPV), while Config-2 has the shortest payback time at a carbon tax of 50 USD/ton CO2. In addition, both LCOE and NPV/payback time are clearly affected by the relative solar load fraction, the price of solar thermal collectors and the carbon tax. Comparatively, the carbon tax can affect the configurations with CO2 capture more clearly than those without CO2 capture. 

  • 18.
    Wang, T.
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Luan, W.
    Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, T.
    Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Tu, S. -T
    Key Laboratory of Pressure Systems and Safety (MOE), School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. School of Chemical Science, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Performance enhancement of thermoelectric waste heat recovery system by using metal foam inserts2016In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 124, no September, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed a type of metal foams filled thermoelectric generator (TEG) for waste heat recovery. Metal foam inserts of three kinds of pore densities (5 PPI, 10 PPI and 20 PPI) were included, considering the heat transfer enhancing features of porous metal mediums. A flow channel detachable prototype was designed to experimentally investigate the influence of metal foams on the performance of thermoelectric waste heat recovery (TWHR) system. The operating parameters were further experimented to improve the thermoelectric power generation efficiency, including hot air inlet temperature, cold water flow rate, metal foam pore density and thermoelectric module (TEM) connecting mode. Moreover, the TWHR performance of the system was evaluated on power generation efficiency, heat exchange effectiveness and waste heat recovery rate, respectively. The results showed that filling metal foams in the flow channels could effectively enhance the performance of the TWHR system. The maximum power generation efficiency was 2.05%, when the TEG was filled with 5 PPI metal foams. It was 29.75% higher than the value of unfilled TEG.

  • 19.
    Wang, W.
    et al.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    He, S.
    Academy of Building Energy Efficiency of Guangzhou University, Guangzhou, China.
    Guo, S.
    Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Ding, J.
    School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.
    A combined experimental and simulation study on charging process of Erythritol-HTO direct-blending based energy storage system2014In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 83, p. 306-313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal energy storage (TES) system is essential to recover and use intermittent heat, such as industrial waste/excess heat or solar energy. In this paper, a direct-contact erythritol/heat transfer oil (HTO) energy storage system has been studied experimentally, consisting of a thermal energy storage unit, electrical heaters, heat exchanger and water cycle. In the system, erythritol has been used as an energy storage media (melting point = 118 °C, heat enthalpy = 330 kJ/kg), and HTO is used as a heat transfer material. Moreover, simulation has been conducted to understand heat transfer enhancement mechanisms of direct-contact heat storage. It is noticed that, at the beginning of heat storage, heat transfer oil has a small flow rate due to the block of solid part. PCM in the middle area of the storage unit melts faster than other parts due to the greater heat transfer on the liquid-solid interface of the both sides, and erythritol attached on the storage unit wall melts slowly since small heat conductivity plays a key role for heat transfer. It is also found that increasing the flow rate of HTO can significantly decrease the melting time by increasing fluid turbulent degree. 

  • 20.
    Yan, J.
    et al.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Lai, F.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Liu, Y.
    North China Electric Power University, Beijing, 102206, China.
    Yu, D. C.
    University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee, United States.
    Yi, W.
    Energy Research Institute of National Development and Reform Commission, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Multi-stage transport and logistic optimization for the mobilized and distributed battery2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 196, p. 261-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High share of variable renewable energy is challenging to the traditional power system technically and economically. This calls for a significant increase to the system flexibility, which might result in the costs associated with energy storage and costly upgrades to the traditional transmission and distribution system. This paper presents a multi-stage battery transportation and logistics optimization method to increase the renewable energy consumptions, economics, and mobilities of the battery utilization. A new approach is proposed in which the batteries are charged in the renewable power plants and transported back and forth by railways between the renewable power plants and cities. Based on the forecasts of battery supplies/demands, multiple optimization stages (full train transport and carpooling) are designed by the branch-and-bound algorithm and genetic algorithm respectively. The proposed battery transportation and logistics concept and model are performed using the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region in China as an example. The results show that the levelized cost of energy of the battery transportation and logistics model is $0.045/kWh averagely. Also, by the use of mobilized batteries, the proposed battery transportation and logistics model increases the system flexibilities and renewable energy deliveries to the end users without the reinforcement of transmission and distribution system and any constraint from a highly penetrated power system.

  • 21.
    Zhang, C.
    et al.
    Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yang, J.
    School of Humanities and Economic Management, China University of Geosciences, Beijing, China.
    Yu, C.
    Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Energy Processes Division, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Economic assessment of photovoltaic water pumping integration with dairy milk production2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 177, p. 750-764Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As dairy consumption grows, domestic dairy farms face challenges in reducing the cost of feeds and the production of high-quality milk for market demands. This paper aims to introduce and integrate solar energy into the milk production chain to investigate its economic performance. By collecting data on milk production processes from 11 dairy farms in China, we quantified electricity usage and costs of milk production to identify the best and worst cases. Crop yields response to the water demand and the electricity requirements of the dairy farms were considered. The study simulated scenarios of self-sufficiency at 20%, 80%, and 100%, in the identified farms by integrating a photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) system to provide both power and water for alfalfa and other feeds’ irrigation and subsequent milk production. We evaluated annual discounted cost, revenue and net profit under each scenario and case. The results showed that a dairy farm with an integrated PVWP system and self-sufficient feeds would lead to value add-ins, such as electricity saving with solar energy generation, economic cost saving of crops, and CO2 emission reduction. The analysis on return on investment (ROI) and internal rate of return (IRR) revealed that not all the self-sufficient feeds can bring positive marginal profit. Among the investigated scenarios and cases, the dairy farm marked out by the highest ROI with 3.12 and IRR with 20.4%, was the farm where the integrated PVWP system was used to reach 20% self-sufficiency (self-production of only alfalfa). The other scenarios and cases with higher levels of self-sufficiency showed lower ROIs and IRRs. This indicates that high self-production levels of feeds decrease the total profit due to high investment cost. Sensitivity analyses of crop price and operational cost were conducted for ROI with single and double factor approaches. Scale and production of feeds proportions should be carefully considered in improving the economic performance of dairy milk production.

  • 22.
    Zhang, Chi
    et al.
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yang, Jan
    School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Economic performance of photovoltaic water pumping systems with business model innovation in China2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 498-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expansion by photovoltaic (PV) technologies in the renewable energy market requires exploring added value integrated with business model innovation. In recent years, a pilot trial of PV water pumping (PVWP) technologies for the conservation of grassland and farmland has been conducted in China. In this paper, we studied the added value of the PVWP technologies with an emphasis on the integration of the value proposition with the operation system and customer segmentation. Using the widely used existing PV business models (PV-roof) as a reference, we evaluated discounted cash flow (DCF) and net present value (NPV) under the scenarios of traditional PV roof, PVWP pilot, PVWP scale-up, and PVWP social network, where further added value via social network was included in the business model. The results show that the integrated PVWP system with social network products significantly improves the performance in areas such as the discounted payback period, internal rate of return (IRR), and return on investment (ROI). We conclude that scenario PVWP social network with business model innovation, can result in value add-ins, new sources of revenue, and market incentives. The paper also suggests that current policy incentives for PV industry are not efficient due to a limited source of revenue, and complex procedures of feed-in tariff verification.

  • 23.
    Zhang, Xiaojing
    et al.
    ABB AB, Corp Res, Västerås, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinying
    Vattenfall AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Chekani, Shabnam
    Royal Inst Technol,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, Loncheng
    Royal Inst Technol,Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigation of thermal integration between biogas production and upgrading2015In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 102, p. 131-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal integration of anaerobic digestion (AD) biogas production with amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading has been studied to improve the overall efficiency of the intergraded system. The thermal characteristics have been investigated for industrial AD raw biogas production and amine-based chemical absorption biogas upgrading. The investigation provides a basic understanding for the possibilities of energy saving through thermal integration. The thermal integration is carried out through well-defined cases based on the thermal characteristics of the biogas production and the biogas upgrading. The following factors are taken into account in the case study: thermal conditions of sub-systems, material and energy balances, cost issues and main benefits. The potential of heat recovery has been evaluated to utilise the waste heat from amine-based upgrading process for the use in the AD biogas production. The results show that the thermal integration has positive effects on improving the overall energy efficiency of the integrated biogas plant. Cost analysis shows that the thermal integration is economically feasible. 

  • 24.
    Zhang, Y.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Benavente, F.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 133, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal components design for grid-connected photovoltaic-battery systems should be determined with consideration of system operation. This study proposes a method to simultaneously optimize the battery capacity and rule-based operation strategy. The investigated photovoltaic-battery system is modeled using single diode photovoltaic model and Improved Shepherd battery model. Three rule-based operation strategies—including the conventional operation strategy, the dynamic price load shifting strategy, and the hybrid operation strategy—are designed and evaluated. The rule-based operation strategies introduce different operation parameters to run the system operation. multi-objective Genetic Algorithm is employed to optimize the decisional variables, including battery capacity and operation parameters, towards maximizing the system's Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value. The results indicate that employing battery with the conventional operation strategy is not profitable, although it increases Self Sufficiency Ratio. The dynamic price load shifting strategy has similar performance with the conventional operation strategy because the electricity price variation is not large enough. The proposed hybrid operation strategy outperforms other investigated strategies. When the battery capacity is lower than 72 kW h, Self Sufficiency Ratio and Net Present Value increase simultaneously with the battery capacity.

  • 25.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Lundblad, Anders
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Div Safety & Transport Elect, SE-50462 Boras, Sweden..
    Zheng, Wandong
    Tianjin Univ, Sch Environm Sci & Technol, Tianjin 300072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Energy Proc, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.; Malardalen Univ, Sch Business Soc & Engn, SE-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, article id 111920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More flexibility measures are required due to the increasing capacities of variable renewable energies (VRE). In buildings, the integration of energy supplies forms integrated energy systems (IES). IESs can provide flexibility and increase the VRE penetration level. To upgrade a current building energy system into an IES, several energy conversion and storage components are needed. How to decide the component capacities and operate the IES were investigated separately in studies on system planning and system operation. However, a research gap exists that the system configuration from system planning is not validated by actual operation conditions in system operation. Meanwhile, studies on system operation assume that IES configurations are predetermined. This work combines system planning and system operation. The IES configuration is determined by mixed integer linear programming in system planning. Actual operation conditions and forecast errors are considered in system operation. The actual operation profiles are obtained through year-round simulations of different energy management systems. The results indicate that the system configuration from system planning can meet energy demands in system operation. Among different energy management systems, the combination of robust optimization and receding horizon optimization achieves the lowest yearly operation cost. Meanwhile, two scenarios that represent high and low forecast accuracies are studied. Under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios, the yearly operation costs are about 4% and 6% higher than that obtained from system planning.

  • 26.
    Zhao, R.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Liu, L.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zhao, L.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, S.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Zhang, Y.
    Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thermodynamic exploration of temperature vacuum swing adsorption for direct air capture of carbon dioxide in buildings2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 183, p. 418-426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt climate change such as the loss of Arctic sea-ice area urgently needs negative emissions technologies. The potential application of direct air capture of carbon dioxide from indoor air and outdoor air in closed buildings or crowded places has been discussed in this paper. From the aspects of carbon reduction and indoor comfort, the ventilation system integrating a capture device is of great value in practical use. For ultra-dilute carbon dioxide sources, many traditional separation processes have no cost advantages, but adsorption technologies such as temperature vacuum swing adsorption is one of suitable methods. Thermodynamic exploration has been investigated regarding minimum separation work and second-law efficiency at various concentrations in the air. The influence of concentration, adsorption temperature, desorption temperature and desorption pressure on the energy efficiency has also been evaluated. Results show that the minimum separation work for the level of 400 ppm is approximately 20 kJ/mol. The optimal second-law efficiencies are 44.57%, 37.55% and 31.60%, respectively for 3000 ppm, 2000 ppm and 1000 ppm. It means that a high energy-efficiency capture device in buildings merits attention in the exploration of the possibility of approaching negative carbon buildings. 

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