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  • 1.
    Blarke, Morten B
    et al.
    Aalborg University.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Intermittency-friendly and high-efficiency cogeneration: Operational optimisation of cogeneration with compression heat pump, flue gas heat recovery, and intermediate cold storage2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 12, p. 6867-6878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper develops, implements, and applies a mathematical model for economic unit dispatch for a novel cogeneration concept (CHP-HP-FG-CS (CHP with compression heat pump and cold storage using flue gas heat)) that increases the plant's operational flexibility. The CHP-HP-FG-CS concept is a high-efficiency and widely applicable option in distributed cogeneration better supporting the co-existence between cogenerators and intermittent renewables in the energy system. The concept involves integrating an efficient high-temperature compression heat pump that uses only waste heat recovered from flue gases as low-temperature heat source, and an intermediate cold thermal storage allowing for non-concurrent operation of the cogeneration unit and the heat pump unit. The model is applied for a paradigmatic case study that shows how the integration of a heat pump affects the operational strategy of a cogeneration plant. It is found that CHP-HP-FG-CS offers significant reductions in fuel consumption (-8.9%) and operational production costs (-11.4%). The plant's fuel-to-energy efficiency increases from 88.9 to 95.5%, which is state-of-the-art. The plant's intermittency-friendliness coefficient Rc improves only marginally due to the constrained nature of the low-temperature heat source and the associated small capacity of the heat pump unit. Significant improvements in Rc are found when increasing the heat pump capacity assuming the availability of an unconstrained heat source

  • 2.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    How to save energy to reach a balance between production and consumptionof heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 16-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a potential to utilize a significant amount of renewable energy in Sweden and European union(EU). Biomass can fulfil some 8500e12,500 TW h/y in EU, while the total utilization was 16,084 TW h/y2009. Even though there is a significant amount of wind power, hydro power and potentially also solarpower, it still is most economical to reduce the consumption of heat, electricity and fuels for vehicles. Asaved kWh is normally cheaper than to produce one extra. In this paper different opportunities for savingenergy will be discussed. This includes manufacturing industries, process industries, power plants andenergy systems including distribution of power and smart grids, food production and transportation.There is also a major potential to save energy in buildings, both in the north where it is cold, and in thesouth where it can be very hot summer time. Here the potential is to avoid cooling instead. Technicalsolutions as well as economic incentives are covered. Environmental aspects are addressed, so that thesolutions will be long term sustainable.

  • 3.
    Dai, B.
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Liu, S.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Sun, Z.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Song, M.
    The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Yang, Q.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Ma, Yitai
    The University of Tokyo, Chiba, Japan.
    Energetic performance of transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycles with mechanical subcooling using zeotropic mixture as refrigerant2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 150, p. 205-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle integrated with mechanical subcooling (MS) cycle operating with zeotropic mixture is proposed in this study, based on the concept of Lorenz cycle. An energetic model is developed and analyses are conducted in detail. A maximum overall coefficient of performance (COP) is achieved at the optimum discharge pressure and optimum subcooling degree. The maximum overall COP, optimum subcooling degree and discharge pressure are closely related to the temperature glide of the mixtures. The energy efficiency of the transcritical CO2 refrigeration cycle can be efficiently improved, and the high pressure can be reduced when mixtures with proper temperature glide are used as MS cycle refrigerant. Compared with pure R32, the overall COP is enhanced by 4.91%, and the discharge pressure decreases by 0.11 MPa at evaporation temperature of −5 °C and ambient temperature of 35 °C when R32/R1234ze(Z) (55/45) is employed as MS refrigerant. The mixtures with proper temperature glide are recommended. The thermal performance of the overall cycle can be enhanced more significantly for hot and warm climate regions, or relative low evaporation temperature applications, though a high subcooling degree is required to meet the optimum operation condition.

  • 4.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bozena, Guziana
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Tuomas, Huopana
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jinyue, Yan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A dynamic model to optimize a regional energy system with waste and crops as energy resources for greenhouse gases mitigation2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 522-532Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A dynamic model of a regional energy system has been developed to support sustainable waste treatmentwith greenhouse gases (GHG) mitigation, addressing the possibility for development towardsa regional fossil fuel-free society between 2011 and 2030. The model is based on conventional mixedinteger linear programming (MILP) techniques to minimize the total cost of regional energy systems. TheCO2 emission component in the developed model includes both fossil and biogenic origins whenconsidering waste, fossil fuels and other renewable sources for energy production. A case study for thecounty of Västmanland in central Sweden is performed to demonstrate the applicability of the developedMILP model in five distinct scenarios. The results show significant potential for mitigating CO2 emissionby gradually replacing fossil fuels with different renewable energy sources. The MILP model can be usefulfor providing strategies for treating wastes sustainably and mitigating GHG emissions in a regionalenergy system, which can function as decision bases for formulating GHG reduction policies andassessing the associated economic implications.

  • 5.
    Han, Song
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Yan, Jinyue
    School of Chemical Science, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Techno-economic analysis of an integrated biorefinerysystem for poly-generation of power, heat, pelletand bioethanol2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, no 38, p. 551-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Bioethanol is considered an alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. The use of pellets for heating is another efficient way to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. This paper evaluates the techno-economic performance of a biorefinery system in which an existing combined heat and power plant integrates with the productions of bioethanol and pellets using straw as feedstock. A two-stage acid hydrolysis process for bioethanol production is used, and two different drying technologies are chosen for drying hydrolysis solid residues. A sensitivity analysis on critical parameters, such as the bioethanol selling price and feedstock price, is performed. The bioethanol production cost is also calculated for two cases at the conditions of ten-year and five-year payback time. The results show that the first case is a more feasible economic configuration at present, having an over 30% production cost reduction compared with the conventional cogeneration plants of bioethanol and solid fuel.

  • 6. Leduc, Sylvain
    et al.
    Starfelt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kinderman, Georg
    McCallum, Ian
    Obersteiner, Mickael
    Lundgren, Joachim
    Optimal location of lignocellulosic ethanol refineries with polygeneration in Sweden2010In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 2709-2716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The integration of ethanol production with combined heat and power plants is considered in this paper. An energy balance process model has been used to generate data for the production of ethanol, electricity, heat and biogas. The geographical position of such plants becomes of importance when using local biomass and delivering transportation fuel and heat. An optimization model has thus been used to determine the optimal locations for such plants in Sweden. The entire energy supply and demand chain from biomass outtake to gas stations filling is included in the optimization. Input parameters have been studied for their influence on both the final ethanol cost and the optimal locations of the plants. The results show that the biomass cost, biomass availability and district heating price are crucial for the positioning of the plant and the ethanol to be competitive against imported ethanol. The optimal location to set up polygeneration plants is demonstrated to be in areas where the biomass cost is competitive and in the vicinity of small to medium size cities. Carbon tax does not influence the ethanol cost, but solicits the production of ethanol in Sweden, and changes thus the geography of the plant locations.

  • 7.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    SINTEF Energy Research.
    Ditaranto, M
    SINTEF Energy Research.
    Berstad, D
    SINTEF Energy Research.
    Technologies for increasing CO2 concentration in exhaust gas from natural gas-fired power production with post-combustion, amine-based CO2 capture2011In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 1124-1133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Enhanced CO2 concentration in exhaust gas is regarded as a potentially effective method to reduce thehigh electrical efficiency penalty caused by CO2 chemical absorption in post-combustion capturesystems. The present work evaluates the effect of increasing CO2 concentration in the exhaust gas of gasturbine based power plant by four different methods: exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), humidification(EvGT), supplementary firing (SFC) and external firing (EFC). Efforts have been focused on the impacts oncycle efficiency, combustion, gas turbine components, and cost. The results show that the combined cyclewith EGR has the capability to change the molar fraction of CO2 with the largest range, from 3.8 mol% toat least 10 mol%, and with the highest electrical efficiency. The EvGT cycle has relatively low additionalcost impact as it does not require any bottoming cycle. The externally fired method was found to have theminimum impacts on both combustion and turbomachinery.

  • 8.
    Li, Hailong
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wang, Bin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Performance of flue gas quench and its influence on biomass fueled CHP2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 180, p. 934-945Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For biomass/waste fueled power plants, stricter regulations require a further reduction of the negative impacts on the environment caused by the release of pollutants and withdrawal of fresh water externally. Flue gas quench (FGQ) is playing an important role in biomass or waste fueled combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as it can link the flue gas (FG) cleaning, energy recovery and wastewater treatment. Enhancing water evaporation can benefit the concentrating of pollutant in the quench water; however, when FG condenser (FGC) is not in use, it results in a large consumption of fresh water. In order to deeply understand the operation of FGQ, a mathematic model was developed and validated against the measurements. Based on simulation results key parameters affecting FGQ have been identified, such as the flow rate and temperature of recycling water and the moisture content of FG. A guideline about how to reduce the discharge of wastewater to the external and the withdrawal of external water can be proposed. The mathematic model was also implemented into an ASPEN Plus model about a CHP plant to assess the impacts of FGQ on CHP. Results show that when the FGC was running, increasing the flow rate and decreasing the temperature of recycling water can result in a lower total energy efficiency. 

  • 9.
    Li, Y.
    et al.
    Tsinghua University, Beijing, China .
    Jin, Y.
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Li, J.
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yu, Z.
    University of Stavanger, Stavanger, Norway .
    Nie, Y.
    School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China .
    Effects of thermal pretreatment on degradation kinetics of organics during kitchen waste anaerobic digestion2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 118, p. 377-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of thermal pretreatment on degradation properties of organics in kitchen waste (KW) was investigated. The kinetics results showed that thermal pretreatment could enhance the degradation efficiency of crude protein (CP), fat, oil and grease (FOG), volatile solid (VS) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Thermal pretreatment showed no significant difference in the final concentration of protein but could decrease the FOG degradation potential (7–36%), while increased the lag phase for degradation of protein and FOG respectively by 35–65% and 11–82% compared with untreated KW. Cumulative biogas yield increased linearly and exponentially with the removal efficiency of VS and other organics (CP and FOG) respectively. Additionally, the reduction of CP increased exponentially with FOG removal efficiency. The calculating methods of biogas yield, organics reduction and corresponding appropriate digestion retention based on FOG and CP reduction amount and pretreatment parameters were suggested.

  • 10.
    Lin, H.
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Fu, K.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wang, Y.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hu, Y.
    Sun, B.
    Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Wennersten, R.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Characteristics of electric vehicle charging demand at multiple types of location - Application of an agent-based trip chain model2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 188, article id 116122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper developed an agent-based trip chain model (ABTCM) to study the distribution of electric vehicles (EVs) charging demand and its dynamic characteristics, including flexibility and uncertainty, at different types of location. Key parameters affecting charging demand include charging strategies, i.e. uncontrolled charging (UC) and off-peak charging (OPC), and EV supply equipment, including three levels of charging equipment. The results indicate that the distributions of charging demand are similar as the travel patterns, featured by traffic flow at each location. A discrete peak effect was found in revealing the relation between traffic flow and charging demand, and it results in the smallest equivalent daily charging demand and peak load at public locations. EV charging and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) flexibility were examined by instantaneous adjustable power and accumulative adjustable amount of electricity. The EVs at home locations have the largest charging and V2G flexibility under the UC strategy, except for a period of regular working time. The V2G flexibility at work and public locations is generally larger than charging flexibility. Due to the fast charging application, the uncertainties of charging demand at public locations are the highest in all locations. In addition, the OPC strategy mitigates the uncertainty of charging demand. 

  • 11.
    Liu, S.
    et al.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Lu, F.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Dai, B.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Nian, V.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Qi, H.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Li, J.
    Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Performance analysis of two-stage compression transcritical CO2 refrigeration system with R290 mechanical subcooling unit2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 189, article id 116143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of carbon dioxide (CO2) as refrigerant is driven by the need to phase down the traditional synthetic refrigerant so as to mitigate the warming climate. In this study, the thermal performance of a two-stage compression transcritical CO2 refrigeration system with R290 mechanical subcooling unit is conducted. The goal is to obtain the maximum coefficient of performance (COP) of five different mechanical subcooling systems under the optimal subcooling temperature and compressor discharge pressure. The two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is found to have a higher COP. When the evaporation temperature is −30 °C, the COP of the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is improved by 76.74%. The COP of the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system is 1.52 at an ambient temperature of 40 °C, which is 21.87% higher than that of the two-throttling and two-stage compression low-pressure mechanical subcooling system. The power consumption ratio of one-throttling and two-stage compression low-pressure mechanical subcooling system is significantly higher than that of other systems. From a comprehensive analysis of the proposed four systems, the two-throttling and two-stage compression high-pressure mechanical subcooling system has the best performance over all other systems. 

  • 12.
    Maher, Azaza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Multi objective particle swarm optimization of hybrid micro-grid system: A case study in Sweden2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 123, p. 108-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributed energy resources DERs are small scale energy system which could provide local supply when placed at customers' premises. They aggregate multiple local and diffuse production installations, consumer facilities, storage facilities and monitoring tools and demand management. The main challenges when assessing the performance of an off-grid hybrid micro-grid system HMGS are the reliability of the system, the cost of electricity production and the operation environmental impact. Hence the tradeoff between three conflicting objectives makes the design of an optimal HMGS seen as a multi-objective optimization task. In this paper, we consider the optimization and the assessment of a HMGS in different Swedish cities to point out the potential of each location for HMGS investment. The HMGS consists of photovoltaic panels, wind turbines, diesel generator and battery storage. The HMGS model was simulated under one-year weather conditions data. A multi objective particle swarm optimization is used to find the optimal system configuration and the optimal component size for each location. An energy management system is applied to manage the operation of the different component of the system when feeding the load. The techno economics analysis shows the potential of HMGS in the Swedish rural development. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Markovska, N.
    et al.
    Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (RCESD-MASA), Macedonia.
    Klemeš, J. J.
    University of Pannonia Veszprém, Hungary.
    Duić, N.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Guzović, Z.
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Vad Mathiesen, B.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Lund, H.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Sustainable development of energy, water and environment systems2014In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 76, p. 1-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Nian, V.
    et al.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Jindal, G.
    Energy Studies Institute, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A feasibility study on integrating large-scale battery energy storage systems with combined cycle power generation – Setting the bottom line2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 185, p. 396-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Strong attention has been given to the costs and benefits of integrating battery energy storage systems (BESS) with intermittent renewable energy systems. What's neglected is the feasibility of integrating BESS into the existing fossil-dominated power generation system to achieve economic and environmental objectives. In response, a life cycle cost-benefit analysis method is introduced in this study taking into consideration three types of battery technologies, namely, vanadium redox flow battery, zinc bromine flow battery, and lithium-iron-phosphate battery. The objective is to evaluate the life cycle carbon emissions and cost of electricity production by combined cycle power generation with grid-connected BESS. Findings from the Singapore case study suggest a potential 3–5% reduction in the life cycle carbon emission factors which could translate to a cumulative carbon emission reduction of 9–16 million tonnes from 2018 to 2030 from electricity generation. Grid-connected BESS could reduce the levelized cost of electricity by 4–7%. A synergistic planning of CCGT and BESS could theoretically reduce the system level power generation capacity by 26% albeit a potential increase in the overall capital cost at the current cost of batteries. The projected battery cost reduction is critical in improving the feasibility of large-scale deployment. 

  • 15.
    Tang, Y.
    et al.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Zhang, Q.
    Academy of Chinese Energy Strategy, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Changping, Beijing, China.
    Mclellan, B.
    Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Japan.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin Key Laboratory of Refrigeration Technology, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin, China.
    Study on the impacts of sharing business models on economic performance of distributed PV-Battery systems2018In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 161, p. 544-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to promote the development of energy storage industry and relieve the retirement pressure of EV batteries, the application of retired EV batteries in energy storage for second-life use has gained significant attentions. Considering that distributed battery storages are still not economically attractive enough at present, the booming of sharing economy may provide a more feasible option. Based on a non-cooperative game theoretical model, this study aims to explore the impact of sharing business models on economic performance of retired EV batteries integrated with distributed PV systems. Four scenarios were proposed, including: a traditional scenario of S1 - individual battery storages, the sharing scenarios of S2 - shared battery storage, S3 - shared PV generation, and S4 - shared battery storage and shared PV generation. Through a case study in Beijing, the obtained results show that: (i)although sharing business models may not guarantee to bring economic benefits to each individual, they can contribute to a reduction in electricity expenses of the whole community; (ii) sharing business models can enhance PV self-consumption ratio and battery utilization ratio; (iii) sharing business models can improve the NPV by 1995 RMB-6975 RMB compared to the traditional scenario.

  • 16.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campillo, Javier
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tecnol Bolivar Univ, Fac Engn, Cartagena 130001, Colombia..
    Adoption barriers for electric vehicles: Experiences from early adopters in Sweden2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 120, p. 632-641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric vehicles are considered as one of the most effective technologies for reducing current greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. Although in many countries, local and national governments have introduced incentives and subsidies to facilitate the electric vehicle market penetration, in Sweden, such benefits have been limited. Results from a survey carried out among private owners of electric vehicles are presented in this paper, including the analysis of the respondents socio-demographic characteristics, reasons for choosing an electric vehicle, charging locations and driving preferences, among others. The main results characterize current electric vehicle drivers as male, well-educated, with medium-high income; electric vehicles are used mainly for private purposes and charged at home during night time. Furthermore, the paper presents an analysis of the impact of large-scale penetration of electric vehicles on existing power distribution systems. The findings presented in this paper provide important insights for assuring a sustainable large-scale penetration of electric vehicles by learning from the experiences of early adopters of the technology and by analyzing the impact of different EV penetration scenarios on the power distribution grid.

  • 17.
    Vassileva, Iana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Understanding energy consumption behavior for future demand response strategy development2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encouraging consumers to use less electricity through information is essential for sustainable use of energy and demand response is indeed a key component of the smart grids concept. The aim with this study is to understand differences between consumer categories and what this could mean e.g. to develop effective demand response measures. In-depth analyses of answers from a questionnaire sent out to 2000 households, contribute to a better understanding of Swedish households' energy related behavior. The households have been provided with a web-site enabling them to check their daily electricity consumption compared to previous months/years and even get advice and tips on how to reduce electricity consumption. The results show clear differences in the response rates from different type of residence, different income areas of the city and in the most preferred ways of receiving information-feedback. The web based feedback, provided by the local energy company, received more visits (and more frequently) from respondents living in houses than from apartments.

    The analysis of the answers raises questions about the effectiveness of using only one tool of providing energy consumption information to the customers (web-site, in this case) and stresses the importance of applying an individual approach to different energy users.

  • 18.
    Wang, F.
    et al.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Deng, S.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Zhao, J.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, J.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Sun, T.
    Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University, Ministry of Education of China, Tianjin, China; Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Performance and economic assessments of integrating geothermal energy into coal-fired power plant with CO2 capture2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 119, p. 278-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel carbon capture and storage system integrated with geothermal energy was proposed to reduce energy consumption in the post-combustion CO2 capture (PCC) process. Geothermal energy at medium temperature was used to provide the heat required for solvent regeneration. A technical and economic assessment was conducted based on a 300 MWe coal-fired power plant. Additionally, the integrated system was also compared with a stand-alone geothermal power (GP) plant to evaluate individual advantages. Both an enhanced geothermal system (EGS) and a hot sedimentary aquifer (HSA) reservoir were selected to identify the effect of geological properties and heat characteristics on system performance. The results indicated that the geothermal-assisted post-combustion CO2 capture (GPCC) plant exhibited better performance than the PCC plant. The net plant average efficiency increased 5.56% and 4.42% in the EGS scenario and HSA scenario, respectively. Furthermore, the net incremental geothermal efficiency obtained corresponded to 21.34% and 20.35% in the EGS scenario and HSA scenario, respectively. The economic assessment indicated that the GPCC systems in both the EGS scenario and HSA scenario had lower marginal cost of electricity (70.84 $/MWh and 101.06 $/MWh) when compared with that of the stand-alone GP systems (151.09 $/MWh and 101.95 $/MWh). 

  • 19.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ.
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Kindermann, Georg
    Int Inst Appl Syst Anal, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
    Optimal localisation of biofuel production on a European scale2012In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 462-472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the development and use of an optimisation model suitable for analysis of biofuel production scenarios in the EU, with the aim of examining second generation biofuel production. Two policy instruments are considered - targeted biofuel support and a CO2 cost. The results show that over 3% of the total transport fuel demand can be met by second generation biofuels at a cost of approximately 65-73 EUR/MWh. With current energy prices, this demands biofuel support comparable to existing tax exemptions (around 30 EUR/MWh), or a CO2 cost of around 60 EUR/t(CO2). Parameters having large effect on biofuel production include feedstock availability, fossil fuel price and capital costs. It is concluded that in order to avoid suboptimal energy systems, heat and electricity applications should also be included when evaluating optimal bioenergy use. It is also concluded that while forceful policies promoting biofuels may lead to a high biofuel share at reasonable costs, this is not a certain path towards maximised CO2 emission mitigation. Policies aiming to promote the use of bioenergy thus need to be carefully designed in order to avoid conflicts between different parts of the EU targets for renewable energy and CO2 emission mitigation. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 20.
    Zhu, K.
    et al.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Cui, Z.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Wang, Y.
    Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Tianjin University of Commerce, China.
    Zhang, X.
    ABB Corporate Research, Sweden.
    Franke, C.
    Estimating the maximum energy-saving potential based on IT load and IT load shifting2017In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 138, p. 902-909Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling system consumes more than 35% of total electricity in most data centers. The provided cooling normally exceeds the actual demand of IT equipment in order to assure the safe operation, resulting in a low energy efficiency. In this paper, a novel method based on demand response was proposed to precisely control the cooling supply, and the energy saving potential was assessed systematically. Compared to the reference case, in which the cooling demand is determined by assuming all of servers are in the running status, when the cooling demand was determined based on the measured dynamic IT load at room level, row level, rack level and server level, it can be reduced by 7.9%, 14.2%, 15.6% and 17.9% respectively for the random selected 48 h. In addition, IT load shifting also has a big potential to save energy, as it can make the cooling system working at a higher energy efficiency, which varies with loads. Two cases were studied: even distribution of IT load and optimized IT load shifting. Compared to the best case that determines the cooling demand according to the IT load at server level, they can further reduce the electricity consumption of cooling systems by 0.9%, and 1.2%. 

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