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  • 1.
    Ehn, Micael
    Stockholms universitet, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning.
    Temporal discounting leads to social stratification2012In: The Journal of mathematical sociology, ISSN 0022-250X, E-ISSN 1545-5874, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 245-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income differences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and resources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to high income? This article shows that the psychological phenomenon known as temporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainment and social stratification in any society where the demand for workers with a higher level of education is higher than for those with a lower level. The model is used to predict income differences between people with and without college education in seven developed countries, based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education. The model explains 93% of the variance, strongly suggesting that temporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

  • 2.
    Emami, Azita
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Torres, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Making sense of illness: Late in life migration as point of departure for elderly Iranian immigrants’ explanatory models of illness2005In: Journal of immigrant health, ISSN 1096-4045, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 153-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is based on data gathered through 60 qualitative interviews conducted within the realm of three research projects that have used "culture-appropriate lenses" to study the postmigration situation of late-in-life Iranian immigrants to Sweden. The findings gathered through these studies were interpreted against the backdrop that culturally appropriate nursing theories provide. This meant that it was, at times, these elders' backgrounds as cultural "others" that were implicitly used to make sense of the various issues that were brought to the fore by these studies. The particular issue with which this article is concerned is the "unusualness" of these elders' explanatory models of illness. Inspired by the concept "definition of situation" in the symbolic interactionist perspective and by the feeling that this perspective might bring about a different interpretation of the original findings regarding their understandings of illness and disease, we set out to conduct a secondary analysis of these elders' explanatory models of illness. The findings presented in this article will show how the elderly Iranian immigrants interviewed in these three studies utilize the process of "late in life migration" as a point of reference for their understandings of what has caused the illnesses from which they suffered. Hereby we will suggest that the "unusualness" of their explanatory models of illness might be best understood if we focus on what they shared as immigrants (i.e., the fact that the process of late-in-life migration has made their culture obsolete) as opposed to what they shared as Iranians (i.e., their culture of origin).

  • 3.
    Florin, Ulrika
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Från idé till gestaltningsförslag: fallstudie från Projekt Konstpaus2010Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The overall intention of this research project is to increase knowledge regarding design processes in general and artists' design processes specifically. The research is carried out as a case study based on the sketch processes that took place within Projekt Konstpaus (The Art Break Project). The sketches, or suggested designs, are the main objective for analysis and consideration in this study.

    Projekt Konstpaus (The Art Break Project) is a development pro­ject partially financed by the European Union (EU). The vision of the project embodied equality, multiculturalism and sustainable community development. The municipality of Strängnäs, Sweden was the leading partner in the project and provided the necessary support for the project idea, financing and infrastructure. The innovative aim of the project was to have various groups of people from different backgrounds working together in the same processes. The project team consisted of several artists and people with university educations, such as archaeologists, cultural geographers, biologists and geologists. The main objective of the project team was to provide the basis for the construction of a culturally inspired walking and bicycle path. Several rest spots/rest stops (“konstpauser”) designed with artistic cha­racter and influenced primarily by the municipality’s extensive nature/cul­tural heritage will be found along the path (which has been approved for construction). One initial task of the project team was to make an inventory of the nature and culture artifacts within the project area as a means of promoting na­ture/culture preservation for the benefit of future generations through information sharing. The walking/bicycle path will be accessible to all, with special provision for physically challenged individuals. The intention is to provide an environment for both quietude and physical recreation.

    The artists within the project embedded their artistic interpretations of the inventory and communicated them by suggesting artistic designs (sketches) related to the planned path. A jury then considered the sketches. Sketch, text, models and jury decisions (regarding the designs) are the objective of this research. The analysis of the material (sketches, texts, models and jury decisions, both oral and written) exposes the artistic processes. It is also the key to understanding the messages the artists intend to convey through their suggested designs. It is important to realize the significance (specific characteristics) of different types of sketches to be able to make decisions based on sketch materials. When sketches are examined, this awareness is central to making the right decision. In this study, three different types of sketches are examined, and the reading of each type is discussed.

    When studying the suggested designs, insight was gained regarding the differences between using computer-aided design and traditional sketch tools. Knowledge was also increased concerning the development of sketch techniques generally, and when using computers specifically. A dualism of sight and seeing in terms of the visualization of an idea exists, and it is discussed in the light of empirical examples. It is also placed in relation to important technological steps taken earlier in history. The use of Camera Obcura as a helpful tool for composition is one such step. The use of this tool impacted on how the inner view was changed and, with that, manners of expression as well. This is seen in the composition of paintings and the use of language. Our thinking is influenced by what we see, and that, in turn, influences our thoughts. In our contemporary western paradigm, our commonly-held definition of "seeing" is influenced by computer-gained visual representations and the processes used when producing them. The study confirms that while this particular type of sketch exposes the suggested design idea a bit clearer than traditional sketches, it also reveals errors in the suggested designs. I have also found that both written and spoken language routes the interpretation of sketch material. In terms of understanding how the suggested designs are chosen by a jury, this component (the spoken or written language) was seen in the empirical material revealed in this study. It was also theoretically confirmed.

    Together with an overall insight into the artistic processes, this study confirms the possibility of using artists in a development process. In this project, the process was to promote na­ture and culture preservation. It is valuable to integrate diverse areas of knowledge in the same process. This is true in both a social and an environmental sense. Finally, findings in this analysis confirm that artists are able to convey messages through their suggested designs (sketches). Those messages include interpretations of place, space, history and findings related to the project area.

  • 4.
    Färnlöf, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Den franska kulturen i Sverige2008In: Tidningen Kulturen, no 1 decArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Lindstrand, F.
    et al.
    Konstfack University, College of Arts, Crafts and Design, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Insulander, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Selander, S.
    Systems Sciences, Stockholm University, Kista, Sweden.
    Mike the Knight in the neo-liberal era: A multimodal approach to children's multi-media entertainment2016In: Journal of Language and Politics, ISSN 1569-2159, E-ISSN 1569-9862, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 337-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal-oriented learning seems to be a ubiquitous demand for almost all kind of play activities today. This demand, the article argues, is related to a specific neoliberal discourse about the "superchild". The article shows how this discourse is articulated multimodally in a number of media texts aimed at young children based around a trans-medial brand; Mike the Knight.

  • 6.
    Packalén, Sture
    Mälardalen University, Department of Humanities.
    "Den kulturella dimensionens roll i ett samhälle som är hållbart för alla"2009Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Simpson, Brent
    et al.
    University of South Carolina.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    A lay-statistician explanation of minority discrimination2012In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 637-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline a new explanation of discrimination against numerical minorities. In contrast to prior work that focuses on how the content of categories affects discrimination, our argument describes how the size of categories leads to discrimination. Specifically, we argue that, when comparing multiple categories, actors tend to view larger categories as more closely approximating an underlying population than smaller ones. As a result, a decision maker will tend to expect that members of a numerical majority are more likely to be what he/she is searching for, whether it is the best or worst candidate. We report the results of two studies designed to test these arguments. To demonstrate the generality of the proposed mechanism, Study 1 tested the argument in a non-social domain. Participants disproportionately favored the majority (vs. minority) category when searching for a single winning lottery ticket, and favored the minority category when the goal was to avoid a single losing ticket. Our second study supported an additional implication of the argument in a social domain: decision makers tended to rank highly qualified majority job candidates as better than equally qualified minority candidates, and relatively unqualified majority candidates as worse than equally unqualified minority candidates.

  • 8.
    Songer, Vera
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Att kommunicera för poesievenemang: En undersökning av sex ungdomars kultur- och medievanor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka kommunikationskanaler som lämpar sig för att nå ungdomar som kan tänka sig att delta i poesievenemang. Detta uppdrag har jag fått av Culturen, som vill starta ett evenemang inom poesi. Vid sidan av detta vill jag ta reda på ungdomars kultur- och medievanor. Min metod är kvalitativa intervjuer med sex ungdomar med syftet att undersöka deras vanor och attityder kring litteratur och poesi, kulturevenemang i allmänhet och Culturens framtida poesievenemang. Dessutom behandlas medievanor och kommunikationskanaler.

         Bland mina informanter är intresset för litteratur, poesi och annan kultur stort och de är alla positiva till Culturens framtida kultursatsning inom poesi. Vad gäller kommunikationskanaler är Facebook, Twitter, affischer och tidningsannonser de föredragna. Förslagsvis är en kombination av flera kanaler att föredra, men den mesta tyngden borde läggas på att utveckla en fungerande sida på Facebook.

  • 9.
    Torres, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden ; Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Different ways of understanding the construct of 'successful aging': Iranian immigrants speak about what aging well means to them2006In: Journal of cross-cultural gerontology, ISSN 0169-3816, Vol. 21, no 1-2, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the variations in themes and notions of successful aging that were found in a project that aimed to shed light on the value orientations that people prefer and the understandings of successful aging that they uphold. The project, which aimed also to study the way in which the process of migration challenges the notions in question, shed light on the various types of logic that Iranian immigrants to Sweden use when trying to make sense of the construct of successful aging. This article departs from these variations and discusses, among other things, the inevitable decay with which the aging process seems to be associated; the different purpose-related ideologies that people use when trying to explain how the decay in question ought to be handled; the way in which time-related ideas influence the manner in which notions of aging well are framed; the manner in which divergent views regarding activity shape the understandings of successful aging that people uphold; and the way in which ideas regarding autonomy and dependence shape the way in which one defines a good old age. The complexity of logic types utilized by the informants suggests that, if researchers are to further their understanding of the meaning of the construct of successful aging, they need to dismantle people's ideas as well as the way in which they use culture when trying to make sense of what aging well entails. The article finishes with a brief discussion regarding the importance of intracultural variation and suggests that researchers need a better understanding of culture's impact on the manner in which the construct in question is understood if they are to develop the successful aging paradigm in a culturally informed manner.

  • 10.
    Torres, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Understandings of successful aging in the context of migration: the case of Iranian immigrants in Sweden2001In: Ageing and society, ISSN 0144-686X, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 333-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gerontological inquiries into understandings of successful ageing have been culture-specific. This means that they have only been studied in the specific cultural settings that have given them their meaning. Understandings of successful ageing that are simultaneously influenced by two cultures have yet to be studied. This study is based on a newly-designed culturally-relevant theoretical framework for the study of successful ageing, and focuses on the context of migration where culture of origin and host culture meet. Interviews based on vignettes have been conducted with 30 Iranian immigrants in Sweden in order to reveal if, and how, the pre- and post-migration understandings of successful ageing differ. The findings show that cultural contexts determine how the construct in question is understood and that migration between different cultures can challenge these understandings.

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