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  • 1.
    Eriksson, Pelle
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Audiovisuella designprocesser och digitala verktyg2014Inngår i: Audiovisuellt: Ljud och Bild: En artikelsamling med bidrag från projektet Audiovisuella medier / [ed] Árni Sverrisson, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna, 2014Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    A Film Editor’s Visual Intentions and Use of Perceptual Phenomena in Designing Film Edits: An Observational Study2017Inngår i: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the role of perception in film editing, considered as audiovisual design work. The study is an observation of a film editor editing a documentary film sequence, where the perceptual phenomena at stake at edit points are scrutinized, with reference to perception theory. The results show that the film editor’s design goal is to achieve perceptual precision for each edit, either for continuity or for discontinuity, accordingly. The more perceptual phenomena per edit, the more time and the more processing the editor has to spend on the edit until satisfied with the result. This knowledge is of importance to inexperienced film editors in order to make the editing process faster and more precise and thus shorten production time. In the wider design context, other design activities are indicated to find inspiration for future research in this study, regarding perceptual phenomena and gaze framing during design processes.

  • 3.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Editorial intentions and viewer perceptions: Audiovisual methods for studying film editing and eye movements2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes the methods used in a research project on continuity film editing and its effects on viewer perception.  Film editing is considered a form of audiovisual design work in which visual perception plays a significant role. The study analyzes audiovisual design work in terms of nine different visual aspects and four different audio aspects. The audio aspects are the making of a soundtrack to a documentary film sequence, recordings of conversations during observations, and the viewing of the film sequence, as well as an analysis of those recordings. The visual aspects include the editing of the documentary film sequence, recordings of the editor at work (together with an observing researcher) generating video images of the work, and a continuous screen-recording including computer keystrokes. An altered second version of the film in which the edits were altered was created, and both versions were used as stimuli in an eye tracking study with 30 participants. Finally, eye-tracking data was analyzed in terms of eye-movements, and areas of interest, in order to determine the importance of perceptual precision. When perceptual precision is poor, the viewer’s eyes make extra movements to adjust or miss the area of interest, or the viewer’s cognitive load increases. Examples are given in the presentation, and it is suggested that these methods make it possible to identify key audiovisual factors that a film editor considers, which constitute viewer-friendly and viewer-challenging (i.e. ’smooth’ and ‘harsh’) moving image editing. This knowledge has not been documented experimentally before, and understanding how perceptual precision determines viewer-friendly or viewer-challenging film editing is a key factor in helping inexperienced film editors learn how to achieve their audiovisual intentions. It also contributes to the academic understanding of perceptual considerations in design work.

  • 4.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Dalarna University.
    Media Production or Audiovisual Design?2013Inngår i: / [ed] Ali Simsek, Agah Gumus, Fahme Dabaj, 2013, s. 128-134Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Media production includes many moments of creative work that would be best addressed as audiovisual design. The two paradigmatic understandings of design, ‘design-as-problem-solving’ (Simon, 1996), and ‘design-as-meaning-creation’ (Krippendorf, 1995), have bearing on those work-moments. The issues dealt with during those media production work-moments, as well as the problems to solve and the characteristics of the work-processes in use, resemble issues, problems and process characteristics familiar within design work (Sato & Poggenpohl, 2009).From a perspective of communication, audiovisual communication preferably is addressed as multimodal (Kress & van Leeuwen, 2001) where both strata, design and production, are considered to make important impact on a message.This paper discusses the theoretical implications of considering media production as audiovisual communication during its process of being created, where design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering media production as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective, and are compared with other perspectives.

  • 5.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Effects of Continuity or Discontinuity in Actual Film Editing2018Inngår i: Empirical Studies of the Arts, ISSN 0276-2374, E-ISSN 1541-4493, s. 222-246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The film editor’s task in refining film edits by frame-by-frame matching is an important undertaking in perceptual precision. This article investigates whether the failure of a few frames jeopardizes the perceived continuity of a film. Thirty-three Swedish students were eye-tracked while watching two versions of the same documentary film sequence; one version was completed to continuity satisfaction by a film editor, while the other had some frames altered toward discontinuity. Gaze hits in Areas-of-Interest appointed by the film editor, saccade frequency, and pupil dilation after edit points were measured. No significant difference was found for hits in Areas-of-Interest, whereas saccade frequency and relative pupil size increased after edits in the altered version of the film sequence. Results indicate that the altered film sequence constrained viewers with possible cognitive effects, implying that frame-by-frame matching of film edits achieved by film editors is crucial to film continuity.

  • 6.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Film and TV Industry Responses to Research Results in a Workshop Setting2015Inngår i: IASDR2015 Interplay Proccedings / [ed] Vesna Popovic, Alethea Blacker, Ding-Bang Luh, Nithikul Nimkulrat, Ben Kraal, and Yukari Nagai, 2015, s. 1917-1931Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Immediate return of results to the Swedish film and TV industry from researchers conducting ongoing research within the field is rather unusual. As a design research approach we, as researchers, adopted this method in order to disseminate results and confront a wider group of interest parties than those represented by our informants.

    The results from the research project, New Design Processes in the Audiovisual Industry, revealed that the transition from recording on celluloid with analogue film cameras to using high definition video cameras presented new cruxes for the film and TV industries (Eriksson & Swenberg, 2012). These cruxes preliminary concerned the choice of proper video codecs and file formats and how to configure them, in order to reinforce efficient workflow later in the production chain.

    Members of the industry and educators were invited to participate in public workshops, held at Dalarna University, where these results were presented along with expert solutions to the problems. Questionnaires were distributed among participants before the start of each workshop, as well as at the end. Seminars and panel discussions, both consisting of question and answer sessions for participants were video-recorded.

    The responses extrapolated from industrial representatives show an urgent need for discussion regarding the situation of digital cruxes within the film and TV industry. The Q & A sessions confirmed the widespread need for understanding several of the problems that had emerged. In the questionnaires, many industrial representatives expressed their appreciation for the opportunity to understand the nature of problems, how widespread they were, how to address them, and how to fill some of the most critical prevalent knowledge gaps.

  • 7.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Film and Television Production as Audiovisual Design2018Inngår i: International Journal of Visual Design, ISSN 2325-1581, nr 1, s. 39-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial film and television production (FTP) includes many elements of creative work on sounds and images that are best addressed as audiovisual design. Two paradigmatic understandings of design, “design-as-problem-solving” and “design-as-meaning-creation”, have a bearing on these elements. The issues dealt with during FTP work processes, as well as the problems to be solved and the characteristics of the work processes used, resemble issues, problems, and process characteristics within design work. From the perspective of audiovisual communication, both the design and production aspects of a process are considered to make an important impact on a message. In FTP, these aspects are blurred. This paper discusses the benefits of approaching FTP as creation of audiovisual communication, in which design is an integrated part of that process. The benefits of considering FTP as audiovisual design are proposed from a design research perspective.

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