https://www.mdu.se/

mdu.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Andrighetto, Giulia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Institute of Cognitive Science and Technology, Italian National Research Council, Rome, Italy; Institute for Future Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Grieco, Daniela
    Department of Law, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.
    Peer effects on compliance with extortive requests2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 1-17, article id e0231879Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We conduct laboratory experiments to study peer effects on compliance with extortive requests. To this aim, we use an “extortion game” with multiple victims. In agreement with our hypothesis, our results show that when the information on peers’ behavior is available, compliance with appropriative requests is triggered by conformism among victims rather than by punishment. Moreover, we find that extorted sums are rather small, requests are proportional to the victim’s earnings, similar across victims, and are significantly lower when the extorter self-selects into this role. Punishment is rare, but effective. Finally, our results indicate that fairness concerns matter even in a context of extra-legal taxation, shaping both extorters’ requests and victims’ compliance. 

  • 2.
    Back, Natalii
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bergvärme som energikälla2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    2008-05-26

    Bedrock heat as an energy source

    The sun has warmed up the bedrock and this heat can be used for warming up houses. Approximately 100 – 200 meters down in the bedrock the temperature of the heat is stable. This is a source of energy that can be used by installing a heat pump system. The ground source heat pumps are low maintenance and can last for many years. There is also a pollution risk for the groundwater and therefore the wells in the area. Before the ground source heat pump can be installed the municipality need to give permission, according to the environmental code. To install the system without permission is a crime against the environmental code. A requirement when applying for permission to install the heat pump system is to get the neighbours to agree with the place for the bore hole. The neighbour can appeal against the environmental and health authorities’ decision to give permission to install the ground source heat pump system. However there needs to be more research done regarding the environmental effects that may occur in the future, if the ground source heatpump system continues to increase as rapidly as today.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 3.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Det rättspsykiatriska centralarkivet i historisk belysning2000In: Svensk rättspsykiatri, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2000Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Carlsson, Elin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Stråle, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Riktlinjer för enskilt avlopp: Underlag för bedömning av normal och hög skyddsnivå i Köpings kommun2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the eutrophication of lakes, water courses and the coastal areas is considered the major threat to aquatic ecosystems and therefore actions taken to reduce the nutrient load to aquatic system including the Baltic Sea has high priority. There are many different sources of phosphorous and nitrogen and domestic wastewater is one contributing factor to the high load. Especially waste water from households that is not connected to municipal sewage treatment or a local small scale plant with appropriate nutrient removal efficiency is considered a problem. These types of households are quite common in rural areas in Sweden and in areas where summer houses has been converted to permanent living. Swedish legislation now permit the municipalities to decide in which areas within the municipality higher demands of the local small scale treatment facility should be met by the households (i.e. high protection level) and where it is acceptable with a less efficient treatment facility (i.e. normal protection level). In this study, using the Swedish legislation, Swedish Environmental goals and simple Hazard Assessment Schemes a proposal for how these protection levels could be used in the municipal of Köping, one of the municipals with water courses entering Lake Mälaren, the 4th biggest lake in Sweden and with large problems with eutrophication will be presented.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Riktlinjer för enskilt avlopp
  • 5.
    Curtolo, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bruning, Andrea
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    What would be the efficient ways for Switch Pac to increase potential demand and capitalize on green attitudes and behavior in the Swedish market?2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Date: 6/16/2008

    Institution: School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Mälardalen University, Västerås (Sweden)

    Authors:

    Brüning, Andrea

    830111

    Västerås

    Curtolo,Anna

    820517

    Västerås

    Tutor: Tobias Eltebrandt

    Title: A Study of Switch Pac: what would be the efficient ways for Switch Pac to increase potential demand and capitalize on green attitudes and behavior in the Swedish market?

    Problem: What would be the efficient ways for Switch Pac to increase potential demand and capitalize on green attitudes and behavior in the Swedish market?

    Purpose: The aim of our project is to see the potential of Switch Pac’s oxo-biodegradable plastic bags on the Swedish market by capitalize on green attitudes and behaviour.

    Method: The report is based on primary data collected through questionnaires (end consumer/ B2B customers). For the investigation of Switch Pac’s macro- and microenvironment secondary data was used (books, journals, newspaper and the Internet)

    Conceptual Framework: The conceptual framework consists of certain models to investigate the following topics:

    Consumer behavior

    AIDA-Model

    STP-Model

    Switch Pac´s business environment

    PESTEL

    Conclusion/ Recommendations: In our conclusion based on our frameworks PESTEL, AIDA and STP we concluded that peoples’ awareness regarding environmental friendly plastic bags are not very high based on our questionnaire. The efficient ways for Switch Pac to increase potential demand is to target the customer in the age range from 20 – 49 years and cooperate with supermarkets and (department) stores. Furthermore, Switch Pac needs to position its products in the consumers mind through create brand awareness by using certain elements of the marketing mix model.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Strimling, P.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Andersson, P. A.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Aveyard, M.
    American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Brauer, M.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, United States.
    Gritskov, V.
    Saint Petersburg State University, Russian Federation.
    Kiyonari, T.
    Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan.
    Kuhlman, D. M.
    University of Delaware, United States.
    Maitner, A. T.
    American University of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates.
    Manesi, Z.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Molho, C.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Peperkoorn, L. S.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Rizwan, M.
    Delve Pvt Ltd, Pakistan.
    Stivers, A. W.
    Gonzaga University, United States.
    Tian, Q.
    Shandong Normal University, China.
    Van Lange, P. A. M.
    Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Vartanova, I.
    National Research University, Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation.
    Wu, J.
    Beijing Normal University, China.
    Yamagishi, T.
    Hitotsubashi University, Japan.
    Cultural Universals and Cultural Differences in Meta-Norms about Peer Punishment2017In: Management and Organization Review, ISSN 1740-8776, E-ISSN 1740-8784, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 851-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Affärsutveckling i nätverksmiljöer: - Fallstudie av en idrottsförening2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 8.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    ArbetsDax – för psykiskt funktionshindrade: Talet om klienter, samordnare och samverkan i en verksamhet för arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter den rikspolitiska psykiatrireformen i mitten av 1990-talet inrättades runt om i Sverige rehabiliteringsverksamheter för psykiskt funktionshindrade människor. Det ansågs då viktigt att utveckla samverkan mellan berörda myndigheter och andra organisationer för att de psykiskt funktionshindrade inte skulle hamna ”mellan stolarna”. I Eskilstuna inrättades en arbetslivsinriktad interorganisatorisk rehabiliteringsverksamhet kallad ArbetsDax, med en ny yrkesgrupp av professionella på operativ nivå som kallades samordnare.

    Syftet med rapporten är att utifrån olika empiriska material bidra till förståelsen av verksamhetens diskursiva karaktär, det vill säga språkbrukets betydelse inom verksamheten, och till förståelsen av samordnarens yrkesroll. Det förstnämnda är intressant utifrån antagandet att språkbruket har en central roll i verksamheten. Det sistnämnda är intressant utifrån antagandet att ArbetsDax samordnare kan bidra med något kvalitativt/kvantitativt annorlunda än yrkesgrupper på de rena myndigheter, främst försäkringskassan och arbetsförmedlingen, som ArbetsDax samverkar med.

    Verksamhetens diskursiva karaktär framstår i analysen av verksamhetsdokument, intervjuer och observationer som ett komplext konsensusarbete med särskilt fokus på klienter, samordnare och samverkan. Klienten framställs som en kluven identitet: å ena sidan som en aktiv individ med den ”rätta” viljan enligt arbetslinjen, å andra sidan som en passiviserad individ med en begränsad förmåga p.g.a. psykiska funktionshinder. Samordnaren framställs som en komplex och gränsöverskridande profession som ska utföra ett konsensusarbete med klienterna, exempelvis i form av ett motivationsarbete för att transformera betalningsmaktens tvång över klienten (i huvudsak från försäkringskassans sida) till klientens ”fria” vilja. Samordnaren har också att sträva efter konsensus i relation till andra myndigheters representanter och de arbetsgivare som klienterna ska arbetsträna hos. Samverkan framställs i form av direktiv för och problematiseringar av rehabiliteringsverksamheten. Detta sker bland annat med hjälp av intertextuella legitimitetsreferenser i policydokument för verksamheten, samt med hjälp av den centrala metaforen rehabiliteringskedjan som ordnar de samverkande myndigheterna i förhållande till klienternas ”rehabiliteringskarriär”. Stort fokus finns på språkliga skillnader mellan organisationerna, med strävan efter konsensus genom att på mer eller mindre subtila vis försöka mildra åtskillnaden. I analysen framstår ändå försäkringskassan som ”blåslampa”, arbetsförmedlingen som ”bromskloss” och kommunen som ”försvarare” av verksamheten.

    Samordnarens professionskaraktär analyseras genom jämförelser med två teorier: dels Roine Johanssons teori om strukturella dimensioner för gräsrotsbyråkrater inom rena myndigheter som försäkringskassan och arbetsförmedlingen, och dels Mats Börjesson & Eva Palmblads samt Annette Carstens teori om den nutida välfärdsarbetarens språkliga praktik. Analysen visar att samordnaren framstår som en gräsrotsbyråkratisk profession med tämligen stort handlingsutrymme, men därutöver som en gränsöverskridande ”hybridprofession” vars insats till stor del består i ett konsensusarbete i relation till klienter, samverkande organisationsrepresentanter, arbetsgivare hos vilka klienterna arbetstränar, samt i relation till betalningsmakten (i första hand försäkringskassan).

    I rapportens senare del fördjupas diskussionen om samordnaren som en profession som inte endast fokuserar på klientens förmåga och vilja, utan även på dennes spontana lust. Samtidigt framstår ArbetsDax som ett försök att utveckla välfärdsarbetets organisation i riktning bort från forna tiders omyndigförklarande socialpolitik, bland annat genom att skapa den nya professionen samordnare.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 9.
    Kristoffersson, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    An Overview of the FIRE Research Project2023In: Proceedings from the First Annual International FIRE CONFERENCE 10th–11th of November 2022, Örebro University, Sweden, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2023, p. 15-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a concise overview of the Financial information Retrieval Ecosystem (FIRE) project. In the article an overview of the technological cornerstones of FIRE, its potential legal implications, stakeholder perspectives, and its influence on various professions, with a particular emphasis on the underlying technologies propelling this initiative. The FIRE project also suggests that both mandatory book-keeping and annual reporting might be possible to abolish in the future.

  • 10.
    Kristoffersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Kristoffersson, Eleonor
    The Principle of the Legality of Taxation and the Rule of Law2024In: Rule of Law in a Transitional Spectrum / [ed] Rigmor Argren, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2024, p. 177-186Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines the principle of the legality of taxation in the contextof the rule of law. It begins with an exploration of the legality of taxation ininternational and EU Law, providing a comparative overview and delvinginto the specific case of Sweden. The authors discuss how this principleis not explicitly stated as a fundamental right in the European Charter ofHuman Rights and Fundamental Freedoms but can be derived from itsprovisions. The Court of Justice of the European Union recognizes it as ageneral principle, necessitating that tax obligations and their substantiveelements be defined by law.The article then focuses on the Swedish interpretation of the principle,tracing its evolution and current application. It highlights the nuances in theSwedish legal system, where the principle of legality in tax law is interpretedas a general rule that taxation must be lawful and in accordance with theprinciples of the rule of law. This includes a discussion of the role of theSwedish Parliament in enacting tax laws and the interpretative approachesof the Supreme Administrative Court.In conclusion, the paper emphasizes the principle of legality as an integralpart of a larger legal system grounded in the rule of law. It addresses thechallenges and complexities in applying this principle, especially whenharmonizing national and EU law principles in tax cases.

  • 11.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Etniska fördomar i vittnessituationer2004In: Tidsskrift for Strafferett, ISSN 1502-685X, no 3, p. 316-329Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Lika vittnen vittna bäst: människor i gemen sätter omedvetet mindre tilltro till personer från en annan etnisk grupp ; etnisk diskriminering i rättsliga sammanhang är därför ur ett socialpsykologiskt perspektiv svårt, men inte omöjligt, att komma åt.2006In: Invandrare och minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 3, p. 33-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Lipari, Francesca
    et al.
    Univ Carlos III Madrid, Dept Matemat, Grp Interdisciplinar Sistemas Complejos GISC, Leganes, Spain..
    Andrighetto, Giulia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Italian Natl Res Council, Inst Cognit Sci & Technol, Rome, Italy.;Inst Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The change in social norms in the Mafia's territories: the anti-racket movement of Addiopizzo2021In: Journal of Institutional Economics, ISSN 1744-1374, E-ISSN 1744-1382, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 227-242, article id PII S1744137420000399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social norms pervade society and when they conflict with legal norms, the former undermine the latter making them ineffective. In this study, we propose that the extortion racket in Sicily has turned into a social norm and this is why recent top-down interventions have failed in stalling this socially undesirable activity. One exception is represented by Addiopizzo, a grass root movement that uses non-legal means to fight the racket phenomenon in Sicily. During the last 15 years, Addiopizzo was able to produce an effective reduction in the payment of protection money in the Sicilian city of Palermo by triggering, we suggest, among other things, a process of change in social norms. Acknowledging the importance of a change in social norms to achieve social change allows us to link the theory of institutions as 'rules' with the theory of institutions as 'equilibria'.

  • 14.
    Rosenblad, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Miljöutredning på Care of Haus: För och nackdelar med ISO 140012008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today many companies and municipalities requires that their suppliers should have an environmental management system to work by. This might be one of the reasons to the increasing number of companies that today are implementing environmental management systems. Care of Haus is one of the companies that thinks that the benefits are bigger than the disadvantages, when it comes to environmental management systems, therefore they have made the choice to work with ISO 14001.

    The ISO 14001 standard is deified on the PDCA- cycle. PDCA stands for Plan, do check and act. Care of Haus choose to work with the ISO 14001 standard since it is a well-known standard for the companies that’s Care of Haus collaborates with and it is also well-known within their clientele

    Within this report an environmental investigation has been made. Care of Haus consumption of water, energy, transportation etc. have been measured and analysed. An investigation concerning whether Care of Haus reaches the demands set by the ISO 14001 standard, and an environmental policy was also made. The results are that Care of Haus has transportation and energy consumption as their biggest environmental aspects. When working towards “constant improvement” ISO 14001 catchphrase, the environmental aspects should improve.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Salmonsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för humaniora, utbildnings- och samhällsvetenskap.
    Hedlund, Daniel
    Department of Child and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Where do we go from here?: Challenges and Strategies Following Additional Asylum Policy Restrictions in Sweden2018In: Journal of Human Rights Practice, ISSN 1757-9619, E-ISSN 1757-9627, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 524-535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This policy note highlights issues concerning the right to seek asylum raised by a panel of migration experts in Sweden during the annual Swedish Forum for Human Rights in 2016. The discussion took place following Swedish asylum and immigration policy taking an increasingly restrictive turn. Two main themes are identified. The first theme encompasses views on the relationship between the legal framework’s increased restrictiveness and discourses of securitization and explores the possibilities of moving beyond this pattern. The second theme highlights that different professionals and other staff engaged with asylum seekers and refugees can retain a (legal) space to resist repressive activities that challenge their professional code of conduct and personal integrity.

  • 16.
    Szekely, Aron
    et al.
    Italian Natl Res Council, Inst Cognit Sci & Technol, Rome, Italy.;Inst Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nardin, Luis G.
    Brandenburg Tech Univ Cottbus, Dept Informat, Cottbus, Germany..
    Andrighetto, Giulia
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Italian Natl Res Council, Inst Cognit Sci & Technol, Rome, Italy.;Inst Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Countering Protection Rackets Using Legal and Social Approaches: An Agent-Based Test2018In: Complexity, ISSN 1076-2787, E-ISSN 1099-0526, article id 3568085Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protection rackets cause economic and social damage across the world. States typically combat protection rackets using legal strategies that target the racketeers with legislation, strong sentencing, and increasing the presence and involvement of police officers. Nongovernmental organizations, conversely, focus on the rest of the population and counter protection rackets using a social approach. These organisations attempt to change the actions and social norms of community members with education, promotional campaigns, and discussions. We use an agent-based model, which draws on established theories of protection rackets and combines features of sociological and economic perspectives to modelling social interactions, to test the effects of legal and social approaches. We find that a legal approach is a necessary component of a policy approach, that social only approaches should not be used because they lead to large increases in violence, and that a combination of the two works best, although even this must be used carefully.

  • 17.
    Welander, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hårvårdsverksamheter ur ett miljö- och hälsoskyddsperspektiv: Kartläggning av frisörer i Danderyd och Vaxholm och utarbetande av checklista för inspektioner2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hair care is a hygienic treatment and is supervised by the Local Environment and Public Health Committee in the municipality. According to the Swedish Environmental Code, hairdressers as all practitioners are required to take measurements to protect the environment and public health. In hygienic treatments hazards may arise from inadequate hygiene practice which spread infection. Hazards may also arise from the use of hair care products such as permanent wave solutions, bleaches and hair dyes. Some hair dye components are known to cause contact allergy, mostly in hair dressers who are exposed professionally but also in some cases in consumers. Bleaches increase the risk of occupational asthma in hairdressers. Some studies have shown an increased risk of cancer in hairdressers and possibly also in consumers. The use of cosmetic and hygienic products also affects the environment. Some components, e.g. surfactants, are hazardous to aquatic organisms, even though the contribution from hair care products is relatively small. Some hairdressers perform ear piercing. All activities that penetrate the skin involve a risk of infection. There is also a risk of developing a nickel allergy if the earrings are not nickel free. In Sweden, due to recently changed legislation, hairdressers no longer need to notify the Local Environment and Public Health Committee before starting a practice. The changes also mean that the rules about documentation of the measurements practitioners need to take to protect public health are less clear. The changes have made the supervision of hairdressers harder for the Local Environment and Public Health Committee.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
1 - 17 of 17
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf