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  • 1.
    Aasen, Linn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thunberg, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utvärdering av arbetspsykologiska testet Shapes med test-retestmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många rekryteringsmetoder som används i dag, som CV och referenstagning, har enligt studier låg validitet, däremot visar många studier att personlighet är stabilt över tid och därför är en mer valid prediktor för att kunna predicera arbetsprestation. Studiens syfte var att undersöka Shapes, ett internetbaserat personlighetstest, och dess arton kompetensdimensioner med test-retest utifrån tre frågeställningar. En datainsamling med 91 deltagare (29 män och 62 kvinnor) gjordes vid två tillfällen med tre veckors mellanrum. Deltagarna delades upp i kön- och åldersgrupper för att se skillnad över tid inom grupperna. Medelvärdesskillnader och korrelationer över tid jämfördes där resultatet visade att det fanns positiva samband mellan båda testtillfällena på samtliga dimensioner. Sju av de arton dimensionerna hade skillnader på medelvärde från testtillfälle ett och testtillfälle två. Detta skulle kunna bero på att Shapes inte är tillräckligt tillförlitligt för att mäta dessa dimensioner eller att dessa dimensioner inte är stabila över tid.  

  • 2.
    Andersson, Josefine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Collén, Kristin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kandidatupplevelse i rekryteringsprocessen vid ett stort svenskt industriföretag2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med rekrytering är att identifiera och attrahera potentiella arbets-sökanden utan att påverka dessa negativt. Tidigare forskning har visat att kandidatupplevelsen påverkas av huruvida den arbetssökande upplever rekryteringsprocessen som rättvis. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur en rekryteringsprocess upplevs av arbetssökanden samt om kön, generationstillhörighet respektive arbetsgivarens attraktivitet har ett samband med kandidatupplevelse. Även skillnader utifrån ansökt yrkesområde, hur långt kandidaten tog sig, samt hur kandidaten fick det slutgiltiga beskedet undersöktes. Deltagare var 1261 arbetssökanden, varav 1009 var män, som under en sexmånadersperiod sökt arbete på ett stort svenskt industriföretag. Utifrån mätinstrumentet Selection Procedural Justice Scale (SPJS) utformades en webbenkät. Resultatet visade att det finns en skillnad i kandidatupplevelse utifrån kandidatens utfall i rekryteringsprocessen, mottagandet av slutgiltigt besked samt hur attraktiv arbetsgivaren anses vara. Rekryterare bör vara noga med att väsentlig återkoppling når varje kandidat. Undersökningen bidrog med nya insikter om kandidatupplevelse, främst utifrån individuella skillnader.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    et al.
    Psykologiska institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Astvik, Wanja
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Gustafsson, Klas
    Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, KI.
    Arbetsvillkor, återhämtning och hälsa - en studie av förskola. hemtjänst och socialtjänst2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Overall, the study aimed to investigate working conditions associated with the accumulation of stress and lack of recovery and to study how recovery is related to health. The study group was employed in pre-school, home care and social services, and came from two relatively large municipalities (n = 193). Recovery or lack of recovery was assumed to be an important intermediary between the working conditions and health / illness and absenteeism. Data collection was done through a survey and the overall response rate was 79%. About 90 percent of the respondents were women. Cluster analysis yielded three clusters. "Recovered" and "not recovered" are extreme groups, which consist of 36 respectively 25% of the total group, while the middle group was 39 percent. The not recovered group may be seen as a risk group for ill health and showed the whole chain of risk factors – difficult working conditions on which they respond with increased effort and compensatory work efforts. Despite significantly higher ill-health reports in the “not recovered group” they had not higher absenteeism, because they probably substitute sickness absence with sickness presence. In the social services group so many as 43% belongs to non-recovery group. Multiple regression analysis with control for background variables (age, working hours and professional field / operational area shows that the non-recovered group had a significantly higher relative risk for poor self-rated health than those in the recovered group. Even sharper increases in risk existed for the five symptoms in addition were analyzed. Finally there is a discussion of practical conclusions and new research questions.

  • 4.
    Bendtsen, P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Feasibility of an email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) to college students in Sweden2006In: Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0306-4603, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 777-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) with personalized normative feedback on alcohol habits was offered to all 3,875 second term students at Linköping University, Sweden. The students received an email with a link to a computerized alcohol habit test and were offered personalized feedback directly on the computer screen. The students evaluated the test and were asked to state whether they were going to consider changing or actually change their alcohol habits. The response rate was 44%, with 742 female and 843 male students participating. The students displayed a strong gender difference in drinking pattern. A three-fold higher percentage of males than females were risky drinkers with regard to a high average weekly volume consumption. The gender differences were less pronounced regarding heavy episodic drinking that was reported by 51% of the females and 70.5% of the males. The email-based computerized normative feedback was appreciated by the students and one-third of the females and one-fifth of the males believed that they would benefit from the normative feedback; 8% of the females and 3% of the males believed that they would actually change their habits after the feedback. Students with a risky drinking pattern, previous experiences of blackouts, being dissatisfied with their current drinking and students that had considered to change their habits before the e-SBI, yielded a stronger motivation to change their drinking after having performed the intervention compared to students without such characteristics. The e-SBI with normative feedback was simple to administer and has the potential to be used repeatedly and on a large scale with minimum effort in terms of cost and time.

  • 5.
    Bernson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    Adaptive coping strategies among adult patients with dental fear: Further development of a new version of the Dental Coping Strategy Questionnaire2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 5, p. 414-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to further develop and investigate a newly constructed 15-item questionnaire on strategies for coping with dental treatment, used by fearful adult patients undergoing regular dental care and those with phobic avoidance. Materials and Methods. The dental coping strategy questionnaire (DCSQ-15) was distributed to 77 individuals with dental phobic avoidance and 94 fearful patients undergoing regular dental care. Previous analyses of a 20-item coping questionnaire (DCSQ-20) revealed that 2 of 4 identified factors predicted regularity or phobic avoidance of dental care. However, one of these factors was considered related to catastrophizing thoughts and not to coping strategies and it was therefore removed in the present study. Results. The reduced 15-item questionnaire was analyzed to identify its factor structure and a 5-factor solution was found. The five factors were labeled (i) 'self-efficacy', (ii) 'self-distraction', (iii) 'distancing', (iv) 'praying' and (v) 'optimism'. The factors of 'praying' and 'optimism' correlated significantly with dental anxiety and were assessed significantly higher and lower respectively, among individuals with phobic avoidance. A logistic regression analysis revealed that 'optimism', together with gender and dental anxiety, was predictive of the regularity or phobic avoidance of dental care.

  • 6.
    Bernson, Jenny
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    Hallberg, Lillemor R.-M.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Institute of Odontology, Department of Behavioral and Community Dentistry.
    “Making dental care possible – a mutual affair”: A grounded theory relating to adult patients with dental fear and regular dental treatment2011In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 119, no 5, p. 373-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dental fear is a common and widespread problem, which can cause severe stress. Even so, most patients with dental fear undergo regular dental treatment in spite of their fear and many enjoy good oral health. The aim of this study was to obtain a deeper understanding of how patients with dental fear manage to undergo dental treatment. Fourteen patients with dental fear, who undergo regular dental care, were interviewed. Qualitative analysis of the transcribed interviews was performed according to the principles of grounded theory. A conceptual framework was generated, and the main concern was identified as making dental care possible – a mutual affair. Four additional categories explained how patients handled their dental fear and how dental care became possible. The strategies were labelled taking part in a mental wrestling match, trust-filled interaction with dental staff, striving for control and seeking and/or receiving social support. The results showed that making dental care possible for patients with dental fear is a mutual challenge that requires interplay between dental staff and patients, involving verbal and non-verbal communication reflecting respect, attention, and empathy. Moreover, a balance between nearness and distance and between professional and personal treatment is required.

  • 7.
    Blom, Tina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Abdali, Hanin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Relationen mellan användandet av Instagram och självkänsla2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökningen av sociala nätverk medför enorm mängd information från olika källor. Att alltid vara uppkopplad på nätverken kan påverka individen negativt. En anledning till den ökade användningen kan tänkas vara en låg självkänsla. Det nya och snabbväxande nätverket Instagram i relation till individers självkänsla och hälsa är ännu outforskat. Studiens syfte är att undersöka relationen mellan självkänsla och användandet av Instagram. Skillnaden mellan mäns och kvinnors användande och självkänsla studeras också. 121 enkäter delades ut till svenska högskolestudenter. Självkänsla och hur Instagram integrerats i individens vardag mättes med en skala vardera. T-test visade att män rapporterar en högre självkänsla och att Instagram integrerat sig mindre i männens vardag jämfört med kvinnorna. ANOVA-analyser och post hoc-test visade tendenser på att exempelvis självkänslan var högre bland de som gjorde få uppdateringar jämfört med de som gjorde många uppdateringar. Riktningen på relationen mellan självkänsla och användande av Instagram skulle vara intressant att undersöka i framtida studier.

  • 8.
    Bonanno, George A.
    et al.
    Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers College, Columbia University .
    Kennedy, Paul
    Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, Oxford University and Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.
    Department of Psychiatry, New York University School of Medicine .
    Lude, Peter
    Swiss Paraplegic Research and Swiss Paraplegic Center, Notwil.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Trajectories of resilience, depression and anxiety following spinal cord injury2012In: Rehabilitation Psychology, ISSN 0090-5550, E-ISSN 1939-1544, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 236-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose/Objective: To investigate longitudinal trajectories of depression and anxiety symptoms following spinal cord injury (SCI) as well as the predictors of those trajectories. Research Method/Design: A longitudinal study of 233 participants assessed at 4 time points: within 6 weeks, 3 months, I year, and 2 years from the point of injury. Data were analyzed using latent growth mixture modeling to determine the best-fitting model of depression and anxiety trajectories. Covariates assessed during hospitalization were explored as predictors of the trajectories. Results: Analyses for depression and anxiety symptoms revealed 3 similar latent classes: a resilient pattern of stable low symptoms, a pattern of high symptoms followed by improvement (recovery), and delayed symptom elevations. A chronic high depression pattern also emerged but not a chronic high anxiety pattern. Analyses of predictors indicated that compared with other groups, resilient patients had fewer SCI-related quality of life problems, more challenge appraisals and fewer threat appraisals, greater acceptance and fighting spirit, and less coping through social reliance and behavioral disengagement. Conclusion/Implications: Overall, the majority of SCI patients demonstrated considerable psychological resilience. Models for depression and anxiety evidenced a pattern of elevated symptoms followed by improvement and a pattern of delayed symptoms. Chronic high depression was also observed but not chronic high anxiety. Analyses of predictors were consistent with the hypothesis that resilient individuals view major stressors as challenges to be accepted and met with active coping efforts. These results are comparable to other recent studies of major health stressors.

  • 9.
    de Colli, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ett nytt svenskt arbetspsykologiskt test ocharbetsprestation inom polisen – samtidig validitet2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The external validity of personality tests can be studied by comparing testvariables to variables measuring job performance. The purpose of this studywas to examine the validity of the employment psychological personalitytest UPP (Sjöberg, 2008). One hundred police employees, including 50women, performed the test through an Internet platform. External criteriawere in study 1 (N = 100) police salary criteria and in study 2 (N = 46) anobjective criterion in terms of number of interrogations for investigators.The results indicate that some variables in the UPP-test showed satisfactoryvalidity against external criteria. Emotional stability showed satisfactoryvalidity against criteria in line with previous research. Conscientiousnessshowed negative correlations with two of the criteria which do not confirmprevious research. Several of the UPP-test specific variables showed equallygood or better validity compared with the general variables according toFFM. The importance of the availability of good criteria for validityresearch is discussed.

  • 10.
    Elfström, Magnus L
    et al.
    Health Care Research Unit, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Kreuter, M
    Rydén, A
    Persson, L-O
    Sullivan, M
    Effects of coping on psychological outcome when controlling for background variables: A study of traumatically spinal cord lesioned persons.2002In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 408-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    OBJECTIVES: In a previous study we found spinal cord lesion (SCL)-related coping factors to be distinctly related to levels of SCL-related psychological outcome. However, we did not control for other potentially confounding variables. In this study we investigated effects of coping strategies on psychological outcome reactions in traumatically spinal cord lesioned persons controlling for sociodemographic, disability-related and social support variables.

    SETTING: The Gothenburg Spinal Injuries Unit in Sweden.

    METHODS: The study sample comprised 255 persons and a subsample of 157 persons. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed.

    RESULTS: SCL-related coping factors clearly predicted psychological outcome even when background variables were controlled. Higher levels of acceptance coping predicted decreased psychological distress and increased positive morale. Elevated social reliance coping predicted heightened distress. Higher levels of social support predicted lower feelings of helplessness. Sociodemographic and disability-related variables were weak predictors of psychological outcome with one exception: higher education predicted less bitterness and brooding.

    CONCLUSION: SCL-related coping remained the most important predictor of psychological outcome even when a wide range of variables was controlled. Thus we conclude that psychosocial interventions aimed at helping individuals develop their coping strategies might be of substantial value in their adjustment to SCL.

  • 11.
    Elfström, Magnus L.
    et al.
    Health Care Research Unit, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kreuter, Margareta
    Department of Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Götegorg, Sweden.
    Relationships Between Locus of Control, Coping Strategies and Emotional Well-Being in Persons with Spinal Cord.2006In: Journal of clinical psychology in medical settings, ISSN 1068-9583, E-ISSN 1573-3572, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 93-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations between locus of control, coping strategies and emotional well-being in persons with traumatically acquired spinal cord lesion (SCL) were examined. The sample included 132 community-residing adults. Structural equation modelling, including confirmatory factor analysis, was used. A model was hypothesized based on the transactional theory of stress and coping where coping strategies mediated the relation between locus of control and emotional well-being. The model showed acceptable fit to the data and was compared with five alternative models. The alternative models fitted the data less well or were difficult to interpret. In the preferred model, persons indicating internal control reported more coping strategies (Acceptance, Fighting spirit) related to increased well-being, whereas persons indicating external control reported a coping strategy (Social reliance) related to poorer well-being. The findings support the stress and coping framework in medical rehabilitation and illustrate why some persons need coping effectiveness training to enhance emotional adjustment.

  • 12.
    Elfström, Magnus L.
    et al.
    Health Care Research Unit , Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kreuter, Margareta
    Department of Physiotherapy, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars-Olof
    Department of Nursing, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sullivan, Marianne
    Health Care Research Unit , Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg, Sweden.
    General and condition-specific measures of coping strategies in persons with spinal cord lesion.2005In: Psychology, Health & Medicine, ISSN 1354-8506, E-ISSN 1465-3966, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 231-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined psychometric properties and validity of a general (Ways of Coping Questionnaire; WCQ) and a condition-specific (Spinal Cord Lesion-related Coping Strategies Questionnaire; SCL CSQ) measure of coping strategies. The sample included 181 community-residing traumatically spinal cord lesioned persons aged 16-85 years. Multi-trait/multi-item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and multiple regression were used. Reliability and validity estimates were acceptable in most instances for the SCL CSQ, whereas the validity of the WCQ was inadequate. The SCL CSQ showed a significant relationship with the overall quality of life outcome measure, whereas the WCQ did not. We recommend condition-specific measures of coping strategies, and that the combination with coping style measures be tested in medical populations.

  • 13.
    Elfström, Magnus L
    et al.
    Health Care Research Unit, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    Berggren, Ulf
    Methodological assessment of behavioural problem dimensions in adults with dental fear2007In: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, ISSN 0301-5661, E-ISSN 1600-0528, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 186-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: In the assessment and treatment of persons with dental fear, there may be other psychological/behavioural factors than fear itself and traditional measures of psychopathology that should be considered. Longitudinal natural history studies are needed to find such variables. The present study investigated whether the same behavioural problem dimensions (internalizing, externalizing, attention) found among children and adolescents with behaviour management problems and/or dental fear could also be found among severely fearful adult patients.

    METHODS: The participants were 230 consecutive adult patients applying for treatment for severe dental anxiety at a specialized clinic. Patients completed a version of the Rutter behaviour questionnaire that was adapted for adults. Comparison data were the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale and self-rated anger evoked by dental fear. Background data, including dental fear, were also collected. Descriptive statistics, principal components analyses, group comparisons and correlations were calculated.

    RESULTS: Of the three behaviour problems scales we adapted for adults, two (Internalizing and Attention) had acceptable psychometric properties and meaningful relations with the comparison variables. In contrast, the third problem scale (Externalizing) proved to have less satisfactory properties and relations, especially for men. Patients with severe phobia had higher levels of problem behaviours than patients with less severe phobia.

    CONCLUSIONS: Internalizing and Attention scales for adults seem promising for use in future prospective studies of the natural history of dental fear. The Externalizing scale, however, needs to be studied with a wider range of comparison variables and measures of social desirability.

  • 14. Elfström, Magnus L
    et al.
    Rydén, A
    Kreuter, M
    Persson, L-O
    Sullivan, M
    Linkages between coping and psychological outcome in the spinal cord lesioned: Development of SCL-related measures.2002In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 23-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate relationships between coping and mental well-being with clinical relevance to spinal cord lesion (SCL).

    SETTING: The Gothenburg Spinal Injuries Unit in Sweden.

    METHODS: The study sample comprised 274 persons. From in-depth interviews, literature reviews, and the transactional theory of stress and coping, items reflecting coping and psychological outcome, respectively were generated. Principal components factor analysis, multi-trait analysis, and structural equation modelling were used.

    RESULTS: The coping scale comprised three factors: Acceptance (i.e. revaluation of life values); Fighting spirit (i.e. efforts to behave independently); Social reliance (i.e. a tendency towards dependent behaviour). The outcome scale included the factors: Helplessness (i.e. feeling perplexed, out of control and low self-esteem); Intrusion (i.e. bitterness and brooding); Personal growth (i.e. positive outcomes of life crisis). Acceptance showed a positive relation to Personal growth and was inversely related to both Helplessness and Intrusion. Fighting spirit had a weak negative association to Helplessness and a weak positive association to Personal growth. Social reliance was positively related to Helplessness and Intrusion. Only Social reliance showed any association to neurological status. Those lesioned 1-4 years reported more Helplessness, Intrusion, Social reliance, and less Acceptance than those lesioned >or=5 years.

    CONCLUSION: Coping is related to psychological outcome in SCL. Our situational coping measure may be a candidate to assess intervention effects.

  • 15.
    Elfström, Magnus
    et al.
    Health Care Research Unit, Institute of Internal Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Rydén, Anna
    Kreuter, Margareta
    Taft, Charles
    Sullivan, Marianne
    Relations between coping strategies and health-related quality of life in patients with spinal cord lesion2005In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 9-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Although the use of appropriate coping strategies has been suggested to be a key factor in determining successful adjustment to severe physical illness/disability, little systematic support for this link has been found. We investigated relationships between spinal cord lesion-related coping strategies and health-related quality of life when studying for sociodemographic, disability-related and social support variables.

    DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: We studied 256 persons with traumatically acquired spinal cord lesion (=1 year) from a typical rural/urban Swedish area in a cross-sectional design.

    METHODS: Coping measure was the Spinal Cord Lesion-related Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Outcome measures were the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey version 2.0, and a standardized global question of overall quality of life. Multiple regressions were performed.

    RESULTS: Coping strategies were clear correlates of health-related quality of life when sociodemographic, disability-related and social support variables were studied. The relationship between coping strategies and quality of life was: the more revaluation of life values (Acceptance) and the fewer tendencies towards dependent behaviour (Social reliance) the better the health-related quality of life.

    CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that greater focus needs to be directed to coping strategies and to ways of facilitating adaptive outcomes in rehabilitation.

  • 16.
    Eliasson, Miriam
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Laflamme, Lucie
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Verbal abuse, gender and well-being at school2005In: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, ISSN 0334-0139, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 367-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to assess the prevalence of students' experience of verbal abuse and its effects on school satisfaction and well-being from agender perspective. Attention was paid to age differences. Methods: The study population consisted of all students in grades 6 and 8 in a Swedish city. A total of 1,006 students, ages 12-15, completed a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 84 percent). Results: Boys reported experiencing insults and threats to a greater extent, whereas girls more frequently experienced sexualized name-calling, specifically "whore". Bothgenders reported boys as perpetrators of verbal abuse most often. Further, girls generally reported lower levels of school satisfaction and well-being, while verbal abuse had a negative effect on the well-being of both genders. Conclusions: Verbal abuse between students is a predominantly masculine practice, more pronounced among older students. It impacts negatively on the school satisfaction and well-being of both girls and boys and does not have to be frequent, repeated, or combined with other kinds of harassment to have this effect.

  • 17.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kazemi, A.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Törnblom, K.
    ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    A New Look at Individual Differences in Perceptions of Unfairness: The Theory of Maximally Unfair Allocations in Multiparty Situations2015In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that unfairness judgments of resource allocations become more complex when there are more than two recipients. In order to explain some of this complexity, we propose a set of psychological mechanisms that may underlie four different choices of maximally unfair resource allocations (MUA): Self-Single-Loser, Self-One-Loser-of-Many, Self-Single-Winner, and Self-One-Winner-of-Many. From this psychological theory, several predictions are derived and tested in vignette studies involving a total of 708 participants recruited online using MTurk. As predicted by our theory, (1) choices of MUA where there is a single loser were much more common when the allocated resource was of negative rather than positive valence, and (2) the amount of egoistic bias individuals exhibited when judging the unfairness in receiving a small rather than a large share in a non-extreme multi-party allocation was predicted by their choices of MUA. These findings suggest that an individual’s choice of MUA reveals some generally relevant principles of how unfairness is perceived in multi-party allocations. This opens up new lines of inquiry, especially regarding research on social dilemmas and social value orientation.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Perceived Participation: A comparison of students with disabilities and students without disabilities2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, ISSN 1501-7419, E-ISSN 1745-3011, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 206-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a recent study (Almqvist & Granlund, accepted), participation is not strongly related to type and degree of disability but probably to the context of the individual as well as generic personal factors. Such diverse factors can over time become orchestrated and pull the development of individuals with disability in a certain direction. This study compares how 959 students with and without disabilities in two age‐groups 7–12 and 13–17 perceive their participation in school activities. The main method of analysis is one‐way‐ANOVA. The result indicates that students without disabilities rated their perceived participation higher, especially in unstructured “free”; activities. Further, students without disabilities experience a higher degree of autonomy and rate the availability of school activities as higher. Students with disabilities rate their interaction with teachers as better and more frequent, but their interaction with peers as less frequent. These differences increase with age and may reinforce a stigmatization process.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Yvonne
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Swenberg, Thorbjörn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Media instructions and visual behavior: An eye-tracking study investigating visual literacy capacities and assembly efficiency.2014In: Analyzing Cognitive Processes during Design: Proceedings of the HBiD 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This pilot study aims at illuminating human visual behavior in the interaction with pictorial instructions. The study is a multi disciplinary effort and is informed by the connection between gaze and attention as well as certain aspects of the Visual Literacy field and reveals a few basic visual behavior tendencies related to certain specific pictorial instruction types. By doing so, it is also an evaluation of the usefulness of a methodological framework consisting of six measures.The analysis of this paper is primarily based on eye-tracking data. In addition, an observed assembly that generated video and sound recordings is also part of the method. In the study 12 Film/TV- production students (out of which there is complete data from 9 informants) interacted with three types of types of visual instructions of the same assembled object, a solar powered toy.

  • 20.
    Funcke, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Biased perception may trump rational intention: Most people think they are less corrupt than averageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hirvikoski, Tatja
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nordenström, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindblad, Frank
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ritzén, E. Martin
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wedell, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lajic, Svetlana
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Cognitive Functions in Children at Risk for Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Treated Prenatally with Dexamethasone2007In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 542-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context and Objective: In Sweden, from 1985 through 1995, 40 fetuses at risk for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) were treated with dexamethasone (DEX) to prevent virilization of affected females. We report long-term effects on neuropsychological functions and scholastic performance of this controversial treatment. Design and Patients: Prenatally treated children, 7 to 17 yr old, were assessed with standardized neuropsychological tests (A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment and Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children) and child-completed questionnaires measuring self-perceived scholastic competence (Self-Perception Profile for Children). A parent-completed questionnaire (Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 School Scale) was used to evaluate whether the treatment had any impact on the children's school performance. In addition, a child-completed questionnaire measuring social anxiety (The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised) was completed by the prenatally treated children aged 8 to 17 yr (n = 21) and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 26). Results: Of 40 DEX-treated children, 26 (median age, 11 yr) participated in the study. Thirty-five sex- and age- matched healthy children were controls. There were no between-group differences concerning psychometric intelligence, measures of cerebral lateralization, memory encoding, and long-term memory. Short-term treated, CAH-unaffected children performed poorer than the control group on a test assessing verbal working memory (P = 0.003), and they rated lower on a questionnaire assessing self-perception of scholastic competence (P = 0.003). This group also showed increased self-rated social anxiety assessed by The Social Anxiety Scale for Children-Revised (P = 0.026). Prenatally treated, CAH-affected children performed poorer than controls on tests measuring verbal processing speed, although this difference disappeared when controlling for the child's full-scale IQ. Conclusions: This study indicates that prenatal DEX treatment is associated with previously not described long-term effects on verbal working memory and on certain aspects of self-perception that could be related to poorer verbal working memory. These findings may thus question future DEX treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Therefore, we encourage additional retrospective studies of larger cohorts to either confirm or challenge the present findings.

  • 22.
    Isaksson, Kerstin
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Bellaagh, Katalin
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Johansson, Gunn
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Sjöberg, Anders
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden. .
    Work motivation among the unemployed: Changes over time and gender differences2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 207-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work involvement (psychological identification with work in general) has generally been considered as a stable, dispositional characteristic, although some studies of unemployment have contradicted this view. Using longitudinal data from a Swedish representative sample (n= 888), this study examines employment status change (e.g. from work to unemployment) and work values development in a 15-month time period. Furthermore, the relationship between employment status change and well-being is explored, with a special focus on the roles played by work values and gender differences. Results indicated that work values are fairly stable over 15 months. As expected, the long-term unemployed (mostly active job seekers) had higher measures of work involvement after 15 months. Further, no gender difference was found with regard to work involvement but females were more likely to agree that there is an entitlement to work. Becoming unemployed was associated with negative health effects, but only among unemployed men.

  • 23.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Trusting You Trusting Me: The Importance of Beliefs about Trust in the Stag Hunt/Assurance GameManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the coordination game known as the stag hunt or the assurance game, players face a choice between a risk-free strategy and a risky strategy that pays higher if chosen also by the other player. Such games are commonly described as trust problems because the risky strategy is a rational choice only if one expects the other player to choose it. Here we argue that the stag hunt ought to be about trust only in an indirect and recursive waywhere beliefs about trust are more important than actual trust. On the basis of an established trust questionnaire we categorised 323 participants as having either high or low trust. They then played series of stag hunt games with varying amounts of information (either none, or private or common) about trust levels of involved parties. In line with our predictions, a player’s strategy choice was not strongly predicted by his or her trust level unless the latter was common knowledge. In other words, a high (low) truster Ego is more likely to play the risky (risk-free) strategy if Ego knows that Alter knows Ego’s trust level, emphasising the importance of beliefs about trust.

  • 24.
    Jocic, Milica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vem är jag?: Upplevelsen av sin identitet efter flytt till ett nytt land2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Markus och Kitayama definierar oberoende jag som ett jag som är självständig och separat från andra individer. Kollektivt jag definieras som ett sammankopplat till andra individer. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka upplevelser kring identitet som en person med invandrarbakgrund har. Målet var även att undersöka vad som påverkade individens upplevelser kring identiteten. Åtta intervjuer genomfördes genom chat, där deltagarnas ålder varierade mellan 20-46 år. Deltagarnas bakgrund varierade även, och samtliga deltagare var födda i ett annat land än Sverige. Resultat visade att deltagarna kunde vara både flexibla och rigida i sina identiteter beroende på situationen. Deltagarna upplevde flexibilitet i den praktiska dimensionen som definierar det sociala livet. Detta innebär att deltagarna kunde anpassa sig efter situationen och upplevde att de kände sig svenska. I den andra sammanhang hade deltagarna svårigheter att anpassa sig efter den svenska kulturen då banden till den egna kulturen var starka.

  • 25.
    Kaczor, Dominika
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lis, Anna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Har tron påverkan på Kasam?: Jämförelse mellan polska och svenska kvinnor2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare studier har påvisat att det finns samband mellan graden av känsla av sammanhang (KASAM) och välmående, men även att tro kan ge individer en känsla av hopp och tro på förmåga att hantera olika problem. Denna studie undersökte om polska kvinnor, som företräder en samfällt kollektivistisk kultur, jämfört med svenska kvinnor som lever i en individualistisk kultur hade en starkare känsla av sammanhang. Studien mätte även svenska och polska kvinnors self-efficacy. Enkätundersökning genomfördes med totalt 285 kvinnliga deltagare i Sverige och i Polen. Resultat visade ett högre KASAMvärde hos svenska kvinnor medan tro och self-efficacy var högre hos polska kvinnorna. Det fanns inget signifikant samband mellan tro och KASAM. Därför är det betydelsefullt att fortsätta denna forskning samt att undersöka KASAMs samband med den socioekonomiska statusen i båda länderna.

  • 26.
    Karlsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Lindqvist, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Minoritetsgrupper, empati och stereotypisering: Reducerar perspektivtagning och empati negativ stereotypisering?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt tidigare forskning kan antagandet av ett subjektivt perspektiv framkalla empatiska känslor och att detta medför en positiv utvärdering samt mer positiva attityder gentemot den andre. I studien deltog 126 högskolestudenter från en mellanstor högskola i Sverige. De besvarade en enkät innehållandes vinjetter om diskriminering i arbetslivet gentemot grupperna funktionsnedsatta, gravida kvinnor och religiöst troende. Mätinstrumenten var Batsons empatiskala och för stereotypa uppfattningar användes Stereotype Content Model. Ett syfte med denna studie var att undersöka skillnader gällande de empatiska känslorna samt stereotypa uppfattningar gentemot de tre grupperna. Separata 2 x 3 faktoriella variansanalyser utfördes. Studien påvisade en skillnad i empatiska känslor där empatin för funktionsnedsatta var högre än för gravida kvinnor. Avseende kompetens uppfattades gravida kvinnor och religiöst troende mer kompetenta än funktionsnedsatta. Även på dimensionen värme fanns en marginell statistisk skillnad då gravida kvinnor ansågs mer varma än funktionsnedsatta.  

  • 27.
    Karlsson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Should I stay or should I go?: Turnover among young engineers.2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many knowledge-intensive organizations are experiencing difficulties retaining talented graduate recruits, as young engineers tend to change jobs frequently at the expense of employers’ seeking to keep their competitive edge. The current study examined the predictive strength of numerous work related employee attitudes for turnover intentions and behaviors. A survey based on well-established measures was distributed to employees of two technically oriented companies. The investigation identified opportunities for mental work and stimulation, possibilities to discern one’s own work performance, feelings of being locked-in, and job offers as predictors of employee turnover intentions and behaviors. The results indicated that young engineers act different than other occupational groups with regards to turnover, highlighting a need for between-groups comparisons.

  • 28.
    Karlsson, Magdalena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Segerbrant, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Orealistisk optimism och upplevd kontroll: Studenters bedömningar av risker2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att människor överskattar chanserna för att positiva händelser ska inträffa dem och underskattar riskerna för att negativa händelser ska inträffa dem jämfört med genomsnittet. Detta kallas orealistisk optimism (OO). En faktor som påverkar detta är grad av upplevd kontroll. Studiens huvudsakliga syfte var att undersöka sambanden mellan upplevd kontroll och OO. I en enkätstudie undersöktes OO och upplevd kontroll för diverse händelser. Deltagarna fick t ex svara på hur sannolikt det är att de utsattes för vissa händelser jämfört med genomsnittet. Händelserna var bl a hälsorelaterade. Deltagarna var studenter från en högskola i Mellansverige, 18 män och 109 kvinnor. OO uppstod för alla händelser utom två. Det fanns vissa samband mellan OO och upplevd kontroll. Nytt med studien är att vissa händelser som i tidigare undersökningar skattats som okontrollerbara i själva verket kan upplevas som delvis kontrollerbara. Sambanden mellan OO och upplevd kontroll bör vidare undersökas.

  • 29.
    Kennedy, Paul
    et al.
    University of Oxford, Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology and Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Lude, Peter
    Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil and Zurich University of Applied Sciences, School of Applied Psychology.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Smithson, Emily
    Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Appraisals, coping and adjustment pre and post rehabilitation: A 2-year follow-up study2012In: Spinal Cord, ISSN 1362-4393, E-ISSN 1476-5624, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 112-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design: Longitudinal, multi-wave panel design.

    Objectives: To explore the changes in and the relationships between appraisals and coping with mood, functioning and quality of life pre and post rehabilitation for acute spinal cord injury.

    Setting: The data collected was part of an ongoing study from specialist units in selected British, Swiss, German, and Irish spinal cord injury centres.

    Method: Questionnaires (Functional Independence, Quality of Life, Mood, Appraisals, Coping & Support) were administered to 232 patients at 12 weeks post injury and sent to participants at 1 and 2 years post injury by post.

    Results: Significant changes were observed in various outcome measures between 12 weeks and 1 year post injury, with little significant change occurring during the following year. Appraisals and coping at 12 weeks post injury were significantly related to outcome scores and also contributed significantly to the variance in quality of life, mood, and stress related growth at 2 years post injury.

    Conclusion:  The study provides further evidence for the link between appraisals, coping and subsequent adjustment to injury. Suggestion is made for the potential benefit of early assessment and intervention for patients at risk of poor adjustment to SCI.

  • 30.
    Kennedy, Paul
    et al.
    University of Oxford, Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology and Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Lude, Peter
    Swiss Paraplegic Centre, Nottwil and Zurich University of Applied Sciences, School of Applied Psychology.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Smithson, Emily
    Stoke Mandeville Hospital, The National Spinal Injuries Centre, Department of Clinical Psychology.
    Psychological contributions to functional independence: A longitudinal investigation of spinal cord injury rehabilitation2011In: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0003-9993, E-ISSN 1532-821X, Vol. 92, no 4, p. 597-602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate the contribution of pre-rehabilitation appraisals of spinal cord injury and patient’s coping strategies to the variance in functional independence post discharge.

    Design: Longitudinal, cohort study. Patients sustaining a spinal cord injury aged 16 or above were recruited from English and German speaking specialist spinal injuries centres. Measures of appraisals, coping strategies, mood and functional independence were administered on commencing active rehabilitation (12 weeks post injury) and following hospital discharge (1 year post injury).

    Setting: Specialist spinal cord injury rehabilitation centres in England,Germany,Switzerland andIreland.

    Participants: One hundred and twenty seven patients completed questionnaires at both time points. Sample age ranged between 17.5 and 64.5 with a mean age of 39.3. Demographic and injury characteristics were similar to those reported in international statistics databases.

    Interventions: Not Applicable

    Main Outcome Measure:  Functional Independence Measure (FIM; motor subscale).

    Results: Injury characteristics, age, gender, current depression and the utilization of the coping strategy ‘social reliance’ at twelve weeks post injury explained 33.5% of the variance in motor FIM at one year post injury. Strong relationships were found between appraisals, coping styles, mood and functional outcomes.

    Conclusion: The coping strategy ‘Social Reliance’ was found to contribute significantly when explaining the variance in functional outcomes. Suggestions are made to assess appraisals and coping strategies early in rehabilitation in order to provide effective interventions and additional support to those scoring highly on negative coping styles. Further research would be recommended to provide support for the relationship between dependent coping strategies and functional outcomes.

  • 31.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Group-based biases and validity in eyewitness credibility judgments: Examining effects of witness ethnicity and presentation modality2005In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1474-1501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study how witness ethnicity and testimony presentation mode affected judgments of eyewitness credibility, testimonies from 6 immigrant and 6 Swedish accuracy-matched witnesses to a crime were presented to Swedish fact finders (N = 120) in videotape or as a transcript. Results showed that witnesses were perceived as more credible in the visual as compared to the written medium. Moreover, witness ethnicity affected judgments differentially depending on presentation mode for fact finders high in prejudice toward immigrants. Results also revealed that fact finders' judgments corresponded with the selfreported confidence of Swedish, but not immigrant witnesses and that in the transcript condition, judgmental validity was lower in estimates of Swedes' as compared to immigrants' accuracy. The findings indicate that presentation mode can function as a moderator of group-based effects in social judgments, and that both psychological theory and judicial systems need to consider thoroughly how different stimulus presentations compare in terms of the impact on perceivers.

  • 32.
    Lundgren, Jesper
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Elfström, Magnus L
    Health Care Research Unit, Institute of Medicine, Göteborg university, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Berggren, Ulf
    Dental Behavioural Sciences Unit, Institute of Odontology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    The relationship between temperament and fearfulness in adult dental phobic patients.2007In: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, E-ISSN 1365-263X, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 460-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Temperament has been associated with dental fear (DF) and dental behavioural management problems (DBMP) in children, but little is known about what role temperament plays in the aetiology of DF. Thus, measures of temperament suitable for use among children, adolescents, and adults would be of value for longitudinal and family studies of DF, where relations between children's and parent's ratings are investigated.

    AIM: Our aim was to explore the adapted EASI (emotionality, activity, sociability, and impulsivity) in adult patients, and to evaluate the instrument in comparison with established measures of DF and general emotional reactions in adults.

    DESIGN: The subjects were 230 adult patients applying for treatment for DF and 41 nonfearful patients (reference group). Questionnaires investigated temperament (general and DF) and general anxiety and depression.

    RESULTS: The previously described factor structure of the EASI among children was confirmed and the adapted EASI had acceptable psychometric qualities. Emotionality correlated with DF and with measures of general psychological distress. No differences were found in mean scores of EASI dimensions between DF group and the reference group, which was in contrast with studies in children.

    CONCLUSIONS: The adapted EASI seem promising for use in future longitudinal and familial studies of development of DF and DBMP.

  • 33.
    Lundmark, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hasson, Dan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Tafvelin, Susanne
    Umeå Universitet, Sweden.
    Leading for change: line managers’ influence on the outcomes of an occupational health intervention2017In: Work & Stress, ISSN 0267-8373, E-ISSN 1464-5335, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 276-296Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nicklasson, Mercedes
    et al.
    Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Elfström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Olofson, J
    Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Bengt
    Institution of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.
    The impact of individual quality of life assessment on psychosocial attention in patients with chest malignancies: A randomized study2013In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 87-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aims of this study were to investigate the impact of individual health-related quality of life (HRQL) evaluation on the attention towards symptom control and psychosocial function in advanced cancer patients.

    Methods

    Patients with advanced lung cancer or mesothelioma who attended a pulmonary oncology outpatient clinic were randomized to either of two strategies for HRQL assessment. The experimental group (EG) answered the EORTC QLQ-C30 + LC13 questionnaire using a digital table interface, with outprint of aggregated scale scores presented to the consulting physician as a support for evaluation. The control group (CG) answered a paper version of the same questionnaire, which was stored for later analysis. Consultations were audio-recorded. Outcome measures were a quantitative content analysis of audio-recorded consultations and medical and psychosocial interventions abstracted from clinical records.

    Results

    One hundred seventy-one patients were randomized and participated in the study. Issues regarding emotional function were more frequently discussed during consultations in the EG (p < 0.05). Similarly, interventions directed to emotional and social concerns were more frequent in the EG (p = 0.013 and p = 0.0036, respectively). HRQL measures over time were similar across the groups.

    Conclusion

    Individual HRQL assessment increased the attention to psychosocial functioning in patients with chest malignancies.

  • 35.
    Nummelin, Johanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Fransson, Katarina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vad främjar motivation hos ungdomar?: Vikten av anpassning och stöd för lärande2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Motivation inom skolan är avgörande för elevers lärande. I self- determination theory (SDT) betonas vikten av inre motivation genom autonomi, kompetens och samhörighet. Stöd, höga förväntningar och målsättningar har visats sig ha positiv inverkan på motivation. Syftet med denna undersökning var att studera vad som främjar ungdomars motivation, med utgångspunkt i SDT samt ungdomars och vuxnas perspektiv, utifrån skilda tillvägagångssätt i motivationsarbete. Intervjuer genomfördes med 8 deltagare från en friskola och 8 från en ungdomsverksamhet. Analysen genomfördes i tre steg: gemensamma komponenter, skillnader mellan verksamheterna och i relation till SDT. Resultatet visade på viktiga gemensamma nämnare som individanpassning, lärarstöd samt mål- och utvecklingsfokus. En skillnad som framträdde verksamheterna emellan är huruvida det går att arbeta med höga förväntningar eller om ungdomen bör styra sin process själv. Ett öppet klimat, med stor individanpassning och tillitsfulla relationer, har framkommit vara grundförutsättningar för den inre motivationen. 

  • 36.
    Stendahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Gustafsson, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att (miss)lyckas med organisationsförändringar: Motstånd till förändring och faktorer som påverkar förändringsbenägenhet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Organisationer står ständigt inför förändring för att behålla sin plats på dagens arbetsmarknad. Merparten av organisationsförändringar misslyckas varpå motstånd till förändring (MTF) antas vara en bidragande orsak. Forskning har undersökt hur MTF kan minskas via bl.a. förändringsledning. Denna studie avsåg undersöka individuella faktorer vilka kan påverka medarbetares MTF. Detta undersöktes via en enkät besvarad av 209 medarbetare på 11 företag. Enkäten bestod av Oregs skala för MTF, arbetsrelaterad self-efficacy (ASE), arbetsrelaterad KASAM (WSOC), attityd till organisationsförändring samt bakgrundsvariablerna kön, ålder, utbildningsnivå, antal år på arbetsplatsen och sektor. Studien hittade signifikanta samband mellan MTF och ASE, WSOC, attityd till organisationsförändring samt kön. Vidare visade sig prediktorvariablerna tillsammans förklara 29 % av variationen i MTF. Studiens resultat går i linje med tidigare resultat inom ASE och WSOC men går emot forskning om könsskillnader i MTF. Studiens slutsats var att de hälsofrämjande individuella aspekterna (ASE, WSOC) troligen inverkar mest på MTF.

  • 37.
    Stendahl, Josefin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kreativitetens betydelse för meningsfullt arbetsliv: Kan ett kreativt klimat öka medarbetares upplevda meningsfullhet i arbetet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Modern research in the area of work-life tends to focus on stress and reactive measures at the same time research in creativity and innovation mainly focuses on profits in economy and other organizational gains. This paper intends to examine work meaningfulness and creative climate, with an employee focus, to achieve proactive work in work-related stress and ill-health. The study is based on interactive research methodology with quantitative elements. A quantitative survey examined whether there was a correlation between the factors. Based on the results of the data a work tool was created, aiming to increase the meaningfulness of work via creative climate and thus affect the working environment in a positive sense. Results from the questionnaires showed significant correlation between work meaningfulness and creative climate, as well as each of the ten dimensions in creative climate, confirming the study's hypotheses. Another significant correlation between work function and work meaningfulness were also found. The conclusion is that the tool to enhance the creative climate of the organization leads to increased work meaningfulness.

  • 38.
    Tulviste, Tiia
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Mizera, Luule
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    De Geer, Boel
    Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu
    Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Child-rearing goals of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mothers2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 487-497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the child-rearing goals of mothers of 4- to 6-year-old children from Estonia, Finland, and Sweden were compared. The developedChild-Rearing Goals Questionnaire consisted of three different tasks: open-ended questions, item rating, and item ranking. All mothers were similar in valuing highly self-maximization, but differed in emphasis on traditional child-rearing goals (e.g., conformity, obedience, politeness, being hard-working, etc.). The Swedish mothers tended to stress the characteristics connected with self-maximization as well as self-confidence and children's happiness, but did not value the traditional child-rearing goals. The Estonian mothers attached a great significance both to the traditional characteristics and to self-maximization. The Finnish mothers also stressed both traditional and non-traditional values, but to a lesser extent than the Estonians. The Swedish andFinnish mothers' child-rearing goals were relatively homogeneous. In contrast, the Estonian mothers were generally less focused on any specific goal.Mothers with a lower level of education stressed traditional goals more than mothers with a higher level of education. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effect different cultural contexts have on maternal child-rearing goals: bringing up children in stable welfare societies (such as Sweden and Finland) in contrast to a rapidly changing society (such as Estonia).

  • 39.
    Vikner, Ronja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ingenjörskonsulters upplevelse av psykologiska kontrakt i relation till arbets- respektive uppdragsgivare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ökade flexibla anställningsformer har inneburit ett ökat intresse för det psykologiska kontraktet. Psykologiska kontrakt har visats ha en avgörande funktion i anställningsrelationen. Forskning gällande konsulters psykologiska kontrakt och specifikt ingenjörer är begränsad. Studien syftar därför till att undersöka ingenjörskonsulters upplevda innehåll i deras psykologiska kontrakt med konsult- respektive kundföretag. Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sju konsulter från fyra konsultföretag och intervjuerna analyserades induktivt och tematiskt. Resultatet identifierade 4 centrala teman: kundföretagets förväntningar på konsulten, konsultens förväntningar på kundföretaget, konsultföretagets förväntningar på konsulten samt konsultens förväntningar på konsultföretaget. Vidare har 14 kategorier inordnats under respektive tema. Resultaten som bidrar med nya kunskaper avseende på innehållet i det triangulära psykologiska kontraktet utifrån ingenjörskonsulters perspektiv, diskuteras i relation till tidigare forskning om psykologiska kontrakt.

  • 40.
    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Karina M
    Sheffield University, UK.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Using kaizen to improve employee well-being: Results from two organizational intervention studies2017In: Human Relations, ISSN 0018-7267, E-ISSN 1741-282X, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 966-993Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participatory intervention approaches that are embedded in existing organizational structures may improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational interventions, but concrete tools are lacking. In the present article, we use a realist evaluation approach to explore the role of kaizen, a lean tool for participatory continuous improvement, in improving employee well-being in two cluster-randomized, controlled participatory intervention studies. Case 1 is from the Danish Postal Service, where kaizen boards were used to implement action plans. The results of multi-group structural equation modeling showed that kaizen served as a mechanism that increased the level of awareness of and capacity to manage psychosocial issues, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and mental health. Case 2 is from a regional hospital in Sweden that integrated occupational health processes with a pre-existing kaizen system. Multi-group structural equation modeling revealed that, in the intervention group, kaizen work predicted better integration of organizational and employee objectives after 12 months, which, in turn, predicted increased job satisfaction and decreased discomfort at 24 months. The findings suggest that participatory and structured problem-solving approaches that are familiar and visual to employees can facilitate organizational interventions.

  • 41.
    Wiklund-Gustin, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. UiT-Norges ARktiske Universitet, Norway.
    Psykologi for sykepleiere2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Psykologi for sykepleiere introduserer psykologiske teorier og begreper som er viktige for å forstå mennesket som pasient, pårørende og sykepleier. Boken tar for seg kunnskap som er relevant for sykepleierens yrkesutførelse, og er dermed noe mer og noe annet enn en lightversjon av en grunnbok i psykologi.

    Forfatteren begynner med å presentere de viktigste psykologiske retningene og omsorgspsykologien som et delområde innenfor omsorgsforskningen og et støttefag i sykepleien. Utover i boken tar hun opp forskjellige temaer med utgangspunkt i konsensusbegrepene som er utviklet innenfor helse- og omsorgsvitenskapen (menneske, miljø, helse, pleie og omsorg). Dermed kommer fragmenter fra én og samme psykologiske teori igjen flere steder i boken, der de er aktuelle i sammenheng med tematikken. Hele veien viser forfatteren til sykepleieforskere som har latt seg inspirere av psykologien, og forklarer hvordan psykologien og sykepleieteoriene henger sammen. Noen av temaene hun behandler, er helheten kropp og sjel, følelser, hukommelsen og det meningsskapende i tilværelsen. Videre skriver hun om mellommenneskelige prosesser som relasjoner, kommunikasjon og medfølelse. Sykepleierens helsefremmende arbeid og psykologiske aspekter på god og dårlig helse beskrives også, og leseren får råd om veiledning, informasjonsarbeid, problem- og konfliktløsning.

    Sykepleierens grunnlagsverdier er bokens røde tråd. Hovedformålet med boken er å gi leseren bedre innsikt i hvordan mennesker fungerer på et psykologisk plan, og vise hvordan denne innsikten kan være med og danne grunnlag for de vurderingene en sykepleier må gjøre daglig i sitt virke.Målgruppen er først og fremst bachelorstudenter i sykepleie, men boken vil også være nyttig for andre helsefagstudenter og yrkesaktive sykepleiere.

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