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  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Work resumption or not after rehabilitation?: A descriptive study from six social insurance offices2004In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 171-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe measures and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation at six local national insurance offices in the same county in Sweden. Data were collected from mainframe registers and other records at each office. There were great differences in sickness allowance, incapacity rate, selected rehabilitation measures and resuming work. The percentage of sick-listed people who received any rehabilitation measure differed from 1.2 to 8.7%. The gender distribution for the study population was 36% men and 64% women and the predominant diagnosis was musculoskeletal pain conditions, which was followed by psychiatric disorders. Outcomes varied from office B, which reported 58% fully fit after completed planned rehabilitation, to office C, which reported only 24% fully fit. The clear differences in outcome between the offices indicate that various rehabilitation measures differ in effectiveness. The rehabilitation measure 'investigation of working ability' was not linked to any great proportion of people resuming work, but showed a greater correspondence to full disability pension. There were also large differences in social and demographic factors in the different municipalities. The effect of these on the rehabilitation process requires further investigation.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Broman, Lisbet
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Disability pension despite vocational rehabilitation?: A study from six social insurance offices of a county2005In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 33-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many long-term sick-listed individuals move from vocational rehabilitation to pension, rather than reaching the goal of return to work. There is thus reason to consider whether rehabilitation resources are being used optimally. Individuals receiving disability pensions are consuming financial and personnel resources at the insurance offices and also consume a large amount of health care. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the proportion of individuals granted vocational rehabilitation but then obtaining temporary or permanent disability pensions. All persons receiving any kind of rehabilitation and attending one of six local national insurance offices in a county in Sweden in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A 2-year follow-up was carried out to assess changes in status among those who had received temporary disability pensions. Of all individuals receiving rehabilitation, 46.2% ended up with a disability pension allowance. In addition, a large portion of the temporary disability pensions was transformed to permanent disability pensions within 2 years. For clients with a temporary disability pension, the rate of resuming work was close to nil. Among rehabilitation measures, investigation showed the lowest figures of work resumption while job training showed the best outcome in this respect. The study concluded that a large portion of the financial and personnel resources allocated by the national insurance offices to rehabilitation resulted in disability pensions.

  • 3.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: A person-oriented approach2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 305-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor. 

  • 4.
    Brunnström, G
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Sörensen, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Alsterstad, K.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Sjöstrand, J.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Sweden.
    Quality of light and quality of life: - the effect of lighting adaption among people with low vision.2004In: Ophthalmic & physiological optics : the journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians, ISSN 0275-5408, Vol. 24, no 4, p. 274-280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The study has investigated the effect of lighting on the daily activities (ADL) of the visually impaired in their homes by comparison before and after light adjustments were made in the kitchen, hall and bathroom. It has also investigated the additional effects on the quality of life after providing task lighting in the living room. METHOD: A total of 56 people were consecutively recruited from those receiving lighting adaptation help by the Low Vision Clinic in Göteborg. Ten persons did not complete the study. After medical examinations, lighting standards and psychosocial factors were charted. After lighting improvements were carried out in the kitchen, hall and bathroom, the subjects were randomly divided into two groups, an intervention and a comparison group. The task lighting in the living room was also improved for those included in the intervention group. Follow-up interviews to determine ADL and quality of life were performed 6 months after lighting adaptation. RESULTS: A marked effect on quality of life of the lighting in the living room was found for the intervention group. The effect on ADL of the basic lighting adaptation in kitchen, hall and bathroom for both groups was significant for tasks carried out on the working surface in the kitchen. Other activities in the kitchen and in the bathroom tended to improve but changes were not significant. CONCLUSION: The results confirm that it is possible to increase quality of life by improving the lighting conditions.

  • 5.
    Granlund, Mats
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Ylvén, Regina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    The Utility of ICF’s Participation Dimension in Assigning ICF Codes to Items from Extant Rating Instruments2004In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Firstly to investigate the utility of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health's (ICF's) participation dimension when items from extant questionnaires focusing on participation were assigned to ICF codes on an item-by-item basis; and, secondly, to conduct a preliminary investigation of the theoretical assumption expressed in ICF that ICF's environment component interacts with body function and participation components. Design: A person-based, descriptive study. Subjects: The sample comprised students with disabilities (n = 448), their parents/relatives ( n = 414), their teachers/managers (n = 418) and special education consultants (n = 110). Methods: Items from original surveys were used. Participation of students with disabilities: a survey of participation in school activities, The Arc's Self-Determination Scale, Perceived interaction-questionnaire, Environments survey, The Abilities Index. Data were analysed with the help of ANOVA, Scheffe pair-wise comparisons, correlation analysis and cluster analysis. Results: The study partly confirmed the utility of ICF participation dimension in assigning codes to items from extant instruments. Moderate statistical correlations between participation chapters and between items from different ICF dimensions were found. Cluster analysis resulted in groups with participation patterns not related to type of disability. Conclusion: Items from extant instruments can be assigned to ICF participation codes, but further item analyses and a more extensive questionnaire base are needed.

  • 6.
    Hochwälder, Jacek
    Natl. Inst. for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Assumptions about human nature: Comparison of implicit and explicit personality theories2000In: Psychological Reports, ISSN 0033-2941, Vol. 87, no 2, p. 611-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hjelle and Ziegler (1981) believe that people's positions on nine fundamental dimensions of human nature affect their personality theories, and that differences between people on these dimensions contribute to differences between their personality theories. The present study was conducted in order to obtain information about the ordinary person's position on these dimensions and to compare the ordinary person's position with 10 personality theorists' positions. 84 subjects rated their positions on each of nine Ii-step bipolar dimensions. The following results were obtained: (1) According to the ordinary person, the human being is free, changeable, influenced by the subjective world of experience, a product of the environment, and best understood from a holistic perspective; (2) The position of the ordinary person is most similar to Allport's position, and least similar to Skinner's position. The results are discussed in light of the relation between implicit (lay) and explicit (scientific) theories of personality.

  • 7.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Occupation as described by occupational therapy students in Sweden: A follow-up study2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the second in a series of studies carried out in Sweden concerning the dimensions of the concept occupation. The specific aim of this study was to explore new and confirm previously found dimensions of the concept of occupation in the context of occupational therapy. Occupational therapy students, a few weeks from their completion of studies, were asked to write down spontaneously what they personally considered to be occupation. Forty-two women and three men, aged between 25 and 33 years, participated. Grounded theory with the constant comparative method was used to analyse the data. A coding scheme of 40 codes was used to compare new data with previously found data concerning the concept of occupation as described by occupational therapy students. Six new codes concerning occupation expanded the dimensions of the concept. Five of those were found within the doing and context dimensions. These codes defined occupation as something that depends on who is performing the occupation and where the occupation is performed. Thus, occupation is not a permanent state but also very much depends on subjective experience. Additional studies with experienced occupational therapists have been planned to further expand these findings and aim to give a stronger foundation to the concept of occupation built on empirical grounds.

  • 8.
    Jorsäter Blomgren, Kerstin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Computer support and collaboration in the older Person's medication use2019In: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, ISSN 1053-8569, E-ISSN 1099-1557, Vol. 28, no Suppl 2 SI, p. 291-291Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Ann-Britt
    Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Background factors related to and/or influencing occupation in mentally disordered offenders2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 331-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of background and occupational related factors of mentally disordered offenders are missing. It is essential to understand these issues when planning discharge from forensic psychiatric hospital care to enable community dwelling. AIMS: One aim was to investigate mentally disordered offenders' background factors, confidence in and how they value occupations. Another aim was to investigate MDOs background factors' in relation to and the influences on Occupational Performance and Social Participation. METHOD: Data was collected with an explorative, correlative design after informed consent, from 74 mentally disordered offenders (mean age 34,2) cared for in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Assessments were Allen Cognitive Level Screen, Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Interview Schedule of Social Interaction, Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life, Self-efficacy Scale and Importance scale. Eight background factors were assembled from the individual forensic psychiatric investigation. FINDINGS: Most of the investigated background factors relate to and half of them influence occupational performance, particular the cognitive aspect of occupational performance. The influences on occupation originate from adulthood, such as suffering from schizophrenia, psycho/social problems, and having performed violent crimes. These findings indicate that staff in forensic hospital care should initiate rehabilitation with knowledge about MDOs' complex daily occupations. For avoiding information bias, information gathering preceding treatment planning should be performed in collaboration between caring staff and mentally disordered offenders.

  • 10.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stålenheim, G
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjödén, P-O
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Mentally Disordered Offenders’ Abilities in Occupational Performance and Social Participation2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The major aim was to describe occupational performance (OP) and social participation (SP) of mentally disordered offenders (MDO), and to compare professionals' and MDOs' appraisals of these abilities. Also, diagnostic groups and groups with/without substance related disorders were compared with regard to OP and SP. Self-report instruments (Capability to Perform Daily Occupations, Self-Efficacy Scale, Importance scale, Interview Schedule for Social Interaction), observations (Allen Cognitive Level Screen), and register data (Psychosocial and Environment Problems - Axis IV; Global Assessment of Functioning Scale - Axis V; Assessment Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments) were utilized. Demographic and register data were collected from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. Seventy-four out of 161 incarcerated subjects (46%), selected consecutively after informed consent during a period of 16 months, were interviewed on their hospital wards. The MDOs reported some disability in performing occupations and participating in community life. However, they were satisfied with their performance and participation, implying limited awareness of their disabilities. The professionals judged the MDOs as having problems with social participation, and major, longstanding disablements in several areas. Subjects with schizophrenia scored lower in some OP and SP variables than did subjects with personality disorders and other mental disorders. The results suggest that a large proportion of MDOs need support to enable their community living.

  • 11.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    et al.
    Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Stålenheim, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Sjödén, Per-Olow
    Uppsala University, Sweden .
    Personality traits as predictors of occupational performance and life satisfaction among mentally disordered offenders2005In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 357-364Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated to what extent personality traits, e.g. socialization, proneness for anxiety, aggression and hostility were associated with and predictive of self-reported and observed occupational performance and perceived life satisfaction among male mentally disordered offenders (MDOs). Also, subjects with psychopathic-related personality traits were compared with subjects without such traits regarding demographic data and dependent variables. The MDOs were included from the Swedish National Board of Forensic Medicine. A total of 55 subjects were visited at their hospital ward for data collection with the Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP), Capability to Perform Daily Occupation (CPDO), Allen Cognitive Level Screen (ACLS) and the Manchester Quality of Life Scale (MANSA). Seven KSP scales and two KSP factors correlated significantly with the dependent variables. Regression analyses revealed that the KSP Socialization scale, the KSP Anxiety-proneness and Psychopathy factors were the most important predictors. Subjects with psychopathy differed from remaining groups by having more conduct disorders before 15 years, being more often brought up in outcasted families and less subjected to measures of pupil welfare activities. The life history was concluded to be important influencing occupational performance and life satisfaction. Subjects with high anxiety proneness should be given attention in treatment planning.

  • 12.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Needs and problems related to occupational therapy as perceived by adult Swedes with long-term pain2002In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 9, p. 79-90Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    et al.
    University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Söderback, Ingrid
    Uppsala Universitet, Sweden; Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Needs assessment methods in healthcare and rehabilitation1998In: Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 0896-2960, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When community financial resources are reduced and need and demand for health services are increasing, needs assessment inrehabilitation/occupational therapy (OT) becomes an issue of priority. The aims of this study were, through an analysis of 39 relevant articles and11 textbooks: (1) to identify concept about how needs assessment should be conducted and (2) to compare these results with an analysis of how they have been conducted in practice. The review indicated four main approaches, including different elements of research: design, source, data collection, and data analysis. All the elements could be combined independently in different ways. Five of the articles explicitly studied occupational therapy and one rehabilitation. The areas most frequently assessed concerned persons with mental illness (25%) and physical disabilities (21%). Most of the studies were conducted with survey-designs (81%), the main sources being patients (57%) and key-informants (36%). In 26% of the studies, several sources were used and in 33% several methods of data collection. This multiple approach is recommended as a check that the data are reliable. The ways of collecting data most frequently used, however, were questionnaires (57%) and interviews (46%). Descriptive statistics (82%) were mostly used for analysis. The possible ways of conducting needs assessment in rehabilitation/OT were not fully used in the empirical studies. The field scarcity of articles concerning needs assessment in occupational therapy indicates that this field has evidently not yet been fully explored.

  • 14.
    Skjutar, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Müllersdorf, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Schult, Marie-Louise
    Danderyds Sjukhus, Sweden.
    Activity pacing som intervention för att förbättra aktivitetsutförandet och öka tillfredsställelsen.2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Konsekvenserna av att leva med långvarig smärta leder till att många patienter behöver rehabilitering. I rehabilitering ingår ofta arbetsterapi där activity pacing färdigheter lärs ut och diskuteras. Activity pacing är en flexibel strategi som används för att hantera ADL. Som begrepp har activity pacing studerats men det saknas studier som undersökt activity pacing som intervention ur ett kliniskt perspektiv hos personer med långvarig smärta. Syfte: Undersöka hur en intervention med activity pacing påverkar aktivitetsutförande, tillfredsställelse med aktivitetsutförande, behov av arbetsterapi och activity pacing färdigheter hos patienter med långvarig smärta. Metod: En grupp på 11 patienter med långvarig smärta deltog under tolv veckor i studien som hade en single-case, ABA design. De deltog alla i ett rehabiliteringsprogram vid en universitetsklinik och gick där under våren 2008 rehabiliteringskursen ”Balans i aktivitet” där activity pacing var den huvudsakliga interventionen. Primärt utfallsmått var Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. Sekundära utfallsmått var Occupational Therapy Needs Assessment Pain Patient samt frågor om activity pacing färdigheter. Data kommer att analyseras genom typisk single-case visuell inspektion och statistiska metoder. Förväntat resultat: Resultatet kommer att visa hur de olika utfallsmåtten ffa aktivitetsutförande och tillfredsställelse med aktivitetsutförandet (COPM) förändras över tid samtidigt som den arbetsterapeutiska interventionen med activity pacing har utförts. Konklusion: Studien bidrar med detaljerad kunskap om hur aktivitetsutförandet förändras över tid, när och om någon effekt uppstår och hur effekten bibehålls efter att interventionen avslutats.

  • 15.
    Talman, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Wilder, Jenny
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stier, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Christine
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Participation in daily life for adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities: How high do they climb on Shier's ladder of participation?2019In: Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, ISSN 1744-6295, E-ISSN 1744-6309, article id UNSP 1744629519863959Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participation is the goal of Swedish disability policy, but it is difficult to achieve for adults with profound intellectual (and multiple) disabilities (PI(M)D). Since these adults are dependent on others in every aspect of their lives, others control their ability to participate in everyday life decisions. This study used observations, analyzed with Shier's ladder of participation, to elucidate and describe participation in daily life for adults with PI(M)D living in a group home. The results showed that the adults often reached the first three levels of Shier's ladder, one adult reached the fourth level once, and no one reached the fifth level. Participation on a higher level, therefore, seems hard to reach for adults. Staff members' attitudes toward the adults' capability can also be a barrier to participation. Applying Shier's ladder of participation can provide valuable information that might lead to increased participation in daily life for adults with PI(M)D.

  • 16.
    Willis, Claire
    et al.
    Univ Western Australia, Australia.
    Nyquist, Astrid
    Beitostolen Healthsports Ctr, Sentervegen 4, N-2953 Beitostolen, Norway..
    Jahnsen, Reidun
    Beitostolen Healthsports Ctr, Sentervegen 4, N-2953 Beitostolen, Norway.;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Neurosci Children, Kirkeveien 166, N-0450 Oslo, Norway..
    Elliott, Catherine
    Curtin Univ, Sch Occupat Therapy & Social Work, Kent St, Perth, WA 6102, Australia..
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Enabling physical activity participation for children and youth with disabilities following a goal-directed, family-centred intervention2018In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 77, p. 30-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background There is a paucity of research demonstrating the optimisation and maintenance of participation outcomes following physical activity interventions for children and youth with disabilities. Aim: To evaluate changes in physical activity participation in children with disabilities following a goal-directed, family-centred intervention at a healthsports centre, and to identify factors influencing participation following the intervention. Methods and procedures: A mixed methods pre-test post-test cohort design was applied. Recruitment occurred over a 12 month period during standard clinical service provision. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) was administered to children and parents pre (T1) and post-intervention (T2), and at 12 weeks follow-up (T3). Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) was applied to assess outcomes at 12 weeks follow-up (T2 T3). Qualitative inquiry described barriers to goal attainment at T3. Outcomes and results: Ninety two children with a range of disabilities (mean age 11.1yr; 49 males) were included in the study. Statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in parent ratings of COPM performance and satisfaction of participation goals were observed following intervention. Ratings at 12 weeks follow-up remained significantly higher than baseline, and 32% of children attained their COPM-derived GAS goal. Environmental factors were the most frequent barrier to goal attainment following intervention. Conclusion and implications: These results provide preliminary evidence for goal-directed, family centred interventions to optimise physical activity participation outcomes for children with disabilities.

  • 17.
    Zettervall, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Khazal, Mariam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Innovation + Design = ! : En kombination av processer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Field: Because of the faster development today, companies need to become more competitive and one way is through innovation. It requires an active standpoint and one way to achieve this is through innovation processes. Another competitive tool that is becoming increasingly important is design. These two concepts can be broken down into a number of factors and can be viewed from several perspectives.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to understand similarities and differences between innovation and design processes, and to see how they can complement each other.

    Method: We have used a qualitative method and have conducted interviews with three different companies. These three companies have then been analyzed and compared with theory and with each other. Theories in each field have also been compared with each other.

    Conclusions: We have come to the conclusion that innovation and design processes can be viewed as different levels. Innovation processes are more general and about the entire organization and design processes are rather more detailed on product development. The design process can therefore also be said to be part of the innovation process, a tool. We also saw that there were nine factors in practice that were important to the innovation process, namely to foster innovation in the organizational culture, supportive leadership, staff involvement and engagement, project-based innovation, multidisciplinary teams, good communication, customer involvement, business intelligence and evaluation / reflection. Based on these findings, we created our own model, inspired by existing models.

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