mdh.sePublications
Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 228
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abdulla, Hana
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    FYSISK INAKTIVITET OCH STILLASITTANDE BLAND BARN OCH UNGA I GRUNDSKOLAN2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and youth inactivity and sedentary at school is increasing. This means that some of the students have a significant unhealthy lifestyle with physical inactivity, which in turn implies risks of suffering from various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all related to a sedentary lifestyle. To prevent illness, it is important that children and young people early get a positive attitude towards physical activity.

    The purpose of this study was to study the causes of child and adolescent physical inactivity in school, based on teachers 'and parents' perspectives.

    A qualitative research has been selected. To achieve the study objectives, the author has conducted seven semi-structured interviews, with an appropriate choice of five teachers and two parents with children in school. Data was analyzed with a manifest content analysis.

    The results show that teachers and parents felt that physical activity is a protective factor for children's health. There are several reasons for physical inactivity in students today, blah new technologies, various transportation facilities and family finances. Some measures that can reduce the physical inactivity, for example be to increase sports lesson 'time and by starting with children and young people's interest to make them feel joy in moving, which increases the interest in physical activity.

    The conclusion of this work is that children's movement is important for their health. Children and youth in elementary school in need of physical activity so that they feel good. Both schools and parents have a responsibility to promote children's physical activity so that they can preserve their health, before improving their learning ability, have more energy and to manage the school in a good way.

  • 2.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kinesiska universitetsstudenters uppfattningar om sexualundervisning för ungdomar i Kina2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality and reproduction are two central parts of human life and they are integrated into our personalities. It is therefore important to create a good foundation for sexual health and wellbeing from an early age. To see adolescents as “ready to act-individuals” and to make them more involved in open dialog discussions contributes to extended possibilities for creating and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. The school is therefore considered as an important arena for health promoting and preventive actions where most adolescents can be reached. An obligated nine years school based education was implemented in China 1986, and school based Sex education became obligated in 2002.

     

    The study aimed to examine Chinese university student’s perceptions of Sexeducation for adolescents (10-19 years) in China and needs for changes and ongoing tendencies of development. Qualitative studies were conducted with three Chinese university students and contact was taken with a key person in China whom translated material for this study alone.

     

    The result showed various constructions of school based Sexeducation in China and that its implementation and construction needs more support. It also showed a need for the development of influence and participation in the school based Sexeducation. A need for creating an improved communication between teachers and students was also expressed and a more salutogenic approach needs to be developed.

     

    Through collaboration with other countries, for example Sweden, can today’s open-minded process of change benefit even more.

     

  • 3.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sexual behavior among Chinese male and female medical university students in Chongqing, China2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality is one of the most fundamental values of life as it affects our behaviors, thoughts and emotions. Young people are an especially essential group for promoting sexual health as it is during adolescents the base for our sexuality is created. The aim of this study was to examine Chinese male and female medical university student’s knowledge and ideas of sexual behavior at Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China. An explorative quantitative survey study was conducted at place in Chongqing. The survey study’s result showed that ideas of sexual behavior were seem to be permissive and love-based, and also bi- and homosexuality to be mainly acceptable. The Internet, books and friends were seemed as important sources for knowledge whereas few believed to have received adequate knowledge from school. It was also seemed to be a major lack of knowledge regarding STD’s and how to protect yourself as “safe periods” was believed to be an important contraceptive method. The relationship between contraception and the protection against STD seems to be obscure.

  • 4.
    Ahlbäck, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete med levnadsvanor i landstinget Västmanland: - Upplevelser av att delta i "Kom i form gruppen"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy lifestyles are an important condition for creating a positive health and dietary habits, physical activity and stress are factors that affect health. As a result of recent changes in society people's lifestyles have changes through unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress has increased. Changing lifestyles have affected public health, and to invest in these areas in public health work can provide significant health benefits. Västmanland County Council operates a project to promote healthy behavior. The project includes "Kom i form gruppen" which is a group that focuses on nutrition, physical activity and stress. The aim was to investigate participants' experiences of participation in "Kom i form gruppen" and if the participation has affected their lifestyles. To answer the purpose, a qualitative approach with interviews used. The result shows that the content of the meetings has not identified any new knowledge. Participation has provided awareness and motivation and appreciation of food habits have been affected varied between participants. The participants' exercise habits have been affected by regular exercise occasions and everyday physical activity. Effect of stress has not been made, but they try to think about to rush less. Lack of time and stress, however, perceived as an impediment to healthy living.

  • 5.
    Ahlzén, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Konflikten mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv: En kvalitativ studie om småbarnsföräldrars upplevelser av psykisk hälsa och balans i tillvaron2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's career choices and ambitions impose different demands on the individuals than in the past. In a labour market that demands flexibility and responsibility, the individuals are expected to be able to work almost anytime and from anywhere. These factors have contributed to an imbalance between work and family life that can trigger various forms of illness. In this study, I investigate how parents of young children perceive their mental health in relation to the balance between work and family life. This is achieved through a study that employs qualitative methods and data collection based on six individual semi-structured interviews, where the material is then analysed based on a manifest content analysis. The results show that today’s parents are well aware of the imbalance between their work and family life, and that this negatively affects their health in several ways, ranging from stress and anxiety to sleep problems and personal conflicts. To address this imbalance the parents creates routines, shared responsibilities at home, and allow personal time for leisure, in an attempt to create a form of control over this imbalance. The conclusion of this study is that parent’s experience that they have to have routines at work and family life, where the parents have lower demands on their own health.

  • 6.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Temaledare: Vård på lika villkor – Vad kan vi lära av Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 103-106Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 7.
    akhavan, sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    wamala, S
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The health of female Iranian immigrants in Sweden: A qualitative six-year follow-up study2007In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 339-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration affects life and health in many different ways. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze female Iranian immigrants' perception of various factors that influence their health over time. Data collection was based on semistructured interviews with 10 female Iranianimmigrants. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1996, with follow-up interviews in 2002. The results suggest that during the first decade after migration, female immigrants may overcome some health-related factors such as experiences of traumatic events. Other health determinants such as unemployment or experiences of discrimination and racism, however, were observed even two decades after migration.

  • 8.
    Ali, Mona
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Make Every Mother Count: Maternal mortality in Malawi, India and United Kingdom2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to examine and compare the maternal mortality in three different countries; Malawi, India and United Kingdom, as well as highlighting the attributing factors and preventive steps that would reduce the maternal mortality in these countries. Methods and material: The studied design that was chosen is an ecological study which means to study the relationship between aggregated health data and exposing factors, for example a geographical area and time period. The reason of choosing this study can be seen in the relationship and the factors that contribute to maternal mortality in Malawi, India and the United Kingdom. In order to attain the objective of the thesis a variety of sources were utilized to find data, statistics and scientific articles concerning maternal mortality in all three countries.Results and conclusion: Maternal mortality is the highest in Malawi and India, while it is very low in the United Kingdom when compared with these two countries. The result shows among other things that the maternal mortality is mainly caused by direct causes both in Malawi and India and in the United Kingdom the maternal mortality is mainly from indirect causes. It is also shown that the maternal mortality in these countries have been changed over the years. It is also shown that preventive steps such as family planning, skilled attendance, obstetric emergency care and antenatal care can significantly reduce the maternal mortality rate.

  • 9.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellnäs, Petra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stefansson, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health2006In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 275-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4-5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classificationof Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

  • 10.
    Andersson, P
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Men of low socio-economic and educational level possess pronounced deficient knowledge about the risk factors related to coronary heart disease2001In: Journal of Cardiovascular Risk, ISSN 1350-6277, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of the present study was to determine whether certain background factors such as gender, education and social status were associated with an individual's knowledge of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors.

    Design: A questionnaire survey.

    Methods: A questionnaire survey designed to evaluate participants' general knowledge about the risk factors for CHD was used. A total of 1011 50-year-old individuals (457 men and 554 women) from 34 Health Care Centers participated in the study.

    Results: Knowledge about CHD risk factors was significantly poorer in men than in women. Low education and low socio-economic status were other factors related to poor knowledge of CHD risk factors.

    Conclusion: This study showed that men with low educational level and low socio-economic status had inadequate information about the risk factors involved in CHD.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Sjöberg, RL.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Krysa, M.
    Municipality of Wroclaw City, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Sidorowicz, W.
    Municipality of Wroclaw City, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Öhrvik, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lags in behavioral change:: A population based comparison of cardiovascular risk behavior in Poland and Sweden2006In: Central European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1210-7778, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 82-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One thousand and twenty Polish men and women and 1,011 Swedish men and women aged 50 and recruited through primary health care took part in a survey relating to their knowledge of health-related behaviour, attitudes to health-related behaviour and self-reported risk behaviour. The results reveal that Poles know as much about cardiovascular risk factors as Swedes, but that Swedes feel that it is more important to change their dietary habits and to influence factors in the working environment to avoid the risk of developing CVD than did Poles. Swedes also displayed less risk behaviour than Poles and more Swedes than Poles had successfully stopped smoking. These findings suggest that differences in stages of health-related behavior that have previously been observed at an individual level may sometimes also be discerned at a national level.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Victor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    ATT ARBETA FRÄMJANDE MED PSYKISK HÄLSA INOM SKOLAN: En kvalitativ studie om hur elevhälsoteamet på en gymnasieskola inom Västmanlands Län arbetar för att främja elevernas psykiska hälsa2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the school health unit at a high school in Vastmanlands County is working to promote mental health among the students. To enable the study a qualitative method was applied in order to understand how the health unit works around the subject. Semistructured interviews was carried out with a number of persons who were identified through a targeted selection. Where all were working as a part of the school health unit at a high school in Vastmanlands County. With a manifest content analysis the collected material could show a result from those interviewed. 

    The result demonstrated that there was a connection between how the mental health was affected by the physical health. In order to achieve a stable and positive health condition it required a person to be satisfied with oneself. The practical work lacked a plan of action or guidelines although personel were working actively to promote the mental health among the students. It was underlined that there was a lack of attention specifically regarding the mental health and the health promotion. The results of the health promotion work were estimated mainly via grades, students school development and changes in attending school, commitment and mood. There are development possibilities in which implementation of a plan of action or a working model could improve the health promotion work in high school. Finally this study suggests applying SESAME as a working model in the health promotion work for the health school unit in order to promote the mental health among the students. 

  • 13.
    Andreas, Rödlund
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    STRESS OCH SOCIALA MEDIER: En kvantitativ studie om sociala medievanor och stress bland ungdomar i Västmanland.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, the mental health has decreased among adolescents. They experience stress, and this is especially most evident amongst girls in school age. The usage of internet and social media has increased since the beginning of the twenty-first century. There are previous studies proving that social media have a profound impact on individuals. Research shows that social media creates an unhealthy comparison between individuals resulting in skewed norms and the phenomena of cyberbullying is increasing. Other studies indicate that people experience it as stressful to constantly be connected. However, research has also showed that social media increases globalization as well as access to a new social context for individuals.

    Aim: To investigate the occurrence and correlation between social media use and stress, the occurrence and connection of violations on social media and stress and whether there are differences in gender in social media habits and stress among adolescents in Västmanland.

    Method: Quantitative method with cross-sectional design was used to analyze the occurrence and correlation between adolescent’s social media habits and stress. This study is based on data from the Survey of “Adolescent Life in Västmanland - 2017” which included 3951 students from the 9th grade of primary school and 2nd in high school.

    Results: The results of this study show there is stress among adolescents, use of social medias and cyberbullying occur. There is a correlation between social media use and stress. Adolescents who use social media one or more times an hour are also “quite” or “very “stressed. Adolescents who experienced cyberbullying are more likely to be “quite” or “very” stressed. There occurs a difference in gender between adolescents that use social medias one or more times an hour. Girls use social media more frequently than boys. There are also difference in gender regarding stress, girls are more likely to be “quite” or “very” stressed.

    Conclusions: A correlation can be found between high-frequency social media use and adolescents who are quite or very stressed. There is also a correlation between adolescents who experience cyberbullying and adolescents who are quite or very stressed. There different reasons for that, but subjective standards that require constant connection, an unhealthy comparison between individuals and different ruling techniques online are factors that influence.

  • 14.
    Antonsson, Karolina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Självskadebeteende i relation till andra riskbeteenden: Enkätstudie bland flickor i årskurs 9 och år 2 på gymnasiet i Sörmlands län2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Unhealthiness among youths in Sweden includes several kinds of public health problems where mental illness is increasing and affecting more and more people, resulting in, for example, deliberate self-harm. This thesis discusses the relations between self-harm and other dangerous behaviors based on the data set from Liv & Hälsa ung in Sörmland. It is a recurring total population survey about lifestyle, dangerous behaviors and health among pupils in year 7, 9 and second year at high school. The survey was answered by 2750 pupils in year 9 and 2770 pupils in year 2 at high school. Only girls in year 9 (n=1313) and year 2 (n=1384) at high school is included in this thesis. A quantitative method was used to investigate occurrence and differences among the population.

    The empowerment theory is discussed, which is considered to be an important tool in order for the society to help individuals strengthen their self confidence and in that way increase the health level among youths.

    The results show that it is more common that self-harming individuals are also engaged in other dangerous behaviors, such as daily smoking and shoplifting, in comparison to the control group. This could serve as an indicator that the area requires more research in order to develop future preventive measures to reduce the number of girls harming themselves.

  • 15.
    Arogén, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Skolkuratorernas hälsofrämjande arbete: En kvalitativ studie om skolkuratorernas hälsofrämjande arbete i Eskilstuna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Skolans miljö en är avgörande faktor för folkhälsoarbete, därför är hälsofrämjande arbete i skolan viktigt att belysa. Eleverna drabbas av stress, depressioner och ökade kunskapskrav. Bestämningsfaktorer som livsstil, trygga miljöer samt sociala nätverk påverkar en individs psykiska hälsa. Skolkuratorerna ansvarar mest av all personal på skolan för det hälsofrämjande arbetet. För att främja hälsan i skolarbetet är det av betydelse att identifiera hur skolkuratorerna arbetar.Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur skolkuratorer i Eskilstuna Kommun arbetar med att främja psykisk hälsa för barn i årskurs 7-9. En kvalitativ studiedesign och en manifest innehållsanalys har använts för att uppnå syftet med studien. Skolkuratorerna i Eskilstuna kommun har intervjuats med hjälp av en semistrukturerad intervjuguide.Kuratorernas arbete styrs utifrån styrdokumentet Elevhälsan. Samarbete tillsammans med personal som skolsköterskor anses viktigt. Kuratorernas arbete med eleverna styrs kring helheten. Trivsamma miljöer, aktiviteter samt att umgås tillsammans med eleverna är något som är av betydelse. Akutsamtalen tar upp för mycket tid i det dagliga arbetet, vilket även tidigare studier belyser. Studiens slutsats visar att Elevhälsans alla resurser behöver vara mer tillgängliga på skolorna än de är i dagsläget. Den stora kuratorsträffen som sker månadsvis behöver också en samordnare för att ge den respons som behövs.

  • 16.
    Axelsson Brakstad, Linn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ledarskapets betydelse för medarbetarnas hälsa: En kvalitativ studie om hur medarbetarna upplever att ledarskap bidrar till hälsa på arbetsplatsen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sickness absence in Sweden increased sharply in the late 20th century and hit the higher educated persons who have not previously been on sick leave. Many people spend most of their lives at work and the work environment affects employees in different ways, where the leadership is a factor affecting the health of the individual. The workplace is therefore considered to be one venue where health promotion interventions to improve health can be implemented. That leadership affects employee health is considered given, but there is not much research in this area.

    The aim of the study was to examine how employees in a workplace with low levels of sickness absence feel that leadership contributes to health in the workplace. The study was based on a qualitative approach where data was collected through telephone interviews with five persons. The workplace that is being studied has a low absenteeism and is based out of a county council in Sweden.

    The results show that a good leader should be available, be supportive and clear. A leader who contributes to the health trust their staff, helping to prioritize, is sensitive and caring. A conclusion that can be drawn about the results is that contributing to employee health is the same as good leadership.

  • 17.
    Backlund, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Barn- och ungdomars tillvaro efter avslutad elitsatsning: En kvalitativ studie ur ett förälderperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is a determinant of public health. Hence the Swedish sports movement wish to contribute to the development of sporting activities as a way to increase the number of participants and motivate people to stay physically active throughout life. A common issue in elite level sports is that many end their career before reaching their final potential.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the parent’s perspective regarding their children’s being after ending their elite effort. A qualitative method was applied and data was collected in five semi-structured interviews. The collected material was analyzed with a manifest content analysis. The result indicated that several of the children, who previously had been a part of an elite investment, had changed their lifestyle from a physically active lifestyle to a freer way of life where it is perceived to be room for spontaneity and playfulness. Everyday life nowadays includes new friends and greater focus on studies or job. Former social context focused around the sports arena are now taking place in other environments. Their previous identification with their sport has been lost and by ending their elite efforts the children's mental health declaimed, however they have later recovered to some extent. The conclusion of this study is that life has changed for the children after ending their elite effort.

  • 18.
    Bastholm Rahmner, Pia
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Karolinska University Hospital,.
    Larsson, Jan
    Uppsala universitet, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Rosenqvist, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Tomson, Göran
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Holmström, Inger
    Uppsala universitet, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    Variations in understanding the drug-prescribing process: a qualitative study among Swedish GPs2009In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 121-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: A majority of doctor-patient meetings result in the patient getting a prescription. This underlines the need for a high-quality prescription process. While studies have been made on single therapeutic drug groups, a complete study of the physicians' general thought process that comprises the prescription of all drugs still remains to be made. OBJECTIVE: To identify variations in ways of understanding drug prescribing among GPs. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with 20 Swedish physicians. Informants were recruited purposively and their understandings about prescribing were studied in semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. RESULTS: Five categories were identified as follows: (A) GP prescribed safe, reliable and well-documented drugs for obvious complaints; (B) GP sought to convince the patient of the most effective drug treatment; (C) GP chose the best drug treatment taking into consideration the patient's entire life situation; (D) GP used clinical judgement and close follow-up to minimize unnecessary drug prescribing and (E) GP prescribed drugs which are cheap for society and environmentally friendly. The categories are interrelated, but have different foci: the biomedical, the patient and the society. Each GP had more than one view but none included all five. The findings also indicate that complexity increases when a drug is prescribed for primary or secondary prevention. CONCLUSIONS: GPs understand prescribing differently despite similar external circumstances. The most significant factor to influence prescribing behaviour was the physician's patient relation approach. GPs may need to reflect on difficulties they face while prescribing to enhance their understandings.

  • 19.
    Björk, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Arbetsförhållandens betydelse för hälsa: En kvantitativ studie ur ett salutogent perspektiv bland lagerarbetare.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sick leave due to mental ill-health, caused by poor working conditions in the social and organizational work environment is a growing problem in the society. There is a lack of research on working conditions’ impact on health from a salutogenic perspective. The purpose of this study is to investigate the extent to which perceived working conditions can be associated with self-rated health from a salutogenic perspective among warehouse workers at a workplace. The study is based on questionnaire data. Univariat- and multiple linear regressions were performed to investigate the relationship between working conditions and health. The result showed that there are significant associations between working conditions and self-rated health. The strongest associations were found with supportive working conditions, time experience, individual inner experinces, and health. This means that it is important to have a high social climate in the workplace with access to support from both colleagues and employer, that work is perceived as meaningful, to have opportunities for development, that personnel education matches the requirements for the job and that there is enough time to perform tasks without stress. Self-rated health increased with age but there were no significant differences by gender, employment status, education or ethnic background. The result has been discussed on the basis of sense of coherence (SOC) and the demand-control-support model as a theoretical perspective.

  • 20.
    Blomqvist, Isabel
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Landet med de tusen öar och skär - hur fungerar folkhälsoarbetet där?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health promotion is to promote healthy living, preventing diseases and change the determinants of health through various strategies. Public health work at community level associates with intersectoral, health promoting efforts and influence by legislation, governance and policy work. The purpose of this study is to examine how health professionals perceive health promotion in Aland Islands, cooperation between different actors and the development of health promotion work in Aland Islands. A qualitative method was chosen, where four professionals from Aland Government and the Aland healthcare participated in interviews. A semi-structured interview guide where used for the interviews. A manifest content analysis method was used for analysing the material from the interviews. The results show that public health work in Åland is done both by local associations and organizations, but also by law based work. The results also indicate shortcomings in the cooperation for health promotion, but the corporation is overall good. Furthermore, the opportunities for development of health promotion and public health in Aland Islands were perceived as good. Questions like physical activity, alcohol use, drugs and the health of the elderly were considered as prioritized areas to work with. The conclusion of this study is that cooperation and collaboration between other organizations, authorities and sectors of the society should be improved to maintain the health of the population in Aland Islands, and the Aland Islands autonomy could provide a basis for guiding health promotion through laws. 

  • 21.
    Bogg, Lennart
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska institutet.
    Dong, Hengjin
    Zhejiang University, School of Public Health, China.
    An Economic Insight into Health Care in Six Chinese Counties: Equity in Crisis2010In: International Health & Aid Policies: the Need for Alternatives / [ed] Unger, Jean-Pierre; De Paepe, Pierre; Sen, Kasturi; Soors, Werner, Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 123-137Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives:

    To assess inequity in health care financing and utilisation, its associated socio-economic variables and consequences, with focus on the impact of alternative health financing systems.

     

    Methods

    Econometric and multivariate analysis of cross-sectional and retrospective household survey data from six counties in three provinces in Central China.

     

    Findings:

    The old Cooperative Medical System (CMS) was associated with a five times less risk of financial difficulties, half the risk of care-induced debt (non-significant, 95%CI 0.2-1.1) and not one CMS participant having to forego care due to cost. CMS was associated with better health, three times less risk of illness with duration of at least one month. Other health insurance systems were associated with higher risk of illness, higher outpatient expenditure without evidence of reducing barriers to care. The elderly (60 years +) had a more than five times increased risk of illness for at least one month, (OR = 5.2, 95%CI = 3.2-8.3). The illness concentration index confirmed that the poor suffer from a higher prevalence of morbidity. The Le Grand index confirmed strong bias in utilisation favouring the rich. The Kakwani index confirmed an extremely high degree of regressivity in the financing of health services, (-0.73) for outpatient and (-0.94) for inpatient services. The New Cooperative Medical System (NCMS) differs from the old CMS in critical aspects.

  • 22.
    Bogg, Lennart
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska institutet.
    Huang, Kun
    Anhui Medical University.
    Shen, Yuan
    Xi'an Jiaotong University.
    Long, Qian
    Chongqing Medical University.
    Hemminki, Elina
    National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland .
    Dramatic Increase of Cesarean Deliveries in the Midst of Health Reforms in Rural China2010In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 70, no 10, p. 1544-1549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cesarean delivery (CD) rates were until recently low in rural China where the population lacked healthinsurance. In July 2003 the New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) was introduced. We report findingsfrom a health systems study carried out in the EC-funded project ‘‘Structural hinders to andpromoters of good maternal care in rural China’’ in central and western China. The purpose was toanalyze how CD rates changed with the increased level of funding of the NCMS.The research design was a natural experiment. Quantitative demographic, administrative and accountsdata for 2001–2007 were collected in five counties from the county public health bureaux, the countyNCMS offices, the county statistical offices and the Maternal and Child Health (MCH) hospitals, usinga structured data collection form. We found that the CD rates increased in four of the five counties in theperiod 2004–2007 by 36%, 53%, 61% and 131% respectively. In the fifth county the CD rate remained highat 60%. The revenue from CD made up 72–85% of total delivery fee revenue. CD fee revenue increased by97%, 239% and 408% in the three counties with available data; a higher increase than in general healthcare revenue. Our conclusion is that the design of NCMS, the provider payment systems, and therevenue-related bonus systems for doctors need to be studied to rein in the unhealthy increases in ruralCD rates.

  • 23.
    Boyev, Marat
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Motivation till integration: En kvalitativ undersökning om handledarnas uppfattning kring ensamkommande flyktingbarns motivation till integration2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The refugee policy has been a debated topic in Sweden since the large refugee wave in 2015. Many of the refugees were unaccompanied children from Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria among other countries. The unaccompanied refugee children received accommodation support such as placements in family homes and home-care, where daily care was provided. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the supervisors in home for cares perception regarding motivation of unaccompanied refugee children to integrate into the Swedish society, and to what extent they are motivated. The study was based on a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as a design. A targeted-oriented approach has been applied to a home for care in Vasteras, with a total of five respondents who participated in the survey. Data was analyzed through a manifest content analysis. The result shows that the unaccompanied refugee children’s motivation for integration is mainly affected by the asylum process. They have the ability to be motivated to integrate into the Swedish society, however, due to long process of an asylum decision, stress and anxiety increases among the unaccompanied refugee children, which influences the motivation to integrate into the Swedish Society.

  • 24.
    Bristell, Linn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande genom medarbetarsamtal –: Fokusgruppsintervjuer i kommunal verksamhet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of the adult population is present in working life and the workplace is therefore an important setting in the efforts to improve public health. In the organizations’ day-to-day work to improve the work environment it is possible to use performance appraisal that aims to increase the understanding for the organization’s commissions and to increase the employees’ participation. Aim: To study directors and coworkers experiences about how work environment and lifestyle are discussed and managed during performance appraisal. Method: Four focus groups where performed with directors and co-workers from different units at proAros. Result: Objectives, strategies, development, and a united direction in the organization were discussed as important for performance appraisals. Leadership, support and encouragement, participation, the own responsibility and how objectives, demands are adjusted to the existing situation were factors that were experienced to influence performance appraisal. Concerning the work environment was the comfort in the team and how the cooperation worked the foremost subjects that were discussed. Concerning lifestyle were the organisation’s health work, the responsibility for your own health and the balance between working life and leisure time discussed. Conclusion: The physical work environment is still important for the employees’ health as the units of proAros to a great extent consist of human services with a high workload. The question of how to find a balance is important for the work related health and therefore should the awareness of it be enlarged. The health promoting work should therefore also be integrated in performance appraisals.

  • 25.
    Bylund, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Utlandsfödda kvinnors upplevelser och erfarenheter av integrationen i Sverige: En kvalitativ studie2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Women self-report worse health than men, and people born in a foreign country report lower psychological well-being than Swedish born people. Participation and influence within society directly correlate with health, therefore it is important to integrate people into society so that they can participate and gain influence. The purpose of this study is, using a public health perspective, to examine foreign born women’s relations and experiences of integration in Sweden. A qualitative approach was used to answer the purpose. Five semi-structured interviews have been conducted in Stockholm, Västerås and Gävle with foreign born women of 18 years and older. The collected interview data was analyzed using manifest content analysis. The results showed that social-networks, language, and occupation are three important aspects that contribute to successful integration. Fear and unwillingness to assimilate to different cultures in a new country can increase the difficulty of integration. To ease integration, the participants believed that a multi-sectoral approach is necessary, stakeholders in integration need to work together. The women further described that more information and transparency in information from stakeholders will increase their ability to successfully integrate into a new country. The conclusions are that there are three main aspects that foreign born women believe influence their possibility to integration: experiences, possibilities and obstacles. Future policy makers should regard these important aspects when presenting policies for integration.

  • 26.
    Byman, Malin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sverige är mitt hemland: En kvalitativ studie av unga muslimska kvinnors upplevelser i det svenska arbetslivet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a widespread discrimination on the labour marked with Islamophobic basis. The aim of this study was to investigate young Muslim women ́s experiences of the Swedish work life in relation to their muslim identity and in order to gain an understanding, a qualitative method was chosen. The data collection method was semi-structured interviews and the selection was a snowball sampling. The interviewees were women aged 18-26 and had all been subject to both recruitment, job search and employment. The analytical method used was a qualitative content analysis. Five interviews were conducted and five themes were to identify within those interviews; the attitudes of the surrounding community, participation in labour market, special treatment from others, Islam in the media and the developement of strategies. The women ́s experiences were all different, but the result was that the majority had experienced negative treatment because of their religious beliefs, they felt that there were difficulties being employed as a Muslim woman, that the enviroment to some extent reacts to their veil and that the media has a big influence on how people perceive Muslims. The conclusion was that the interviewees had been subject to a different treatment due to their religious beliefs, that they experienced a scepticsm against Muslims in Sweden and that Islam was associated with terrorism and extremism. 

  • 27.
    Ceder, Sofie
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ungdomsmottagningarnas verksamhet i Jönköpings län2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual attitudes and behavior in youth can be of great importance for sexual health development. Youth centers are important settings for preventing sexual transmitted infections and unwanted pregnancies and for promoting sexual health among youths in full. This study was performed in consultation with Landstinget Jönköping. The aim of the study was to examine the work of youth centers in Jönköpings County and find suggestions for quality guarantees for these centers. The survey was based on Socialstyrelsens indicators and Swedish Society for Youth Centers (FSUM) recommendations for youth centers work. The result showed a variation considering personnel resources and accessibility. The work areas are relevant but there is a lack of methods for preventive work and basic data for evaluation. To get further knowledge about separate youth centers needs, and needs in respective areas, a qualitative study is to prefer. The conclusions were that basic quality aspects should be applied for all youth centers. Demands concerning opening hours and personnel recourses should however be adjusted for local needs and conditions. The youth centers are in need of resources to offer the youth an equivalent support for their sexual health.

  • 28.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Growth Data in the School Health Service: an indicator of public health? A Nordic review1991In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 100-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Monitoring the height and weight of school children is a standard procedure in Nordic schools. These data are used for individual assessments of health and for the development and revision of growth standards. Growth data born previous Nordic studies are analysed. Secular charges in height and weight are described. The usefulness of height as an indicator of social inequality is discussed. The mean height of 10 year old Nordic children increased about 1 cm per decade since the 1930s. There were considerable differences in children's mean height among the five Nordic countries and among children of different socio-economic conditions. The studies of height and weight of Nordic school children differ too much in design to allow closer analyses. Systematic time series studies of growth data from the school health service to assess secular changes in growth and changes of social inequalities are desirable.

  • 29.
    Cernerud, Lars
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Lessons learnt2004In: BRIMHEALTH: Baltic rim partnership for public health 1993-2003, Göteborg: Nordiska högsk. för folkhälsovetenskap , 2004, p. 77-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    OLSSON, HENNY
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Humour seen from a public health perspective2004In: SCANDINAVIAN JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, ISSN 1403-4948, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 396-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humour is to be regarded as a salutogenic factor. As with other such factors there are reasons to believe that humour is a part of the individual's personality with the possibility of being strengthened by influences from the family, school, and workplace. The use of humour in population-based health promotive intervention strategies is a field lacking evidence-based knowledge.

  • 31.
    Choowong, Jiraporn
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Barriers, Enablers and challenges in the practice of directly observed treatment for tuberculosis patients in a local Thai community2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) has presented a challenge to the public health community in Thailand, especially as regards patient adherence to TB treatment. Direct observed treatment (DOT) is recommended for promoting patient adherence to TB treatment. There is good evidence that DOT can significantly increase the patient adherence to TB treatment. However, the implementation of DOT has complex relationships to socioeconomic factors and Thai context issues. 

    The overall aim was (1) to obtain a deeper understanding of what happens when the DOT is practised in a local Thai community, and (2) to generate knowledge for improving the implementation of DOT, and thereby improve patient adherence to TB treatment.

    The empirical data were collected in Trang province, in the southern region of Thailand, between 2013 and 2015. The sample of study I consisted of five District TB Coordinators and five TB clinic staff from the public health sectors in rural and urban areas. Phenomenographic analysis was used. Study II: Five focus group discussions were conducted with 25 village health volunteers and six family members; manifest and latent content analysis was used for the analysis. Study III: Twenty TB patients were interviewed, using grounded theory methodology. Study IV: A mixed-method systematic review was accessed through databases. Data from the selected studies were extracted and synthesized using thematic analysis. 

    The fear of stigma of TB patients was considered a significant barrier to the practice of DOT and adherence to TB treatment (studies I, II and III). Lack of TB knowledge and skills among DOT observers were revealed as barriers to the practice of DOT (studies I and II). At the same time, social facilitation and TB patients’ positive thinking and self-awareness were considered enablers of patient adherence to TB treatment (studies I and III). Another result is to provide an empowerment approach for DOT observers, who, in turn, will increase the empowerment of TB patients to achieve adherence to TB treatment  (study IV).

    This thesis contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of healthcare providers, DOT observers and TB patients when DOT is practised in a local Thai community. A challenge from these results is to provide an empowerment approach towards DOT observers. The results of this thesis will be useful for policy-makers who will consider strategies for improving the implementation of DOT and enabling patient adherence to TB treatment in the Thai context.

  • 32.
    Couto, Maria Thereza
    et al.
    Karolinska institutet.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Drivers' and conductors' views of causes and prevention of workplace violence in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo city, Mozambique2011In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, no 800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Workplace violence (WPV) is an occupational health hazard in both low and high income countries. To design WPV prevention programs, prior knowledge and understanding of conditions in the targeted population are essential. This study explores and describes the views of drivers and conductors on the causes of WPV and ways of preventing it in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique.

    Methods

    The design was qualitative. Participants were purposefully selected from among transport workers identified as victims of WPV in an earlier quantitative study, and with six or more years of experience in the transport sector. Data were collected in semi-structured interviews. Seven open questions covered individual views on causes of WPV and its prevention, based on the interviewees' experiences of violence while on duty. Thirty-two transport professionals were interviewed. The data were analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis.

    Results

    The triggers and causes of violence included fare evasion, disputes over revenue owing to owners, alcohol abuse, overcrowded vehicles, and unfair competition for passengers. Failures to meet passenger expectations, e.g. by-passing parts of a bus route or missing stops, were also important. There was disrespect on the part of transport workers, e.g. being rude to passengers and jumping of queues at taxi ranks, and there were also robberies. Proposals for prevention included: training for workers on conflict resolution, and for employers on passenger-transport administration; and, promoting learning among passengers and workers on how to behave when traveling collectively. Regarding control and supervision, there were expressed needs for the recording of mileage, and for the sanctioning of workers who transgress queuing rules at taxi ranks. The police or supervisors should prevent drunken passengers from getting into vehicles, and drivers should refuse to go to dangerous, secluded neighborhoods. Finally, there is a need for an institution to judge alleged cases of employees not handing over demanded revenues to their employer.

    Conclusions

    The causes of WPV lie in problems regarding money, behavior, environment, organization and crime. Suggestions for prevention include education, control to avoid critical situations, and a judicial system to assess malpractices. Further research in the road passenger transport sector in Maputo City, Mozambique and similar settings is warranted.

  • 33.
    Dahlström, Lina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att uppleva mat med alla sinnen: - Lärares erfarenheter av Sapere-metoden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Studies show that measures are required to reduce Swedish children’s intake of sugar and fat and to increase their intake of fruits and vegetables. Schools role in promoting a healthier diet in children must be given a greater attention. Teachers must take care of the opportunities they have that in the teaching mediate a positive view on food and meals. Sapere-method is an educational method and the aim is to practice pupils in their ability to use all their senses, to develop their language use and in the long term improve their food habits. This method is applied in schools in Västmanland. The aim with this study was to study teacher’s experiences of the Sapere-method in Västmanland, how the method was applied, what expectations there was, and what opportunities and obstacles encountered during the process. Data collection was done by interviewing teachers and the interviews were analyzed using a content analysis. The results of the study show that the Sapere method was applied because a person at the school became inspired. Expectations were a development of the children, to break the trends in society and expectations to continue the work in the future. The opportunities are that the method can be used in all school subjects, that is practiced practical and is in line with the curriculum. Obstacles in the method are lack of time, the cost and exchange of personnel in the school.

  • 34.
    De Costa, Ayesha
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Shet, Anita
    St Johns Colege, Bangalore.
    Kumarasamy, N
    YRG Care, Madras.
    Ashorn, Per
    Åbo University.
    Eriksson, Bo
    Nordic School of Public Health.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Diwan, Vinod
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Design of a randomized trial to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first line antiretroviral treatment in South India: the HIVIND study protocol2010In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 10, no 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poor adherence to antiretroviral treatment has been a public health challenge associated with the treatment of HIV. Although different adherence-supporting interventions have been reported, their long term feasibility in low income settings remains uncertain. Thus, there is a need to explore sustainable contextual adherence aids in such settings, and to test these using rigorous scientific designs. The current ubiquity of mobile phones in many resource-constrained settings, make it a contextually appropriate and relatively low cost means of supporting adherence. In India, mobile phones have wide usage and acceptability and are potentially feasible tools for enhancing adherence to medications. This paper presents the study protocol for a trial, to evaluate the influence of mobile phone reminders on adherence to first-line antiretroviral treatment in South India.

    Methods/Design: 600 treatment naive patients eligible for first-line treatment as per the national antiretroviral treatment guidelines will be recruited into the trial at two clinics in South India. Patients will be randomized into control and intervention arms. The control arm will receive the standard of care; the intervention arm will receive the standard of care plus mobile phone reminders. Each reminder will take the form of an automated call and a picture message. Reminders will be delivered once a week, at a time chosen by the patient. Patients will be followed up for 24 months or till the primary outcome i.e. virological failure, is reached, whichever is earlier. Self-reported adherence is a secondary outcome. Analysis is by intention-to-treat. A cost-effectiveness study of the intervention will also be carried out.

    Stepping up telecommunications technology in resource-limited healthcare settings is a priority of the World Health Organization. The trial will evaluate if the use of mobile phone reminders can influence adherence to first-line antiretrovirals in an Indian context.

  • 35.
    Degerheim Frykstad, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Frågeformulär om levnadsvanor på en vårdcentral: framgångsfaktorer och hinder vid implementering2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Health care provides a great opportunity for preventive and  health promoting work. The questionnaire "Five questions about your health," is addressed to patients and contains questions about physical activity, BMI, the use of tobacco and alcohol and questions about general and mental health. The questionnaire has two purposes; the first is for the patient to receive support in order to maintain or find a healthy lifestyle, secondly the questionnaire is a tool for the staff to identify lifestyle and perceived health status of the patient and provide the basis for talks and possible further action. The aim of this study is to investigate the success factors and obstacles according to staff to implement and use this lifestyle questionnaire as a tool in the daily work at a primary health care center. The study has a qualitative design and focus group and individual interviews are the methods that have been used. Success factors were for example confidence, easy and simple, appropriate level of resources allocated, importance of information, education, knowledge, monitoring, feedback and a routine in place to reach all patients. Obstacles were for example experience that it is difficult to query some patients, a feeling of uncertainty, time constraints and lack of knowledge of Motivational Interviewing. The major difference from previous ways of working does not seem to be the introduction of the questionnaire, but rather the kind of patient groups that were queried and the groups of professionals that asked the questions.

  • 36.
    Dini, Samira
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Ungdomars attityd om cannabis: En kvantitativ studie om attitydskillnader om cannabis mellan gymnasieungdomar i olika socioekonomiska områden och mellan könen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 37.
    Eliasson, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Är vi redo för en förändring?: Mindfulness som redskap i beteendeförändring – inriktning levnadsvanor. En kvalitativ intervjustudie ur ett användar- och instruktörsperspektiv2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 38.
    Emma, Gustafsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Aktörers förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbete: En kvalitativ studie om aktörers erfarenheter kring att förebygga psykisk ohälsa och att främja psykisk hälsa bland ungdomar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa bland ungdomar är ett omfattande och växande folkhälsoproblem, vilket bidrar till att det är betydelsefullt att förebygga psykisk ohälsa och främja psykisk hälsa bland unga. Flertalet aktörer har en viktig funktion inom det förebyggande och hälsofrämjande arbetet, då insatserna bedrivs inom skilda yrkessektorer som har varierande ansvar över området. Delaktighet och samverkan mellan olika aktörerna anses som en förutsättning för att arbetet ska nå framgång. Föreliggande studies syfte är att undersöka aktörers erfarenheter kring att förebygga psykisk ohälsa och att främja psykisk hälsa bland ungdomar. Urvalet består av fem aktörer som arbetar inom området, med yrkestitlarna skolkurator, administratör, samordnare, utvecklingsledare inom folkhälsa och folkhälsochef. Studien har en kvalitativ ansats och datainsamlingsmetoden utgörs av kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. En intervjuguide användes som stöd under intervjuerna och samtliga intervjuer spelades in och transkriberades samt analyserades med en manifest innehållsanalys. Studiens resultat påvisar att aktörernas arbetsmetoder inbegriper exempelvis föreläsningar, utbildning i första hjälpen för psykisk hälsa, förse elevhälsan med statistik samt föräldraskapsstöd. Resultatet visar att främjande faktorer för ungas psykiska hälsa innefattar att ungdomar upplever stöd och trygghet från vuxna. Utvecklingsmöjligheter med arbetet beskrivs vara att skolan och elevhälsan bör få utökade resurser, samt att undersöka ungdomars upplevelser kring psykisk ohälsa och hälsa. Framtida utmaningar med arbetet är att psykisk ohälsa och suicid ökar bland ungdomar samt att höja yrkesverksammas och ungdomars kunskap kring psykisk ohälsa och hälsa.

  • 39.
    Engström, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Uppkoppling före avkoppling?: Kvantitativ studie om samband mellan användning av sociala medier och sömnvanor bland ungdomar i Västmanland2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 40.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M-L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Västerås, Sweden .
    Impact on quality of life of different lower urinary tract symptoms in men measured by means of the SF 36 questionnaire2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology, ISSN 0036-5599, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 485-494Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe how different lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) affect the quality of life (QOL) in men. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 1008 men aged 40-80 years living in the community of Surahammar, Sweden who had answered a questionnaire concerning stress incontinence, urgency and post-micturition dribbling 12 months earlier. The occurrence and severity/frequency of 12 specific LUTS were assessed using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score questionnaire. QOL was evaluated using the Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire. RESULTS: Post-micturition dribbling was the most frequently reported symptom (71%) and stress incontinence the least common (11%). Men who experienced urge, stress or "other incontinence" had lower mean scores for all of the eight dimensions measured by the SF-36 than men without such symptoms. Furthermore, men who experienced a moderate/severe degree of weak stream or nocturia reported a poorer QOL for all dimensions compared to men with a mild level of the same symptoms. QOL was found to decrease with increasing age. Men aged 66-80 years with "other incontinence" reported lower mean SF-36 scores for physical functioning, role physical, role emotional, social functioning and body pain than 40-65-year-old men. CONCLUSIONS: LUTS in men affect QOL dimensions differently. Storage symptoms appear to reduce QOL more than voiding and post-micturition symptoms. Urinary incontinence affected all eight of the dimensions evaluated. Elderly men with LUTS reported a lower QOL than younger men.

  • 41.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, Marie-Louise
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lööf, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Leppert, Jerzy
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Prevalence of Three Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Men –a Population-Based Study.2003In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Lower urinary tract symptoms are a common and costly public health issue. In earlier studies, the prevalence of urinary symptoms can be seen to fluctuate because there is no consensus about how to define and categorize the severity of the symptoms. Objectives. The study was undertaken in order to investigate the prevalence of three common lower urinary tract symptoms (urgency, stress incontinence and post-micturition dribbling) and analyse health care-seeking behaviour. Methods. A self-administered questionnaire was developed to investigate all men aged 40-80 years residing in the community of Surahammar, Sweden. The questionnaire included items on three specific urinary symptoms: urgency, stress incontinence and post-micturition dribbling, and one question about health care-seeking behaviour. Results. A response rate of 86% was obtained in the questionnaire study. The overall prevalence of the lower urinary tract symptoms was 24%. The prevalence increased from 20% in the group aged 40-49 years to 28% in the group aged 70-80 years (P < 0.01). Post-micturition dribbling (21%) was the most frequent symptom, and stress incontinence (2.4%) was the least frequent symptom. The number of participants who sought health care was low (4%) and increased significantly with age (P < 0.001). Conclusions. The present study showed that 24% of the Swedish cohort of men of 40-80 years of age reported at least one of the following symptoms: urgency, stress incontinence or postmicturition dribbling. This study is consistent with other research regarding the low consultation frequency for these symptoms. Moreover, the study is also in accord with those findings indicating that for the majority of men with urinary symptoms, their health care providers are not aware of their problem.

  • 42.
    Engström, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Uppsala Science Park, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Walker-Engström, M.L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Henningsohn, L.
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lööf, L.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leppert, J.
    Uppsala University, Central Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prevalence of distress and symptom severity from the lower urinary tract in men: a population-based study with the DAN-PSS questionnaire2004In: Family Practie, ISSN 0263-2136, Vol. 21, no 6, p. 617-622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are a common and costly public health issue. The prevalence varies greatly in published reports. The distress caused by each symptom is important to assess the primary care required before therapeutic decisions or a referral to an urologist are made. OBJECTIVES: LUTS are highly prevalent in men, but less is known regarding the distress caused by each symptom. The aim of this study was to examine symptom severity and different levels of distress using the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score (DAN-PSS) questionnaire in men affected by symptoms from the lower urinary tract. METHODS: The study included all men aged 41-81 years (n=504) that, 12 months earlier in a population-based survey, had reported stress incontinence, urgency or post-micturition dribbling in a postal questionnaire. The DAN-PSS questionnaire was used to measure severity and distress from LUTS. RESULTS: In total, 311 (80%) of the 387 responders who reported at least one symptom experienced some level of distress. The most distressing symptom overall was urinary incontinence. Nine of 10 men with storage symptoms (stress, urge and 'other' urinary incontinence) reported distress even if the symptom occurred only seldom. Moreover, two-thirds of the men with the most frequent symptom, post-micturition dribbling, characterized their symptom as moderate or severe; the most distressing voiding symptom was weak stream. In general, LUTS were well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Urge incontinence was the most distressing LUTS even when occurring only seldom. The DAN-PSS questionnaire may be a potentially useful tool for health professionals to identify patients with pronounced distress from LUTS to offer therapeutic and nursing care on the relevant level.

  • 43.
    Enhorn, Janni
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    SOCIOEKONOMISK STATUS I RELATION TILL MOBBNING BLAND SVENSKA UNGDOMAR: En kvantitativ studie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Utsatthet för mobbning kan leda till psykisk ohälsa som depressioner, ångest och i värsta fall självmord. Elever som utsätter andra för mobbning har en ökad risk för utåtagerande beteende med framtida drog- och alkoholproblem. 

    Ur ett folkhälsoperspektiv är mobbning en allvarlig fråga då sju till åtta procent av alla barn och unga är utsatta. Syftet med denna kvantitativa studie är att undersöka om det finns samband mellan socioekonomisk status och mobbning bland ungdomar i Västerås och Stockholm, samt undersöka om det finns könsskillnader bland dem som blir utsatta för mobbning och de som utsätter andra för mobbning.

    Studien har använt sekundärdata från den europeiska HELENA- studien som är en tvärsnittstudie där materialet samlades in på skolor i olika europeiska länder mellan år 2006- 2007. I den här studien har materialet avgränsats till att enbart analysera de svenska ungdomarna. Variabler gällande mobbning, socioekonomisk status och könsskillnader valdes för att besvara frågeställningarna i studiens syfte.  

    Resultatet antyder till att elever med låg socioekonomisk status utsätter andra elever för mobbning mer än de med hög socioekonomisk status. Det finns inte några könsskillnader bland de som blir utsatta för mobbning. Däremot indikerar resultatet till att det är mer vanligt att pojkar mobbar andra elever jämfört med flickor. 

    Nyckelord: Folkhälsa, Mobbning, Socioekonomisk status, Sociokulturell teori, Ungdomar  

  • 44.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Holmström, Inger
    Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap Uppsala Universitet.
    Engström, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Computerized decision support systems in telenursing: how it is perceived by telenurses2009In: Med-e-Tel 2009: proceedings, 2009, p. 409-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telephone advice nursing (telenursing) is an expanding service in many Western countries and in recent year’s centralization of telenursing services has occurred in some countries. Telenursing is a complex and knowledge intensive health service were registered nurses (RN’s) individually triage callers need for further care, give self care advice or refer the caller to appropriate care giver. These telenurses have numerous patient encounters every day, regarding all ages of callers and questions presented to the telenurses addresses a broad variation of medical conditions.  

    Telenursing has shown to be appreciated by the population as well as cost efficient.

     In an attempt to ensure quality and safety within telenursing the use of computerized decision support systems (CDSS) increased since CDSS enables uniformity and consistency of advices given to callers.   

    Traditionally, telenurses have relied on clinical knowledge, collegial support and books when triaging callers and few studies describe how telenurses perceive CDSS in their daily work.

    Eight telenurses from three different telephone advice call centres, all using CDSS took part in semi-structured interviews in 2006. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis.

    The aim of the study was to describe telenurses experiences of working with CDSS. Telenurses described that the CDSS had both positive and negative influences of their work. They described that the CDSS simplified their work, complemented their knowledge and gave them a sense of security. They also described how the CDSS contributed to quality improvement of telenursing. The negative aspects of the CDSS were described as being inhibited by the system. Telenurses described how they perceived the system as partly incomplete and controlling and that they sometimes disagreed with the measures presented by the system.

    These advantages and disadvantages perceived within the system can be connected to the concepts of usability: user-worthiness and user-friendliness. Software should be easy to learn, contain few errors and be easy to orient in, to enhance usability. Hence usability could be further improved in the present system.

    There might be a risk that the CDSS will mechanize and undermine the communication between callers and telenurses. It is important, in order to increase the telenurses’ professional competence and the feeling of tele-presence that callers not only are given a correct estimation of their conditions but also a sense of security and confirmation. Otherwise callers may seek emergency care solely because of insecurity and anxiety.

  • 45.
    Ernesäter, Annica
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Holmström, Inger
    Folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap Uppsala Universitet.
    Engström, Maria
    Högskolan i Gävle, Ämnesavdelningen för vårdvetenskap.
    Telenurses’ experiences of working with computerized decisionsupport: supporting, inhibiting and quality improving2009In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 1074-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Escobar, Nadia
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hälsofrämjande insatser på boenden för ensamkommande flyktingbarn: En studie på personalens uppfattningar om hälsofrämjande insatser på boenden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is among the countries that is receiving the most refugees, a part of these are unaccompanied children who usually been through terrible experiences and are suffering from various health problems that is displayed both mentally and physically. It is therefore important that staff working with this target group can provide them with the support and knowledge. This study examined the staff´s perceptions of their work, with unaccompanied refugee children, as being conducted from a from a health promotion perspective. The theories SOC, which has three subcomponents: meaningfulness, comprehensibility and manageability and social support are the foundation. The study has applied a qualitative approach where five staff’s on two accommodation were interviewed using a semi-structured approach. The results showed that the approach of a health promotion perspective was different for all the staff however the basics where the same. Health promotion were conducted on both accommodations where the staff worked among other things with the dissemination of information, physical activity and with participation. Facilitators at the accommodation was communication and social interaction with the young people and the workers. Communication was also a major obstacle since the language barrier came between or the interpreter did not translate correctly. The conclusions of the study is that the staff's approach to health promotion is equal fundamentally, the staff's approach are health promoting and there are both facilitating and aggravating factors in the health promotion work.

  • 47.
    Fabian, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Waldenström, U.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Characteristics of Swedish women who do not attend childbirth and parenthood education classes during pregnancy2004In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to investigate the attendance rate at childbirth and parenthood education classes during pregnancy in a national Swedish sample and describe the characteristics of women who did not attend. DESIGN: a cohort study utilising a postal questionnaire in early pregnancy and at 2 months after birth. SETTING: women were recruited from 97% of all antenatal clinics in Sweden at their first 'booking' visit during three different weeks spread over 1 year in 1999-2000. PARTICIPANTS: 2546 women, who were 77% of those who consented to participate in the study and 55% of all women eligible for the study. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS: most primiparous women (93%) attended classes and the majority of the multiparae (81%) did not. Having a native language other than Swedish was associated with non-attendance in both primiparae and multiparae (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.4; OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.1). In addition, the following factors were associated with non-attendance in the primiparae: unemployment (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.8), smoking during pregnancy (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.2-5.8), having considered abortion (OR 4.3, 95% CI 1.2-16.1), and having had few antenatal check-ups (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.7). The following factors were associated with non-attendance in the multiparae: age older than 35 years (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.3), low level of education (OR 3.6, 95% CI 2.3-5.7), and pregnancy unplanned but welcome (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0), having had counselling because of fear of childbirth (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4), and expressing a need of such counselling (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). KEY CONCLUSIONS: the childbirth and parenthood education programme reached the majority of pregnant women, and that non-attendees were more disadvantaged in terms of socio-demographic background and feelings about the approaching birth. These women should be given special attention during the antenatal check-ups so that childbirth and parenthood education could be adapted to their specific needs.

  • 48.
    Fabian, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rådestad, Ingela
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Waldenström, U.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Childbirth and parenthood education classes in Sweden. Women's opinion and possible outcomes2005In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, Vol. 84, no 5, p. 436-443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate first-time mothers' views about antenatal childbirth and parenthood education and their contact with other class participants after birth, and to compare participants and non-participants with respect to the use of pain relief, experience of pain, mode of delivery, childbirth overall, duration of breastfeeding, and assessment of parental skills. METHODS: A national cohort of 1197 Swedish-speaking women completed three questionnaires: during early pregnancy, 2 months, and 1 year after giving birth. RESULTS: Seventy-four percent of first-time mothers stated that antenatal education helped prepare them for childbirth, and 40% for early parenthood. One year after giving birth, 58% of the mothers had met with other class participants. These outcomes were associated with the number of class sessions. When controlling for the selection of women into participants and non-participants, no statistical differences were found concerning memory of labor pain, mode of delivery, overall birth experience, duration of breastfeeding, and assessment of parental skills. However, participants had a higher rate of epidural analgesia. Mothers who were young, single, with low level of education, living in a small city, and smokers were less likely to find the classes helpful. CONCLUSION: Participation in childbirth and parenthood education classes did not seem to affect first-time mothers' experience of childbirth and assessment of parental skills, but expanded their social network of new parents. The higher epidural rate suggests that participation in classes made women more aware of pain relief techniques available, rather than improving their own coping with pain. More research should focus on current forms of antenatal education, with special focus on women of low socioeconomic status.

  • 49.
    Fahlstedt, Lillan
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Äldres hälsa i tredje åldern: En kvalitativ studie om samverkan mellan kommunala aktörer i syfte att främja äldres hälsa i Sörmland.2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 50.
    Falk, Lina
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Skapar könsskillnader olika copingstrategier?: En kvantitativ studie bland studenter2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykisk ohälsa påverkar inte bara individen negativt utan även hela samhället med höga kostnader för vård och sociala system som följd. Stress är en av orsakerna till att den psykiska ohälsan ökar i Sverige idag. Detta sker främst bland ungdomar, unga vuxna och bland kvinnor. Hur stress påverkar individen beror på kapacitet att handskas med olika situationer som uppstår detta kallas copingstrategier. Denna studies syfte är att undersöka om könstillhörighet påverkar val av copingstrategi samt att se vilka copingstrategier som är mest förekommande hos studenter på en högskola i Mellansverige.Metoden som används är en kvantitativ studie med ett ändamålsenligt urval. Undersökningen genomförs med hjälp av enkäter och mätinstrumentet Coping Strategies Inventory (CSI). Det var 72 individer som deltog i undersökningen, 43 kvinnor och 28 män, av dem uppgav 56 stycken att de känt sig väldigt stressade någon gång under de tre senaste månaderna. Resultatet visar på att män och kvinnor använder sig av olika copingstrategier enligt CSI, dock är det inte statistiskt säkerställt i denna studie. Resultatet visade också att de mest använda strategierna är inriktade på att lösa problem.

12345 1 - 50 of 228
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf