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  • 1.
    Asp, Margareta
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Simonsson, B.
    Competence Ctr Hlth Reg Västmanland, Västerås, Sweden.
    Peter, Larm
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Molarius, A.
    Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Physical mobility, physical activity, and obesity among elderly: findings from a large population-based Swedish survey2017In: Public Health, ISSN 0033-3506, E-ISSN 1476-5616, Vol. 147, p. 84-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine how physical activity and physical mobility are related to obesity in the elderly. Study design: A cross-sectional study of 2558 men and women aged 65 years and older who participated in a population survey in 2012 was conducted in mid-Sweden with an overall response rate of 67%. Methods: Obesity (body mass index >= 30 kg/m(2)) was based on self-reported weight and height, and physical activity and physical mobility on questionnaire data. Chi-squared test and multiple logistic regressions were used as statistical analyses. Results: The overall prevalence of obesity was 19% in women and 15% in men and decreased after the age of 75 years. A strong association between both physical activity and obesity, and physical mobility and obesity was found. The odds for obesity were higher for impaired physical mobility (odds ratio [OR] 2.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.14-3.75) than for physical inactivity (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.28-2.08) when adjusted for gender, age, socio-economic status and fruit and vegetable intake. However, physical activity was associated with obesity only among elderly with physical mobility but not among those with impaired physical mobility. Conclusion: It is important to focus on making it easier for elderly with physical mobility to become or stay physically active, whereas elderly with impaired physical mobility have a higher prevalence of obesity irrespective of physical activity.

  • 2.
    Bergdahl, E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, J.M.C
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Kallin, K.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Lundman, B.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Bucht, G.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Gustafson, Y.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Depression among the oldest old: The Umeå 85+ study2005In: International Psychogeriatrics, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 557-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    objectives: To investigate the prevalence of depression among the oldest old and to analyze factors associated with depression. Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken in Umea, Sweden. Out of 319 eligible participants aged 85, 90 and 95 years and older, it was possible to evaluate 242 people (75.9%) for depression. Data were collected from structured interviews and assessments in the participants' homes, and from medical charts, relatives and caregivers. Depression was screened for using the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 and further assessed with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Cognition was assessed using the Mini-mental State Examination, activities of daily living (ADL) using the Barthel ADL Index, nutrition using the Mini Nutritional Assessment and well-being using the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale. Results: The 85-year-olds had a significantly lower prevalence of depression than the 90- and 95-year-olds (16.8% vs. 34.1% and 32.3%). No sex differences were found. One-third of those with depression had no treatment and among those with ongoing treatment 59% were still depressed. Persons diagnosed with depression had a poorer well-being and a higher 1-year mortality. Logistic regression analyses showed that depression was independently associated with living in institutions and number of medications. Conclusion: Depression among the oldest old is common, underdiagnosed and inadequately treated, and causes poor well-being and increased mortality. More knowledge about depression is essential to improve the assessment and treatment of depression among the oldest old.

  • 3.
    Elinge, E.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Stenvall, M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Löfgren, B.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Y.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Daily life among the oldest old with and without previous hip fractures2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the oldest old, with and without previous hip fracture with regard to their ability to perform personal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL); home adaptations received; possession of assistive devices; perceived health and morale. A random sample drawn from the population of 85-year-olds, all 90-year-olds and all ≥95-year-olds (n = 253) in Umeå, a city in northern Sweden, were examined. Data obtained from assessments and interviews carried out in the participants' homes, as well as data from medical charts, were analysed. Those with an earlier hip fracture (n = 58) had more difficulties in performing both personal and instrumental ADLs than those without (n = 195) but regarding individual home adaptations and the possession of assistive devices for personal care, no differences were detected betweenthe groups. Self-perceived health and morale were equally good in both groups. The conclusion drawn is that lifelong consequences, in the form of reduced abilities to perform ADLs and wheelchair dependency are common among the oldest old after a hip fracture. Therefore, trials concerningthe effects of more extensive and prolonged rehabilitation following hip fracture would be of great interest.

  • 4.
    Stenvall, M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Elinge, E.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundström, M.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Y.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nyberg, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Having had a hip fracture – association with dependency among the oldest old2005In: Age and ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 294-297Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Torres, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Hammarström, Gunhild
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Speaking of 'limitations' while trying to disregard them:: A qualitative study of how diminished everyday competence and aging can be regarded2006In: Journal of Aging Studies, ISSN 0890-4065, E-ISSN 1879-193X, Journal of aging studies, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 291-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that there is a difference between being old and feeling old. The way in which the experience of growing into advanced old age is regarded has also been found to play an important role for well-being in old age. One central aspect of this experience - i.e. diminished everyday competence - remains relatively under-researched. This article explores, through 21 qualitative interviews, how a group of elders regard declines in everyday competence. Three distinctive categories were found: (a) diminished everyday competence is regarded as a 'fact of life' that cannot be overcome and must therefore be accepted; (b) as something that could be overcome - in the long run - but must be 'temporarily' accepted and (c) as a matter of fact that can neither be overcome nor accepted. In addition, these categories were found to come hand in hand with specific ways of regarding limitations; being in need of assistance from others and how the process of growing into old age is regarded as a whole.

  • 6.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    et al.
    Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehbilitering, Umeå Universitet.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Geriatrik, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehbilitering, Umeå Universitet.
    Kallin, Kristina
    Geriatrik, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehbilitering, Umeå Universitet.
    Jensen, Jane
    Sjukgymnastik, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehbilitering, Umeå Universitet.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Sjukgymnastik, Institutionen för Samhällsmedicin och Rehbilitering, Umeå Universitet.
    Falls in very old people: The population-based Umeå 85+ Study in Sweden2009In: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics (Print), ISSN 0167-4943, E-ISSN 1872-6976, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 390-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

     The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total population aged 90 and ≥95 (-103), in Umeå, Sweden. Of the 253 people interviewed, 220 (87%) were followed up for falls for 6 months, of whom 109 lived in ordinary and 111 in institutional housing. A comprehensive geriatric baseline assessment was made through interviews and testing during home visits. Forty percent of the participants did fall a total 304 times, corresponding to 2.17 falls per Person Year (PY). It occurred 0.83 injuries per PY, including 0.14 fractures per PY. In a Cox regression analysis, the independent explanatory risk factors for time to first fall were dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), thyroid disorders, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and occurrence of falls in the preceding year. It could be predicted that every seventh participant and every third of the people who did fall would suffer a fracture within 1 year. ADL, thyroid disorders and treatment with SSRIs should be considered in fall prevention programmes.

     

    The aim of this study was to describe incidences of falls and fall-related injuries, and to identify predisposing factors for falls in very old people in a prospective population-based follow-up study for falls. The study is part of the Umeå 85+ Study which includes half of the population aged 85, and the total population aged 90 and ³ 95 (-103), in Umeå, Sweden. Of the 253 people interviewed, 220 (87%) were followed up for falls for six months, of whom 109 lived in ordinary and 111 in institutional housing. A comprehensive geriatric baseline assessment was made through interviews and testing during home visits. Forty percent of the participants did fall a total 304 times, corresponding to 2.17 falls per Person Year (PY). It occurred 0.83 injuries per PY, including 0.14 fractures per PY. In a Cox regression analysis, the independent explanatory risk factors for time to first fall were dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), thyroid disorders, treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and occurrence of falls in the preceding year. It could be predicted that every seventh participant and every third of the people who did fall would suffer a fracture within one year. ADL, thyroid disorders and treatment with SSRIs should be considered in fall prevention programmes.

     

  • 7.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin-Olsson, Lillemor
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Large variations in walking, standing up from a chair, and balance in women and men over 85 years: An observational study2009In: Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 0004-9514, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 39-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: How do three different age groups of women and men >85 years perform in tests of gait speed, chair stands, and balance?

    Design: A population-based cross-sectional observational study.

    Participants: Half the 85-year-old population, and the total population aged 90 and ³95 (-103) in Umeå, Sweden were assessed in the Umeå 85+ Study (n=238).

    Outcome measures: Usual and fastest gait speed (m/s) over 2.4 meters (8 feet), three consecutive chair stands (s), the Berg Balance Scale and ability to perform the tests (yes/no).

    Results: The median (10th-90th percentile) usual gait speed was 0.49 m/s (0.23-0.75), time to perform the chair stands test 12.6 seconds (8.5-20.2), and median Berg Balance Scale scores 45 (0-54). An age-related decline in physical ability was seen in women, but not in men. Men had greater physical ability than women. The Berg Balance Scale showed no floor or ceiling effects, but the gait speed and chair stands tests resulted in a floor effect especially for women.

    Conclusion: There were large variations in physical ability in these very old people. These data provide valuable reference values for physical ability in the oldest age groups for commonly used clinical measurements.

  • 8.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences. Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Gustavsson, JM
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Kallin, K
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Nygren, B
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Lundman, B
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Norberg, A
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Gustafson, Y
    Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden .
    Health status in the oldest old. Age and sex differences in the Umeå 85+ Study.2006In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1670-2780, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 116-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: With an increasing population aged 85 years and over, the aim of this study was to describe health status and living conditions in the oldest old and to estimate age and sex differences in a Northern European population. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study, The Umeå 85+ Study, was carried out in the municipality of Umeå in northern Sweden. Out of 319 eligible participants aged 85, 90 and 95 years and over, 253 participated. Structured interviews and assessments were conducted with the participants in their homes, and data were also collected from relatives, caregivers and medical charts. Cognition was screened with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depressive symptoms with the Geriatric Depression Scale-15 (GDS-15) and nutritional status with the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Activities of daily living (ADL) were assessed applying the Staircase of ADL (including Katz' Index of ADL) and morale with the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS). Participants also rated their own health. RESULTS: Over half of the participants had hypertension, one out of four was depressed, and the same proportion had had a hip fracture; the mean number of drugs taken was 6.4+/-4.0. Younger participants had lower rates of diagnoses and prescribed drugs, and were less dependent in ADL and other functional variables; men had lower rates of diagnoses and reported symptoms. The majority of participants rated their general health and morale as good. CONCLUSIONS: There were large variations in social, medical and functional variables within and between age and sex groups. This northern population of the oldest old seems to have a very high prevalence of hypertension, depression, hip fractures, and many prescribed drugs.

  • 9.
    von Heideken Wågert, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rönnmark, B.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, E.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundin-Olsson, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, J.M.C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Nygren, B.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lundman, B.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Norberg, A.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Y.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Morale in the oldest old: the Umeå 85+ Study2005In: Age and Ageing, ISSN 0002-0729, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 249-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: to describe morale among the oldest old, and to investigate which social, functional and medical factors are associated with morale in this population. Design: a cross-sectional study. Setting: a population-based study in the municipality of Umea, a city in Northern Sweden. Subjects: half of the 85-year-old population, and the total population of 90-year-olds and >= 95-year-olds (95-103) were asked to participate (n = 319) and 238 were interviewed. Methods: structured interviews and assessments during home visits, interviews with relatives and caregivers and review of medical charts. The 17-item Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS) was used to measure morale. Participants were assessed with the Barthel Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Index, Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), and a symptom questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to find independent factors to explain the variation in the PGCMS score. Results: eighty-four per cent (n = 199) of those interviewed answered the PGCMS. Three-quarters had middle range or high morale. GDS score, type of housing, previous stroke, loneliness and number of symptoms, adjusted for age group and sex, explained 49.3% of the variance of total PGCMS score. Conclusions: a large proportion of the oldest old had high morale. The most important factors for high morale were the absence of depressive symptoms, living in ordinary housing, having previously had a stroke and yet still living in ordinary housing, not feeling lonely and low number of symptoms. The PGCMS seems applicable in the evaluation of morale among the oldest old.

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