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  • 1.
    Adair, Brooke
    et al.
    Australian Catholic Univ, Ctr Disabil & Dev Res, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia..
    Ullenhag, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, Hälsa och välfärd.
    Rosenbaum, Peter
    McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonkoping Univ, CHILD, SIDR, Sch Hlth Sci, Jonkoping, Sweden..
    Keen, Deb
    Griffith Univ, Autism Ctr Excellence, Mt Gravatt, Qld, Australia..
    Imms, Christine
    Australian Catholic Univ, Ctr Disabil & Dev Res, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia..
    Measures used to quantify participation in childhood disability and their alignment with the family of participation-related constructs: a systematic review2018Inngår i: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 60, nr 11, s. 1101-1116Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AimWe aimed to identify measures used to assess the participation of disabled children and to map the measures' content to the family of participation-related constructs (fPRC) to inform future research and practice. MethodSix databases were searched to identify measures used to assess participation in health, psychology, and education research. Included studies involved children aged 0 to 18 years with a permanent impairment or developmental disability and reported use of a quantitative measure of participation. A second search sought relevant literature about each identified measure (including published manuals) to allow a comprehensive understanding of the measure. Measurement constructs of frequently reported measures were then mapped to the fPRC. ResultsFrom an initial yield of 32 767 articles, 578 reported one or more of 118 participation measures. Of these, 51 measures were reported in more than one article (our criterion) and were therefore eligible for mapping to the fPRC. Twenty-one measures quantified aspects of participation attendance, 10 quantified aspects of involvement as discrete scales, and four quantified attendance and involvement in a manner that could not be separated. InterpretationImproved understanding of participation and its related constructs is developing rapidly; thoughtful selection of measures in research is critical to further our knowledge base.

  • 2. Böttiger, Margareta
    et al.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Resultatet av vaccination med två monovalenta parotitvacciner givna till svenska skolbarn1982Inngår i: Hygiea, Vol. 91, s. 239-239Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3. CERNERUD, LARS
    A look at the Seiing-Sun in Baby's Eyes1976Inngår i: Modern Medicine, Vol. 1, s. 126-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Are there still Social Inequalities in Height and Body Mass Index of Stockholm Children1994Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 161-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Height and body mass index (BMI) of all non-immigrant schoolchildren in Stockholm in the age interval 10.0-10.9 years born in 1981 were related to the mother's educational level and the number of siblings. The two social variables were dichotomized and two extreme groups of socially more and less privileged children were formed. Socially less privileged boys were 1.1 cm shorter than their more privileged peers, whereas there was no difference as regards girls. Socially less privileged children were expected to show higher BMI, but the finding was contrary. More privileged boys were heavier. The findings were compared to a previous study of Stockholm children born in 1933-1963. Major social inequalities in height were levelled out for Stockholm children in the 1950s, a social gap reappeared in the 1960s and small disparities still exist for boys today.

  • 5.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden .
    Height and Body mass index of 7-year-old Stockholm School Children 1940-19901993Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 82, nr 3, s. 304-305Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6. CERNERUD, LARS
    Secular Growth Changes in relation to Changing Socioeconomic Conditions1985Inngår i: Annals of Human Biology, ISSN 0301-4460, E-ISSN 1464-5033, Vol. 8, s. 50-53Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden .
    The Association between Height and some Structural Social Variables: A study of 10-year-old children in Stockholm during 40 years1993Inngår i: Annals of Human Biology, ISSN 0301-4460, Vol. 20, nr 5, s. 469-476Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The associations between height of 10-year old children and mother's age, family size, number of inhabitants per room and father's occupational level were investigated over a period of 40 years. The analyses were based on samples of 10-year-old Stockholm schoolchildren born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963. Family size consistently associated with height. Father's occupational level showed a statistically significant association only for children growing up in the 1930s and 1940s, and the number of inhabitants per room only during the 1930s. Mother's age was significantly associated with height only in the cohort of children born in 1963, taller children having older mothers. The influence of the structural social factors taken together on height variation was lowest in the 1953 cohort; its magnitude in the 1963 cohort was the same as in the 1943 cohort. 

  • 8.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Edding, Elisabeth
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden.
    The Value of Measuring Height and Weight of Schoolchildren1994Inngår i: Pediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 365-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The measurements of height and weight in the Stockholm school health service was appraised in relation to the screening value, the costs and benefits. The concept of a doubtful screening value of growth surveillances at school age was supported. Investment costs and running expenses were very low. The measurement procedure used only 2% of the total time spent by the nurses in the school health service. The growth data were an appropriate prerequisite for the reassurance of adolescents about their developing identity and body image. The growth data also constituted an appropriate indicator for public health research. The benefits and low costs may justify maintenance of the measurements in the school health service despite a low screening value.

  • 9.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden .
    Elfving, Jörn
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden .
    Social Inequality in Height: A comparison between 10-year-old helsinki and Stockholm Children1995Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Social medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 23-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The height of children may be used to indicate social inequality. The aim of this study was to analyze the difference in height of the socially more and less privileged 10-year-old Helsinki children in 1963 and 1991 and to compare the social gap to the corresponding gap in 1943, 1963 and 1991 in previous studies of Stockholm children. The difference in mean height of the Helsinki boys in 1963 was 4.5 cm (p<0.001) and for girls 4.4 cm (p<0.001). In Stockholm the corresponding differences in 1963 were negligible. Twenty years earlier (in 1943) it was 3.2 cm (p<0.001) in Stockholm. In 1991 the difference was 1.4 cm (p <0.05) for boys and 0.6 cm (n.s.) for girls in Helsinki, equivalent to the findings of the Stockholm children at the same time. The well-off Helsinki children already in 1963 were as tall as the Stockholm children. Thus, the decrease of the social gap in height from 1963 to 1991 in Helsinki seems to be mainly due to an increase in height of the socially less privileged children, exactly what was previously found for the Stockholm children between 1943 and 1963. Would the time for the equalization of height mirror the time for the development of the welfare stares in Finland and Sweden respectively?

  • 10.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    Karolinska Institute, St. Göran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jonsson, B.
    Karolinska Institute, St. Göran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steneroth, G.
    Karolinska Institute, St. Göran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zetterström, Rolf
    Karolinska Institute, St. Göran's Children's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amphetamine addiction during pregnancy. 14 year follow-up of growth and school performance1996Inngår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, Vol. 85, nr 2, s. 204-208Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty-five children born to women who all abused amphetamine during pregnancy have been followed prospectively since their birth in 1976-77. At the age of 14-15 years, information about growth and school achievement was collected from school records. For comparison of school achievements the means of schoolmates were used, and for growth a group of Stockholm children born in the same year. By the age of 14 years only 14 children (22%) had stayed with their biological mothers for the whole period since birth. In the eighth grade, 10 (15%) were one grade lower than indicated by their biological age. The norm for Sweden is less than 5%. The means of the points in mathematics, Swedish language and sports were statistically below those of their classmates. At the age of 10 years the girls were significantly shorter and lighter than their peers born in 1976. At the age of 14 years the boys were statistically taller and heavier than their peers. It can be concluded that maternal amphetamine abuse during pregnancy will influence children at least up to the age of 14-15 years even though many of them have been living in foster homes since a young age.

  • 11. CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    GARMÉN, ANNIKA
    The Accuracy of the Routine School Health Anthropometry1989Inngår i: Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica (Supplementum), ISSN 0300-8827, Acta Paediatrica Scandinavica, Vol. suppl 359, s. 6-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    et al.
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Lindgren, Gunilla
    Stockholm Institute of Education, Sweden .
    Secular Changes in Height and Weight of Stockholm Schoolchildren born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 19631991Inngår i: Annals of Human Biology, ISSN 0301-4460, Vol. 18, nr 6, s. 497-505Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Secular growth changes of Stockholm schoolchildren born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963 were studied through samples of about 2500 children in each year. Heights and weights at the ages 7, 10 and 13 years were obtained from school health records stored in the Stockholm city archives. The increase in height and weight at these ages was more marked between the children born in 1933 and 1943 than later, except for the girls aged 7, who had no increase in height. The increase in height between the later samples was at age 7 years practically none, at age 10 years about 1 cm/decade and at age 13 years 1-2 cm/decade. The body mass index (BMI) indicated a continuous trend towards a slimmer body build for Stockholm schoolchildren at the age of 7 years. At the ages of 10 and 13 years the BMI remained fairly stable for the cohorts born from 1943 to 1963. 

  • 13.
    CERNERUD, LARSD
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Goteborg, Sweden.
    Differences in Height between Socially more and less privileged 10 year old Stockholm Children born in 1933-19631992Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Social Medicine, ISSN 0300-8037, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 5-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The change of the difference in height between two socially extreme groups of 10 year old Stockholm children born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963 was analysed. Data on height and social conditions were taken from the school health records. The two groups were established on the basis of the father's occupation and the number of children in the family. The height of the 10 year old children in the more privileged group born in 1933, 1943 and 1953 was virtually unchanged, but the height in the less privileged group increased gradually. The difference between the two groups was levelled out in the 1953 cohort. However, it reappeared in the 1963 cohort, mainly as a result of increasing height in the more privileged group and fairly unchanged height in the less privileged group.

  • 14.
    Dsilna, Ann
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Alfredsson, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Lagercrantz, Hugo
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Blennow, Mats
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Continuous feeding promotes gastrointestinal tolerance and growth in very low birth weight infants2005Inngår i: Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0022-3476, E-ISSN 1097-6833, Vol. 147, nr 1, s. 43-49Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of continuous versus intermittent feeding on gastrointestinal tolerance and growth in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: In a randomized, controlled trial conducted at 3 neonatal units, 70 premature infants with a gestational age 24 to 29 weeks and birth weight < 1200 g were assigned to 1 of 3 feeding methods: continuous nasogastric feeding, intermittent nasogastric feeding, or intermittent orogastric feeding. Feeding was initiated within 30 hours of birth. Daily enteral and parenteral volumes, caloric and protein intakes, growth, enteral intolerance, and clinical complications were recorded. Cox regression analysis was used to determine primary outcome, the time to achieve full enteral feeding. RESULTS: The continuously fed infants achieved full enteral feeding significantly faster than the intermittently fed infants (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07 to 3.22). In stratified analysis according to birth weight, the improvement was even more pronounced in the smallest infants, those with birth weight < or = 850 g (adjusted HR = 4.13; 95% CI = 1.48 to 11.53). Growth rate was significantly faster in the continuously fed infants ( P = .002). CONCLUSION: In VLBW infants, continuous feeding seems to be better than intermittent feeding with regard to gastrointestinal tolerance and growth.

  • 15.
    Ekéus, Cecilia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Hjern, Anders
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Unintentional and violent injuries among pre-school children of teenage mothers in Sweden: a national cohort study.2004Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 58, nr 8, s. 680-685Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the risk and mediating mechanisms of unintentional and violent injuries in pre-school children of teenage mothers. DESIGN: Cohort study based on Swedish national registers. Cox analyses of proportional hazard were used to estimate the relative risk of hospital admission and death attributable to injuries in analyses of data from national registers. PARTICIPANTS: The study population was a national cohort of 800,192 children born in Sweden during 1987-93 who were followed up prospectively from birth to their 7th birthday. MAIN RESULTS: Children of teenage mothers had higher relative risks (RRs) of hospital admissions for violent as well as unintentional injuries; age adjusted RRs of 2.7 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.1) and 1.6 (1.4 to 1.8), respectively, for children of mothers under 18 years of age and 2.5 (1.6 to 3.8) and 1.5 (1.4 to 1.6) of mothers aged 18-19 are compared with those with mothers aged at least 32 at the birth of the child. When the models were adjusted to socioeconomic variables and indicators of parental substance misuse and psychiatric illness the risk decreased slightly but remained well above that of children with older mothers. In addition, children of teenage mothers had an increased risk of death attributable to violent injuries (RR 6.7 (2.6 to 16.0), as well as to unintentional injuries (RR 3.5 (2.0 to 6.1). CONCLUSIONS: Maternal age is an important determinant of injuries in pre-school children in Sweden and the children of teenage mothers are at particular risk. Young parents should be given priority in injury prevention programmes.

  • 16.
    Eriksson, Margareta
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, St Goran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    Karolinska Institute, St Goran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnson, Björn
    Karolinska Institute, St Goran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steneroth, Gun
    Karolinska Institute, St Goran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Zetterström, Rolf
    Karolinska Institute, St Goran's Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Amphetamine abuse during pregnancy: Follow-up of children after 14 years1994Inngår i: Pediatric Research, nr 36, s. 13-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixtyfive children born to women who all used amphetamine during pregnancy have been followed prospectively since birth 1976-77. The children have been tested and examined regularly, demonstrating that social environmental factors influence the child's growth and somatic status while exposure for amphetamine during fetal life seem to influence the child's test results and behaviour up to the age of 8 years.

    After 14 years information was collected about school achievement, health, somatic growth and psycosocial environment. Only 20 children (30%) were still in the custody of their biological mothers. Ten children (15%) were one class below that for their biological age. Corresponding figure in Sweden is < 5 %. Grades in language, mathematics and sports were significantly lower than the mean of their schoolmates. The difference was most pronounced in boys. Weight and length were decreased in girls and increased in boys in comparison with Swedish school children born in the same year. Socioenvironmental risk factors correlated with poor outcome.

    Amphetamine abuse during pregnancy will influence the development of exposed children up to the age of 14 years.

  • 17.
    Hellgren, K
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hellström, A
    Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Jacobson, L
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Flodmark, O
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wadsby, M
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Martin, Lene
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Visual and cerebral sequelae of very low birth weight in adolescents.2007Inngår i: Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, ISSN 1359-2998, E-ISSN 1468-2052, Vol. 92, nr 4, s. F259-F264Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the visual functions and relate them to MRI findings and the intellectual level in adolescents born with very low birth weight (VLBW). DESIGN: Population-based case-control study. PATIENTS: 59 15-year-old VLBW adolescents and 55 sex and age-matched controls with normal birth weight. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Objective clinical findings (visual acuity, stereo acuity and cycloplegic refraction) were recorded. Structured history taking was used to identify visual difficulties. The intellectual level was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). All VLBW adolescents underwent MRI of the brain. RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the VLBW adolescents and controls regarding visual acuity (median -0.11 and -0.2, respectively; p=0.004), stereo acuity (median 60'' and 30'', respectively; p<0.001), prevalence of astigmatism (11/58 and 0/55, respectively; p<0.001) and in full-scale IQ (mean IQ 85 and 97, respectively; p<0.001) and performance IQ (mean 87 and 99, respectively; p=0.002). The structured history also revealed a borderline significant difference between the groups (mean problems 0.46 and 0.15 respectively; p=0.051). 30% (17/57) of the VLBW adolescents had abnormal MRI findings and performed worse in all tests, compared with both the VLBW adolescents without MRI pathology and the normal controls. CONCLUSION: This study confirms previous observations that VLBW adolescents are at a disadvantage regarding visual outcome compared with those with normal birth weight. In 47%, visual dysfunction was associated with abnormal MRI findings and in 33% with learning disabilities. The adolescents with abnormal MRI findings had more pronounced visual and cognitive dysfunction. The findings indicate a cerebral causative component for the visual dysfunction seen in the present study.

  • 18.
    Larsson, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Martin, Lene
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Peripheral and central visual fields in 11-year-old children who had been born prematurely and at term2004Inngår i: Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus, ISSN 0191-3913, E-ISSN 1938-2405, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 39-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the peripheral and central visual fields in children who had been born prematurely and at term. METHODS: Four groups of 11-year-old children were examined: group 1 included 24 children who had been born at term (control group); group 2 included 20 children who had been born prematurely without ROP; group 3 included 22 children who had been born prematurely with untreated ROP (stages 2 and 3); and group 4 included 21 children who had been born prematurely and underwent cryotreatment for severe ROP. Their peripheral visual fields were examined with Goldmann perimetry. Static high-pass resolution perimetry was used to evaluate their central visual fields within 30 degrees. RESULTS: The peripheral visual fields were constricted in children who had undergone cryotreatment (group 4), as compared with the other groups (1 to 3). We found no difference between the groups of children who had been born prematurely with or without ROP (groups 2 and 3) and the control group. The function of the central visual fields, expressed as neural capacity, was reduced in the children who had been born prematurely compared with the controls, significantly in their left eyes only. The children who underwent cryotreament did not differ from the other children who had been born prematurely in this respect. CONCLUSIONS: The peripheral visual fields were constricted in children who had undergone cryotreatment. It is uncertain whether this was caused by the treatment or by severe ROP. The central visual fields showed a tendency of reduced neural capacity in the children who had been born prematurely, reflecting a reduced density of retinocortical neural channels. However, this was not related to ROP or cryotreatment.

  • 19.
    Lindgren, Gunilla
    et al.
    Stockholm Institute of Education, Sweden.
    CERNERUD, LARS
    The Nordic School of Public Health, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Physical Growth and Socioeconomic Background of Stockholm Schoolchildren born in 1933-631992Inngår i: Annals of Human Biology, ISSN 0301-4460, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 1-16Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Height, weight and body mass index (BMI) at aged 7, 10 and 13 years for samples of Stockholm schoolchildren born in 1933, 1943, 1953 and 1963 were analysed in relation to their socioeconomic background. In height there were significant socioeconomic differences for boys and girls born in 1933 and 1943 at the ages of 7 and 10 years; children from the lowest socioeconomic group were smaller. For the cohort born in 1953 there were, however, no socioeconomic differences in height - either for boys or for girls. For children born in 1963, socioeconomic differences in height appeared again, but mainly for the boys; boys in the lowest socioeconomic group were smaller. Significant weight differences between socioeconomic groups were for the boys found only in cohorts born in 1943 and in 1963 and for the girls born in 1933, 1943 and 1953. Socioeconomic differences in BMI were found for boys born in 1943, when the middle socioeconomic group had the lowest index, and for boys born in 1963 when the highest socioeconomic group had the highest index. For girls socioeconomic differences in BMI were only found for girls born in 1953 when the lowest group had the highest BMI. The main conclusions from the study were: socioeconomic differences in height formerly present in Stockholm schoolchildren born in 1933 and 1943 were levelled out for the children born in 1953, but reappeared again for children born in 1963 - mainly for the boys; these socioeconomic height differences for the 1963 cohort were of about the same magnitudes as those for the cohort born in 1943 during the Second World War. The influence of socioeconomic background on the BMI of Stockholm schoolchildren born 1933-63 was not so marked.

  • 20.
    Nisell, Margret
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Views on psychosocial functioning: responses from children with imperforate anus and their parents.2008Inngår i: Journal of Pediatric Health Care, ISSN 0891-5245, E-ISSN 1532-656X, Vol. 22, nr 3, s. 166-174Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: High and intermediate imperforate anus (IA) is a congenital malformation that may entail psychosocial consequences. The objective was to examine disagreement on psychosocial functioning in reports between children with high and intermediate IA and their mothers. METHOD: Twenty-five children with IA and their mothers participated, including two groups for comparison. The responses on 15 psychosocial variables were compared on pair-level, between the mothers and their child, within each group. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found on the psychological variables in all groups, for example, feelings of sadness. For responses related to the social variables, few statistical discrepancies were found, except for the items "bullied" and "teased." Two specific discrepancies emerged in responses from children with IA and their mothers, the child's self-confidence and the mothers' thinking about their child's disability. DISCUSSION: It is vital to gather information from both the child and the parents in order to obtain a complete assessment of the child. The course of disagreement can give valuable information for future care, including where to exert extra effort.

  • 21.
    Nyqvist, K H
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Rubertsson, C
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ewald, U
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sjödén, P O
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Development of the Preterm Infant Breastfeeding Behavior Scale (PIBBS): a study of nurse-mother agreement1996Inngår i: Journal of Human Lactation, ISSN 0890-3344, E-ISSN 1552-5732, Vol. 12, nr 3, s. 207-219Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the development of preterm infant feeding behavior has focused mainly on bottlefeeding, using invasive methods or observations by professionals. In this study, a clinical method for observing breastfeeding was developed in collaboration between observers and mothers for the purpose of enabling neonatal personnel and mothers to describe developmental stages in preterm infant breastfeeding behavior. Tests of interobserver reliability resulted in acceptable agreement between observers, but a somewhat lower level of agreement between observers and mothers. The scale showed a good capacity to discriminate between infant gestational ages and can be used for helping mothers to identify their infants' emerging competence.

  • 22. Söderbäck, Maja
    Encountering Parents: Professional Action Styles among Nurses in Pediatric care1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för vård- och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Nurses' empowering of Parents in Pediatric settings: A conceptual analysis1996Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Söderbäck, Maja
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd.
    Care of hospitalized children in Mozambique: nurses' beliefs and practice regarding family involvement2007Inngår i: Journal of Child Health Care, ISSN 1367-4935, E-ISSN 1741-2889, Vol. 11, nr 1, s. 53-69Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to describe nurses' beliefs and practice regarding family involvement in the care of hospitalized children in Mozambique. Ethnographic fieldwork was used. The data production consisted of field descriptions from observations and interviews with 36 nurses. Through qualitative content analysis the findings show that nurses' practice of family involvement reflects a society that is poor, hierarchical, family-oriented but at the same time still adaptive. Four themes are identified: family members' presence in order to assist the nurses in care; nurses' support and education of family members to be involved in care; nurses' shielding of family members from family involvement; difficulties and conditional dilemmas in the nurses' involvement of families. It is concluded that emphasizing culturally congruent nursing care is necessary if families' way of life is to be accommodated. However, to empower family involvement in everyday practice, the Mozambican nurses themselves need to be empowered.

  • 25.
    Tulviste, Tiia
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    Mizera, Luule
    University of Tartu, Estonia.
    De Geer, Boel
    Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu
    Södertörn University College, Sweden .
    Child-rearing goals of Estonian, Finnish, and Swedish mothers2007Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 487-497Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the child-rearing goals of mothers of 4- to 6-year-old children from Estonia, Finland, and Sweden were compared. The developedChild-Rearing Goals Questionnaire consisted of three different tasks: open-ended questions, item rating, and item ranking. All mothers were similar in valuing highly self-maximization, but differed in emphasis on traditional child-rearing goals (e.g., conformity, obedience, politeness, being hard-working, etc.). The Swedish mothers tended to stress the characteristics connected with self-maximization as well as self-confidence and children's happiness, but did not value the traditional child-rearing goals. The Estonian mothers attached a great significance both to the traditional characteristics and to self-maximization. The Finnish mothers also stressed both traditional and non-traditional values, but to a lesser extent than the Estonians. The Swedish andFinnish mothers' child-rearing goals were relatively homogeneous. In contrast, the Estonian mothers were generally less focused on any specific goal.Mothers with a lower level of education stressed traditional goals more than mothers with a higher level of education. The results are discussed in the light of the possible effect different cultural contexts have on maternal child-rearing goals: bringing up children in stable welfare societies (such as Sweden and Finland) in contrast to a rapidly changing society (such as Estonia).

  • 26.
    Öjmyr-Joelsson, Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Nisell, Margret
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Frenckner, Björn
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd. Karolinska University, Sweden.
    High and intermediate imperforate anus: psychosocial consequences among school-aged children2006Inngår i: Journal of Pediatric Surgery, ISSN 0022-3468, E-ISSN 1531-5037, Vol. 41, nr 7, s. 1272-1278Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Imperforate anus is an unusual malformation, which, even after surgical intervention, usually entails constipation and fecal incontinence. This study aimed to evaluate ongoing psychosocial effects of this birth defect in school-aged children. METHODS: Twenty-five children born with high and intermediate imperforate anus participated in the study, along with their parents and classroom teachers. One group of healthy children and 1 group of children with juvenile chronic arthritis, along with their parents, served as controls. Children and parents individually answered a questionnaire devised for this study. Parents filled out the Child Behavior Checklist and the children's teacher filled out the Teacher's Report Form. RESULTS: According to test results, children with imperforate anus were happy and optimistic. They liked school better and reported better relationships with schoolmates than the other children. The index group reported statistically significantly more frequent constipation. According to parental responses, the imperforate-anus children suffered from fecal incontinence and odor, as well as constipation (P < .001). Index-group parents reported on the Child Behavior Checklist that their children had more emotional and behavioral problems. On the Teacher's Report Form, teachers reported few problems for the same children. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with imperforate anus did not experience psychosocial impairment despite significant functional problems.

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