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  • 1.
    Abdul-Fattah, Doha
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kamali, Parwa
    NÄR VARDAGEN FÖRÄNDRAS: - En litteraturstudie om vuxna personers upplevelser av att leva med diabetes typ 22017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is one of the most common diseases in Sweden. Living with type 2 diabetes affects the person’s daily life and life situation. Treatment of type 2 diabetes consists of the patients making lifestyle changes and self-care. Nurses have expressed a need for knowledge regarding how to support and educate patients with type 2 diabetes, in their self-care. Aim: To describe adult’s experiences of living with type 2 diabetes. Method: A qualitative literature study with descriptive approach. Results: The analysis resulted in two themes. The themes were loss of control over daily life, regain stability and hope in life. The persons experienced lack of knowledge about their disease, furthermore, they felt anxiety and anger. The persons experienced that they had difficulties adjusting their diet. After a certain period of illness, the people accepted and managed the disease and got support both from their families and from health care professionals. Conclusion: The care and education that patients with diabetes type 2 are offered need to be more individualized. This can ensure and help the patients with type 2 diabetes perform adequate self-care by their own preconditions, to maintain health and well-being.

  • 2.
    Abdulla, Hana
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    FYSISK INAKTIVITET OCH STILLASITTANDE BLAND BARN OCH UNGA I GRUNDSKOLAN2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and youth inactivity and sedentary at school is increasing. This means that some of the students have a significant unhealthy lifestyle with physical inactivity, which in turn implies risks of suffering from various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all related to a sedentary lifestyle. To prevent illness, it is important that children and young people early get a positive attitude towards physical activity.

    The purpose of this study was to study the causes of child and adolescent physical inactivity in school, based on teachers 'and parents' perspectives.

    A qualitative research has been selected. To achieve the study objectives, the author has conducted seven semi-structured interviews, with an appropriate choice of five teachers and two parents with children in school. Data was analyzed with a manifest content analysis.

    The results show that teachers and parents felt that physical activity is a protective factor for children's health. There are several reasons for physical inactivity in students today, blah new technologies, various transportation facilities and family finances. Some measures that can reduce the physical inactivity, for example be to increase sports lesson 'time and by starting with children and young people's interest to make them feel joy in moving, which increases the interest in physical activity.

    The conclusion of this work is that children's movement is important for their health. Children and youth in elementary school in need of physical activity so that they feel good. Both schools and parents have a responsibility to promote children's physical activity so that they can preserve their health, before improving their learning ability, have more energy and to manage the school in a good way.

  • 3.
    Abdullahi Mohamed, Mohamed
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
     GLP-1 REGULATES PROLIFERATION OF GLP-1 SECRETING CELLS THROUGH A FEEDBACK MECHANISM2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Background and aim:

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and progressive illness that affects all type of populations and ages. According to World health organization (WHO) by 2030 it will be 366 million people effected world wild. Many new drugs are Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) based therapy for treatment of type 2diabetes. GLP-1 is released from the intestinal L-cells, and is a potent stimulator of glucose-dependent insulin secretion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of GLP-1 and its stable analogs on cell proliferation of GLP-1 secreting GLUTag cells.

    Material and methods:

    GluTag cells were incubated for 48h in DMEM medium containing (0.5% fetal bovine serum and 100 IU/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin and 3mM glucose concentration) in the present or absence of the agents. DNA synthesis was measured using 3H- thymidine incorporation and Ki67 antigen staining. Western blot were performed to investigate the present of GLP-1 receptor in GLUTag cells.

    Results/conclusions:

    These results suggest that GLP-1 regulates proliferation of the GLP-1-secreting cell through a feedback mechanism via its receptor. Since serum GLP-1 levels are decreased in type 2 diabetic patients, the effect of GLP-1 on the GLP-1-secreting cell proliferation suggested here provides a novel beneficial long-term effect of the incretin-based drugs in clinical practice i.e. through increase of the GLP-1-secreting cell mass, augmenting the incretin effect. In addition, the feedback mechanism action of GLP-1 reveals a new insight in regulation manner of the L-cell proliferation.

    GLP-1(7-36) increased cell proliferation in GLUTag cells, an effect which was blocked by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39). The GLP-1 receptor was expressed in GluTag cells.

    Keywords:

    Incretin hormone, GLP-1, GLP-1 receptor, Exendin-4, Diabetes

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Caroline
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Jonsson, Eleonor
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur - en litteraturöversikt.2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med främre korsbandsruptur utgör en stor patientgrupp för en idrottsverksam sjukgymnast. Skadan är även vanlig hos hundar . Då hund och människa har likartad knäanatomi var det intressant att inkludera båda i samma studie. Alla bakomliggande faktorer till främre korsbandsruptur är inte helt utredda i dagsläget och detta gör det svårt att optimera preventiva åtgärder. En faktor som börjat utredas på senare år är den genetiska, dock inte i någon större utbredning. Syftet med denna uppsats var att sammanställa det aktuella kunskapsläget gällande ett eventuellt samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur hos människa och hund. Detta studerades i en litteraturstudie, där data framför allt samlades in via vårdvetenskapliga och medicinska databaser. De 15 inkluderade artiklarna analyserades systematiskt genom hela processen och bevisvärde samt evidensstyrka värderades. Resultatet visar att det finns tydliga tecken på ett samband mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur för människor. För hundar finns inte något tydligt samband. De granskade studierna visade ej signifikanta samband. Då det saknas studier med högt bevisvärde hos både människa och hund kan inte en stark slutsats dras. Därför behövs vidare forskning för att kunna bekräfta eller utesluta sambandet mellan genetiska faktorer och korsbandsruptur.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Pia-Marie
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kron, Viktoria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Det känns som att man blir betraktad som en andra klassens medborgare”: Hur patienter med allvarlig psykisk ohälsa erfar den somatiska vården och psykiatrisjuksköterskans erfarenheter av ansvar för fysisk hälsa i psykiatrisk vård2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning talar om förutfattade meningar, okunskap, rädsla m.m. hos somatisk vårdpersonal och om patienter som känner sig avskrivna från den somatiska vården med att det är den psykiska ohälsan som är orsak till de fysiska symtomen. Psykiatrins vårdpersonal upplever problem med att vårda den fysiska hälsan hos patienten, då deras specialitet är den psykiska hälsan.  Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva hur patienter med allvarlig psykisk ohälsa erfar den somatiska vården och psykiatrisjuksköterskans erfarenheter av ansvar relaterat till psykiatripatienternas fysiska hälsa. Studien bygger på nio semistrukturerade intervjuer, varav fem intervjuer med patienter och fyra intervjuer med psykiatrisjuksköterskor. Intervjuerna har analyserats utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet visar att patienterna känner sig sedda som sin psykiska sjukdom och upplever sig inte vara lika mycket värda som övriga patienter i den somatiska sjukvården. Psykiatrisjuksköterskorna erfar att det finns många svårigheter både teoretiskt och praktiskt för dem att ta hand om patienternas fysiska hälsa. Slutsatsen är att fördomar upplevs som tyngande för patienterna och orsakar med tiden mer psykisk ohälsa och större risker för deras fysiska hälsa. För sjuksköterskan är det en konst att skilja på vilket som tillhör psykiatriska vårdens ansvar och vad som är ämnat för den somatiska vården.

  • 6.
    Adlerteg, Veronica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Nackfunktion efter främre cervikal fusion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Margareta
    et al.
    Jönköping Univ.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping Univ.
    Bjorck-Akesson, Eva
    Jönköping Univ.
    Ibragimova, Nina
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Pless, Mia
    Jönköping Univ.
    EXPLORING CHANGES OVER TIME IN HABILITATION PROFESSIONALS' PERCEPTIONS AND APPLICATIONS OF THE INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF FUNCTIONING, DISABILITY AND HEALTH, VERSION FOR CHILDREN AND YOUTH (ICF-CY)2010In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 42, no 7, 670-678 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study explored how professionals in interdisciplinary teams perceived the implementation of the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, version for Children and Youth (ICF-CY) in Swedish habilitation services. Design: Descriptive longitudinal mixed-methods design. Methods: Following participation in a 2-day in-service training on the ICF-CY, 113 professionals from 14 interdisciplinary teams described their perceptions of the implementation of the ICF-CY at 3 consecutive time-points: during in-service training, after 1 year, and after 2.5 years. Results: Implementation of the ICF-CY in daily work focused on assessment and habilitation planning and required adaptations of routines and materials. The ICF-CY was perceived as useful in supporting analyses and in communication about children's needs. Professionals also perceived it as contributing to new perspectives on problems and a sharpened focus on participation. Conclusion: Professionals indicated that the ICF-CY enhanced their awareness of families' views of child participation, which corresponded to organizational goals for habilitation services. An implementation finding was a lack of tools fitting the comprehensive ICF-CY perspective. The study points to the need for ICF-CY-based assessment and intervention methods focusing on child participation.

  • 8.
    Agnew, L.
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Johnston, V.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia .
    Ludvigsson, M. L.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Rehab Väst, County Council of Östergötland, Sweden.
    Peterson, G.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Johansson, G.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Peolsson, A.
    University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Factors associated with work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grade II-III: A cross-sectional analysis2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 47, no 6, 546-551 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R2= 0.65, p < 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

  • 9.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kinesiska universitetsstudenters uppfattningar om sexualundervisning för ungdomar i Kina2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality and reproduction are two central parts of human life and they are integrated into our personalities. It is therefore important to create a good foundation for sexual health and wellbeing from an early age. To see adolescents as “ready to act-individuals” and to make them more involved in open dialog discussions contributes to extended possibilities for creating and sustaining a healthy lifestyle. The school is therefore considered as an important arena for health promoting and preventive actions where most adolescents can be reached. An obligated nine years school based education was implemented in China 1986, and school based Sex education became obligated in 2002.

     

    The study aimed to examine Chinese university student’s perceptions of Sexeducation for adolescents (10-19 years) in China and needs for changes and ongoing tendencies of development. Qualitative studies were conducted with three Chinese university students and contact was taken with a key person in China whom translated material for this study alone.

     

    The result showed various constructions of school based Sexeducation in China and that its implementation and construction needs more support. It also showed a need for the development of influence and participation in the school based Sexeducation. A need for creating an improved communication between teachers and students was also expressed and a more salutogenic approach needs to be developed.

     

    Through collaboration with other countries, for example Sweden, can today’s open-minded process of change benefit even more.

     

  • 10.
    Ahl, Therese
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Sexual behavior among Chinese male and female medical university students in Chongqing, China2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sexuality is one of the most fundamental values of life as it affects our behaviors, thoughts and emotions. Young people are an especially essential group for promoting sexual health as it is during adolescents the base for our sexuality is created. The aim of this study was to examine Chinese male and female medical university student’s knowledge and ideas of sexual behavior at Chongqing Medical University in Chongqing, China. An explorative quantitative survey study was conducted at place in Chongqing. The survey study’s result showed that ideas of sexual behavior were seem to be permissive and love-based, and also bi- and homosexuality to be mainly acceptable. The Internet, books and friends were seemed as important sources for knowledge whereas few believed to have received adequate knowledge from school. It was also seemed to be a major lack of knowledge regarding STD’s and how to protect yourself as “safe periods” was believed to be an important contraceptive method. The relationship between contraception and the protection against STD seems to be obscure.

  • 11.
    Ahlbäck, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete med levnadsvanor i landstinget Västmanland: - Upplevelser av att delta i "Kom i form gruppen"2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy lifestyles are an important condition for creating a positive health and dietary habits, physical activity and stress are factors that affect health. As a result of recent changes in society people's lifestyles have changes through unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, and stress has increased. Changing lifestyles have affected public health, and to invest in these areas in public health work can provide significant health benefits. Västmanland County Council operates a project to promote healthy behavior. The project includes "Kom i form gruppen" which is a group that focuses on nutrition, physical activity and stress. The aim was to investigate participants' experiences of participation in "Kom i form gruppen" and if the participation has affected their lifestyles. To answer the purpose, a qualitative approach with interviews used. The result shows that the content of the meetings has not identified any new knowledge. Participation has provided awareness and motivation and appreciation of food habits have been affected varied between participants. The participants' exercise habits have been affected by regular exercise occasions and everyday physical activity. Effect of stress has not been made, but they try to think about to rush less. Lack of time and stress, however, perceived as an impediment to healthy living.

  • 12.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Work resumption or not after rehabilitation?: A descriptive study from six social insurance offices2004In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 27, no 3, 171-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe measures and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation at six local national insurance offices in the same county in Sweden. Data were collected from mainframe registers and other records at each office. There were great differences in sickness allowance, incapacity rate, selected rehabilitation measures and resuming work. The percentage of sick-listed people who received any rehabilitation measure differed from 1.2 to 8.7%. The gender distribution for the study population was 36% men and 64% women and the predominant diagnosis was musculoskeletal pain conditions, which was followed by psychiatric disorders. Outcomes varied from office B, which reported 58% fully fit after completed planned rehabilitation, to office C, which reported only 24% fully fit. The clear differences in outcome between the offices indicate that various rehabilitation measures differ in effectiveness. The rehabilitation measure 'investigation of working ability' was not linked to any great proportion of people resuming work, but showed a greater correspondence to full disability pension. There were also large differences in social and demographic factors in the different municipalities. The effect of these on the rehabilitation process requires further investigation.

  • 13.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Broman, Lisbet
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Disability pension despite vocational rehabilitation?: A study from six social insurance offices of a county2005In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 28, no 1, 33-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many long-term sick-listed individuals move from vocational rehabilitation to pension, rather than reaching the goal of return to work. There is thus reason to consider whether rehabilitation resources are being used optimally. Individuals receiving disability pensions are consuming financial and personnel resources at the insurance offices and also consume a large amount of health care. The general objective of the study was to evaluate the proportion of individuals granted vocational rehabilitation but then obtaining temporary or permanent disability pensions. All persons receiving any kind of rehabilitation and attending one of six local national insurance offices in a county in Sweden in 1998 and 1999 were studied. A 2-year follow-up was carried out to assess changes in status among those who had received temporary disability pensions. Of all individuals receiving rehabilitation, 46.2% ended up with a disability pension allowance. In addition, a large portion of the temporary disability pensions was transformed to permanent disability pensions within 2 years. For clients with a temporary disability pension, the rate of resuming work was close to nil. Among rehabilitation measures, investigation showed the lowest figures of work resumption while job training showed the best outcome in this respect. The study concluded that a large portion of the financial and personnel resources allocated by the national insurance offices to rehabilitation resulted in disability pensions.

  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bergroth, Alf
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekholm, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekholm, Kristina Schüldt
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation at six local social insurance offices: a combined register and questionnaire study on rehabilitation measures and attitudes among social insurance officers.2008In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 40, no 3, 178-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate possible differences between local social insurance offices with regard to their selection of clients for vocational rehabilitation. A further aim was to determine whether social insurance officers from different local insurance offices have uniform attitudes regarding professional practice in their application of the insurance system. METHODS: A register-based investigation of 815 vocational rehabilitees served by 6 local social insurance offices in a Swedish county. The study was supplemented with a questionnaire to 30 officers about attitudes to social insurance. RESULTS: The office with the lowest rate of sick-listing periods exceeding one year, and a high frequency of employment training, showed the highest degree of work resumption and the lowest pension rate after vocational rehabilitation. There were wide differences in attitude among the local social insurance officers regarding professional practice in their application of the system. CONCLUSION: Intra-county differences occur in handling people on sick-leave who undergo vocational rehabilitation. The local social insurance offices with the highest and lowest outcome rates of work resumption and disability pension, respectively, select clients for vocational rehabilitation from different categories of cases. Social insurance officers from different local offices differ in their attitudes towards the social insurance system and its clients.

  • 15.
    Ahlgren, Åsa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Schüldt, Kristina
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Work resumption after vocational rehabilitation: a follow-up two years after completed rehabilitation2007In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 28, no 4, 343-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A short-term evaluation of vocational rehabilitation (VR) may give conclusions not automatically applicable over a longer term. The present study follows up alterations in work resumption or in social insurance benefits from the time of completed VR and during the following two years. AIM: The primary objective was to evaluate work resumption among previous sick-leavers granted vocational rehabilitation. The aim of the follow-up was to assess the stability of the outcome of VR over time and to analyse factors of importance for clients that remained at work. METHOD: A register investigation was based on 815 cases where the clients had taken part in vocational rehabilitation and were served by one of six local social insurance offices of a Swedish county. RESULTS: Of the clients studied, 52.4% had attained full working capacity The proportion had decreased to 37.4% two years later. One factor that differed between those who resumed work and those who returned to sick leave was the duration of the previous sick-leave period. Those who returned to work had had shorter sick leave, had jobs to return to and had received job training as a vocational rehabilitation measure. CONCLUSIONS: The clients with the best chances of being in work two years after completed vocational rehabilitation were those with short sickness absence, who had been selected for job training as a vocational rehabilitation, were aged 16-29 years and were employed in industry.

  • 16.
    Ahlqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Kumar, Ashok
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Sundström, Heléne
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ledung, Erika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Hörnsten, E. Gunnar
    SIK, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Sweden.
    Enfors, Sven-Olof
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Affinity binding of inclusion bodies on supermacroporous monolithic cryogels using labeling with specific antibodies.2006In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, Vol. 122, no 2, 216-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new chromatographic method based on affinity supermacroporous monolithic cryogels is developed for binding and analyzing inclusion bodies during fermentation. The work demonstrated that it is possible to bind specific IgG and IgY antibodies to the 15 and 17 amino acids at the terminus ends of a 33kDa target protein aggregated as inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth can be specifically retained in protein A and pseudo-biospecific ligand sulfamethazine modified supermacroporous cryogels. The degree of binding of IgG and IgY treated inclusion bodies to the Protein A and sulfamethazine gels are investigated, as well as the influence of pH on the sulfamethazine ligand. Optimum binding of 78 and 72% was observed on both protein A and sulfamethazine modified cryogel columns, respectively, using IgG labeling of the inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies pass through unretained in the sulfamethazine supermacroporous gel at pH that does not favour the binding between the ligand on the gel and the antibodies on the surface of inclusion bodies. Also the unlabeled inclusion bodies went through the gel unretained, showing no non-specific binding or trapping within the gel. These findings may very well be the foundation for the building of a powerful analytical tool during fermentation of inclusion bodies as well as a convenient way to purify them from fermentation broth. These results also support our earlier findings [Kumar, A., Plieva, F.M., Galaev, I.Yu., Mattiasson, B., 2003. Affinity fractionation of lymphocytes using a monolithic cyogel. J. Immunol. Methods 283, 185-194] with mammalian cells that were surface labeled with specific antibodies and recognized on protein A supermacroporous gels. A general binding and separation system can be established on antibody binding cryogel affinity matrices.

  • 17.
    Ahlzén, Amanda
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Konflikten mellan arbetsliv och familjeliv: En kvalitativ studie om småbarnsföräldrars upplevelser av psykisk hälsa och balans i tillvaron2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's career choices and ambitions impose different demands on the individuals than in the past. In a labour market that demands flexibility and responsibility, the individuals are expected to be able to work almost anytime and from anywhere. These factors have contributed to an imbalance between work and family life that can trigger various forms of illness. In this study, I investigate how parents of young children perceive their mental health in relation to the balance between work and family life. This is achieved through a study that employs qualitative methods and data collection based on six individual semi-structured interviews, where the material is then analysed based on a manifest content analysis. The results show that today’s parents are well aware of the imbalance between their work and family life, and that this negatively affects their health in several ways, ranging from stress and anxiety to sleep problems and personal conflicts. To address this imbalance the parents creates routines, shared responsibilities at home, and allow personal time for leisure, in an attempt to create a form of control over this imbalance. The conclusion of this study is that parent’s experience that they have to have routines at work and family life, where the parents have lower demands on their own health.

  • 18.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University.
    Arbetshälsa ur perspektiven klass, genus och etnicitet.2006In: I: Kors och tvärs: Intersektionalitet och makt i storstadens arbetsliv / [ed] Gunnarsson E., Neergard A., Nilsson A., Stockholm: Normal Förlag , 2006, 300-315 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Class, gender and ethnicity in relation to health care – A study on social disparities in the Swedish health care.2011In: Reconsidering social identification: race, gender, class and caste. / [ed] Janmohamed A. (Ed.), Routledge, 2011Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Female Immigrants’ Health and Working Conditions in Sweden2007In: The international journal of diversity in organisations, communities and nations, ISSN 1447-9583, Vol. 7, no 2, 275-286 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is one of the European countries that has successively changed from a mainly ethnically homogeneous society into a multi-ethnic society. In 2001, almost 20 per cent of the Swedish population was classified as immigrants, i.e., they were either born abroad and naturalized, of foreign nationality or born in Sweden with at least one parent who had been born abroad. Reports, statistics and research have shown that the health of female immigrants is worse than that of the total population and that the incidence of long-term sickness absence and early retirement is higher in this group. The overall aim of this article is to describe, understand and analyze factors that contribute to poor health among female immigrants in Sweden from the perspective of class, gender and ethnicity. Being unemployed, on sick leave or working in occupation with low income and low status are examples that are related to class position, gender and ethnicity. The main three aspects based on class are wage, professional status and female immigrants position in the hierarchical work organisation. Other factors are discrimination due to ethnicity and gender, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work environment and absence of opportunities for skills upgrade training. Experiences of rape, domestic violence, unanswered emotional and sexual needs and patriarchal culture are examples that are related to gender. And experiencing traumatic events (in pre-migration periods such as experiences of war, prison, etc. and in post-migration periods such as experiences of discrimination and racism) are examples that are related to ethnicity.

  • 21.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Invandrade kvinnors hälsa och arbetsvillkor i Sverige2011In: Perspektiv på kvinnors hälsa i arbetslivet / [ed] Sandmark H., Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011, 135-142 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Livssmärta - utanförskap och problem med barn.2003In: Flyktingskapet i ett långsiktigt integrationsperspektiv. / [ed] Franzen E. ., Tullinge: FOU Södertörn , 2003, 195-264 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Midwives’ views on factors that contribute to health care inequalities among immigrants in Sweden: a qualitative study.2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, article nr: 47- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in the Swedish health care system have increased. Most indicators suggest that immigrants have significantly poorer health than native Swedes. The purpose of this study was to explore the views of midwives on the factors that contribute to health care inequality among immigrants. Methods: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with ten midwives. These were transcribed and related categories identified through content analysis. Results: The interview data were divided into three main categories and seven subcategories. The category "Communication" was divided into subcategories "The meeting", "Cultural diversity and language barriers" and "Trust and confidence". The category "Potential barriers to the use of health care services" contained two subcategories, "Seeking health care" and "Receiving equal treatment". Finally, the category "Transcultural health care" had subcategories "Education on transcultural health care" and "The concept". Conclusions: This study suggests that midwives believe that health care inequality among immigrants can be the result of miscommunication which may arise due to a shortage of meeting time, language barriers, different systems of cultural beliefs and practices and limited patient-caregiver trust. Midwives emphasized that education level, country of origin and length of stay in Sweden play a role when an immigrant seeks health care. Immigrants face more difficulties when seeking health care and in receiving adequate levels of care. However, different views among the midwives were also observed. Some midwives were sensitive to individual and intra-group differences, while some others viewed immigrants as a group of "others". Midwives' beliefs about subgroup-specific health services vs. integrating immigrants' health care into mainstream health care services should be investigated further. Patients' perspective should also be considered.

  • 24.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Patienters uppfattning om Vård på lika villkor2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 189-199 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To find out the patients’ perceptions of the care and welfare services is important in order to develop the quality of care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the patients’ perspectives on care on equal terms and on their ideas about methods for a more equitable care. To achieve the purpose, qualitative methods were used in form of conducting interviews with patients’ and representatives of patient organizations. The results show that patients’ perceive that in order to achieve a more equitable care continuity, time during consultations, availability, communication and encounter should evolve and become better.

  • 25.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Promoting Equity in Primary Health Care2015In: Primary Health Care, ISSN 2167-1079, Vol. 5, no 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in access to primary health care services is a central objective of the Swedish health care system. Yet, several reports have illustrated that disparities still exist in the primary health sector, and have increased since the beginning of the 1990s. This commentary analyzes and explains the reasons for continuing inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services in a welfare system. Social and structural factors, communication, macro-sociological aspects and health care providers’ attitudes and perceptions are discussed as substantial contributors to inequality in access to and utilization of primary health care services. In conclusion, some intervention strategies for promoting more equitable primary health care are suggested.

  • 26.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Högskolan i Skövde.
    Utvärdering av projektet ”Utlandsfödda kvinnor som doulor och kulturtolkar”2009Report (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Vad sker med personalens inställning till Vård på lika villkor när verksamheterna deltar i Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 176-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equity in health and providing care on equal terms is one of the most important aspects of a welfare society. Several reports indicate that the health care services are not equal. The purpose of this study was to study health care providers’ perceptions on equitable care and their ideas about methods to achieve a more equitable care. An web survey was sent to health care providers whose unit were involved in the project "Care on equal terms" before and after the project period. The results show that health care providers perceived that the factors that influence clients’/ patients’ access to care on equal terms consists of: structural / organizational factors in the health care organization or in the society and clients’/ patients’ social situation.

  • 28.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Blev det ett genombrott?: Utvärdering av det nationella lärandeprojektet – Vård på lika villkor2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjukvården i Sverige är i dag inte jämlik, har brister i tillgänglighet och erbjuds inte på likvärdiga villkor trots Hälso- och sjukvårdslagens mål om en god hälsa och en vård på lika villkor för hela befolkningen.

    För att bryta den pågående trenden och öka jämlikheten gjordes en överenskommelse mellan regeringen och SKL om lärandeprojektet Vård på lika villkor (under åren 2011–2014). Syftet med projektets har varit att inom socioekonomiskt resurssvaga bostadsområden öka jämlikheten i första linjens vård. Detta genom att testa, utveckla och identifiera effektiva arbetssätt och metoder vid sju primärvårdsverksamheter från fem landsting i Sverige.

    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hälsa, vård och välfärd, fick av SKL i uppdrag att svara för forskarstöd och att genomföra en utvärdering av de metoder och arbetssätt som utvecklades och testades i lärandeprojektet.

    Resultatet från den genomförda utvärderingen som belyser den genomförda processen, mål- och resultat samt hälsoekonomiska aspekter beskrivs närmare i denna rapport.

  • 29.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Temaledare: Vård på lika villkor – Vad kan vi lära av Lärandeprojektet?2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 2, 103-106 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    akhavan, sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden .
    wamala, S
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden .
    The health of female Iranian immigrants in Sweden: A qualitative six-year follow-up study2007In: Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, E-ISSN 1096-4665, Health Care for Women International, ISSN 0739-9332, Vol. 28, no 4, 339-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Immigration affects life and health in many different ways. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze female Iranian immigrants' perception of various factors that influence their health over time. Data collection was based on semistructured interviews with 10 female Iranianimmigrants. Baseline interviews were conducted in 1996, with follow-up interviews in 2002. The results suggest that during the first decade after migration, female immigrants may overcome some health-related factors such as experiences of traumatic events. Other health determinants such as unemployment or experiences of discrimination and racism, however, were observed even two decades after migration.

  • 31.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Wamala, S
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Work-related health factors among female immigrants in Sweden2007In: WORK – A Journal of Prevention, Assessment and Rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 28, no 2, 135-144 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related health has been a focus of research since the rate of sickness-related absences began to increase in Sweden. The incidence of sickness-related absences and early retirement is higher among female immigrants than among others in the total population. This study is based on a questionnaire survey which was conducted in a municipality in Sweden. The study population consisted of 2 429 native and immigrant female employees. The aim was to study work-related health factors for female immigrants. The results of this study show that about 20% of female immigrants who participate in the survey have temporary employment while the proportion is 8% for native women. The perception of ethnic discrimination among female immigrants was three times as much as among native females. The results also show that 69% of female immigrants report having received no opportunity to discuss their wages with managers, in comparison to 63% of native females. About 40% of female immigrants and 35% of native women report that they do not get opportunities to upgrade their skills. Female immigrants over the age of 50 experience gender and ethnic discrimination and lack of access to skills training programs more often than younger immigrants. They also participate in health-care activities more often.

  • 32.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Bildt, C
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Wamala, S
    National Institute for Working Life, Sweden.
    Work-related health factors among female immigrants in Sweden – A qualitative study on a sample of twenty workers.2006In: Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, E-ISSN 1723-7815, Italian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1723-7807, Vol. 3, no 1, 60-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore work-related health factors amongst female immigrants in Sweden.

    Methods: Qualitative methods were used in order to get the broadest possible picture of female immigrants’ perceptions on work-related health factors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twenty female immigrants who worked in different departments of a municipality adjacent to a large city in Sweden. Most of the interviewed women came from the Middle East, Africa and Latin America, while some came from eastern and southern Europe as well as Finland. The women had lived in Sweden for 5-27 years. Content analysis, which is based on analysis by topic, was used to analyse the data.

    Results: Results from the interviews show that female immigrants perceived that work-related health is strongly associated with class. The three aspects of class that arose from this study were wage, professional status and their position within the organisations hierarchy. Other factors that were identified as being associated to work-related health were discrimination due to ethnicity and gender, unfavourable physical and psychosocial work environment and lack of training opportunities for upgrading their skills.

    Conclusions: The public health implications of the findings in this study suggest that measures that ought to be taken to improve female immigrants working conditions and health are primarily systematic efforts to counteract discrimination because of gender and ethnicity in areas such as wage setting and opportunities for skill up-grade training. This should result in improved employment opportunities for female immigrants, particularly those who work in low status and low-paid jobs.

  • 33.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bildt, Carina
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Franzen, Elsie
    Wamala, Sarah
    National Institute for Working Life, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants in Sweden from a gender perspective2004In: Journal of Immigrant Health, Vol. 6, no 3, 103-118 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyze health in relation to unemployment and sick leave among immigrants from a gender perspective. Questionnaire, observations, and group discussions were used for data collection. The study group consisted of 60 unemployed persons with immigrant or refugee background, 30 women and 30 men. Slightly more than half of the participants considered theirhealth to be poor and experienced physical and/or mental disorders. The female participants in comparison to male participants experienced poorer health. The results show that there is a reciprocal influence between health, work, and migration. Immigration may cause poor health, which as a selection effect leads to unemployment and/or sick leave. Immigration may also bring about an inferior position in the labor market, which leads to poor health due to exposure effects. The influence on health is more marked for immigrant women than for immigrant men.

  • 34.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Karlsen, S.
    University College London.
    Practitioner and client explanations for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups in Sweden: A qualitative study2013In: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, ISSN 1557-1912, E-ISSN 1557-1920, Vol. 15, no 1, 188-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To investigate variations in explanations given for disparities in health care use between migrant and non-migrant groups, by clients and care providers in Sweden. Qualitative evidence collected during in-depth interviews with five 'migrant' health service clients and five physicians. The interview data generated three categories which were perceived by respondents to produce ethnic differences in health service use: "Communication issues", "Cultural differences in approaches to medical consultations" and "Effects of perceptions of inequalities in care quality and discrimination". Explanations for disparities in health care use in Sweden can be categorized into those reflecting social/structural conditions and the presence/absence of power and those using cultural/behavioural explanations. The negative perceptions of 'migrant' clients held by some Swedish physicians place the onus for addressing their poor health with the clients themselves and risks perpetuating their health disadvantage. The power disparity between doctors and 'migrant' patients encourages a sense of powerlessness and mistreatment among patients.

  • 35.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Client/patient perceptions of achieving equity in primary health care: a mixed methods study2015In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 14, no 1, 1-12 p., 196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Introduction: To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for the health system. As the front line in health services, primary care has a key role to play in developing equitable health care, responsive to the needs of different population groups. Reducing inequalities in care has been a central and recurring theme in Swedish health reforms. The aim of this study is to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of care in four primary health care units (PHCUs) involved in Sweden's national Care on Equal Terms project. Methods: Mixed Method Research (MMR) was chosen to describe and assess client/patient experiences and perceptions of health care with regard to equity. There was a focus group discussion, and individual interviews with 21 clients/patients and three representatives of patient associations. Data from the Swedish National Patient Survey (NPS), conducted in 2011 and followed up in 2013, were also used. Results: The interview data were divided into two main categories and three subcategories. The first category "Perception of equitable health care" had two subcategories, namely "Health care providers' perceptions" and "Fairness and participation". The second category "To achieve more equitable health care" had four subcategories: "Encounter", "Access", "Interpreters and bilingual/diverse health care providers" and "Time pressure and continuity". Results from the NPS showed that two of the PHCUs improved in some aspects of patient perceived quality of care (PPQC) while two were not so successful. Conclusions: Clients/patients perceived health care providers' perceptions of their ethnic origin and mental health status as important for equitable health care. Discriminatory perceptions may lead to those in need of care refraining from seeking it. More equitable care means longer consultations, better accessibility in terms of longer opening hours, and ways of communicating other than just via voice mail. It also involves continuity in care and access to an interpreter if needed. Employing bilingual/diverse kinds of health providers is a way of providing more equitable primary health care.

  • 36.
    Akhavan, Sharareh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Tillgren, Per
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Aytar, Osman
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Bogg, Lennart
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Söderlund, Anne
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Practice and Policy in Promoting Health and Equity –experiences from a national project in primary health care in Sweden2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Swedish Health Care Law requires the health system to provide good care on equal terms to all. However, several reports from different governmental agencies have revealed that health care is uneven in quality, lacking in accessibility, and not offered on equal terms to all people. Recent public health reports show that inequalities in health in the population have increased. To provide health care on equal terms has become a challenge for health care.

    In order to apply methods for developing practice and policy in promoting health and equity the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions developed and implemented a national project entitled Care on Equal Terms. The project began in 2011 and was completed in 2014 at seven Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs) in five regions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of this project.

    Methods: Based on a program theoretical approach an evaluation design was developed which included process, results and economical evaluation. In the data collection and analysis mixed methods were applied.

    Results: According to the process evaluation, seven different strategies were applied in the process to develop primary health care on equal terms. One of the key observations was that in order to achieve health on more equal terms, health care needs to be provided on unequal terms, i. e. more needs to be done to reach those who need more assistance to access health services. Health promotion was one of the applied strategies and it was the most common strategy at some of the health care centers with the aim of developing patients' knowledge, awareness and understanding about health, care and self-care. The results evaluation showed that the PHCUs staff identified structural and organizational factors in health care as important factors for developing health promotion and equity in access. The health economic evaluation showed that the costs for implementing the activities for an improved equity were limited. Yet the majority of the PHCUs thought that the detailed regulation of their financing and reporting requirements were a limitation in their work for improved equity. Four of five county councils have recently introduced a primary care provider payment system (ACG) which may not be supportive of efforts to improve equity in access.

    Conclusions: It is possible to develop and maintain practices that can contribute to more equitable care and increase health care personnel’s awareness about practice and policy in promoting health and equity.

  • 37.
    Alayed, Abdulrahman S.
    et al.
    Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Lööf, Helena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Johansson, Unn-Britt
    Sophiahemmet Högskola, Sweden.
    Saudi Arabian ICU safety and nurses' attitudes2014In: International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, ISSN 0952-6862, E-ISSN 1758-6542, Vol. 27, no 7, 581-593 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Ali, Mona
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare. Mälardalen University, Department of Caring and Public Health Sciences.
    Make Every Mother Count: Maternal mortality in Malawi, India and United Kingdom2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this thesis is to examine and compare the maternal mortality in three different countries; Malawi, India and United Kingdom, as well as highlighting the attributing factors and preventive steps that would reduce the maternal mortality in these countries. Methods and material: The studied design that was chosen is an ecological study which means to study the relationship between aggregated health data and exposing factors, for example a geographical area and time period. The reason of choosing this study can be seen in the relationship and the factors that contribute to maternal mortality in Malawi, India and the United Kingdom. In order to attain the objective of the thesis a variety of sources were utilized to find data, statistics and scientific articles concerning maternal mortality in all three countries.Results and conclusion: Maternal mortality is the highest in Malawi and India, while it is very low in the United Kingdom when compared with these two countries. The result shows among other things that the maternal mortality is mainly caused by direct causes both in Malawi and India and in the United Kingdom the maternal mortality is mainly from indirect causes. It is also shown that the maternal mortality in these countries have been changed over the years. It is also shown that preventive steps such as family planning, skilled attendance, obstetric emergency care and antenatal care can significantly reduce the maternal mortality rate.

  • 39.
    Ali, Munira
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Tjernberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Delaktighet i vården: när det talas olika verbala språk2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Participation, caring relation and communication are three key concepts in

    health care. These are three factors that can affect the patients’ health process and their need

    to feel safe. Aim: To show nurse’s opportunities and obstacles to creating participation in the

    care relationship with patients when the same verbal language is not spoken. Method: The

    study was based on a qualitative analysis by Evans (2002) literature study that reflects the

    nurse's perspective. Result: What was considered to be presumptions for participation could

    be interpreter’s presence for the creation of participation in the caring relation. As a nurse to

    have knowledge of different cultures could be an advantage for participation in caring

    relation. What was considered to be obstacles to participation could be overcome by the use

    of nurses or relatives as interpreters. Language barrier and the lack of understanding of

    different cultures could make it difficult to create an individualized care. Conclusion: When

    a care relationship consists of good communication and interaction between nurses and

    patients it creates the conditions for participation. It is therefore important to access the

    resources that are necessary and enforce appropriate strategies.

  • 40.
    Alkenius, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Johansson, Josefin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    "Åldern tar ut sin rätt": En kvalitativ intervjustudie om äldre och fysisk aktivitet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The older population is increasing in numbers. Several biopsychosocial factors are assumed to impact the older population’s physical activity level. The physiotherapist works with health promotion for older people primarily by promoting physical activity.

    Aim:

    From a biopsychosocial perspective describe factors that the older population living at home perceive as relevant to their physical activity level. Further to describe how the older population perceive that a physiotherapist can support their physical activity.

    Method:

    A qualitative, semi-structured interview study with an inductive approach was used. A purposive, convenience sampling resulted in five participants ≥80 years. The material was interpreted with qualitative content analysis and sorted into categories and subcategories.

    Result:

    Seven categories emerged for factors influencing the participant’s physical activity level: thoughts and feelings, tiredness/ weakness, bodily limitation, aging, physical environment, everyday demands and social environment. Four categories described how a physiotherapist can support the physical activity of the participants: motivate to physical activity, perform physical activity with a physiotherapist, give suggestions on physical activity and help to improve the physical functional capacity.

    Conclusion:

    The participant’s stories about factors influencing their physical activity level can be linked to the biopsychosocial paradigm. The participants had some difficulties describing how they perceived that a physiotherapist can support their physical activity, but several suggestions emerged. Future research should mainly focus on older people’s perception of how a physiotherapist can support physical activity.

  • 41.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Longitudinal paths of health related engagement of children with and without developmental delay2009In: Longitudinal paths of health related engagement of children with and without developmental delay: A person approach, 2009, Vol. 52, 684-684 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Almqvist, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Stability and change in children's engagment: A 3-year longitudinal study involving pre-school children with typical and atypical processes of engagement2011In: Stability and change in children's engagment: A 3-year longitudinal study involving pre-school children with typical and atypical processes of engagement / [ed] Guralnick, M., 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Eriksson, Lilly
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Delaktighet i skolaktiviteter: Ett systemteoretiskt perspektiv2004In: Delaktighetens språk, Studentlitteratur, Lund , 2004, 137-156 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Participation in school environment of children and youth with disabilities: A person-oriented approach2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, Vol. 46, no 3, 305-314 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors related to participation in school activities of pupils with different kinds of disabilities. Questionnaires concerning participation were collected from 472 pupils with disabilities and their teachers, parents and special education consultants. A person-oriented approach with the aim to identify patterns of variables related to a high degree of participation of pupils with disabilities was used. Cluster-groups were formed based on scores for individual subjects on factors identified as important for participation. Groups with a high degree of participation were characterized by high scores in autonomy and perceived interaction with peers and teachers and an internal locus of control. Type and degree of disability did not predict cluster group membership. A conclusion is that the outcome participation is better predicted by patterns of interrelated positive subject and environmental factors than by type of disability or any other single factor. 

  • 45.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University.
    Pathways of engagement of young children with and without developmental delay2007In: Pathways of engagement of young children with and without developmental delay / [ed] Guralnick, M., 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellnäs, Petra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stefansson, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health2006In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, Vol. 9, no 3, 275-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4-5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classificationof Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

  • 47.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Uys, CJE
    University of Pretoria, South Africa.
    Sandberg, Anette
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    The concepts of participation, engagement and flow: A matter of creating optimal play experiences2007In: South African Journal of Occuptional Therapy, ISSN 0038-2337, Vol. 37, no 7, 8-13 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Positive  functioning  relates  to  the  ability  to  live  a  good  and  healthy  life,  but  for  children  with  special  needs,  this  might  be  compromised  and therefore factors related to positive functioning should be explored. As their restrictions concern a variety of general life situations including issues such as peer group interaction, participation, autonomy and self-determination, the focus should be on the children’s capabilities when they act in their natural environments. Functional abilities and the creation of opportunities in a challenging environment are optimal for new learning to take place, leading the child towards a positive end point. This article analyses constructs of engagement, participation and flow, indicating their interrelatedness and association to positive functioning. Outcomes change and unfold over time, indicating that functioning should be considered dynamic, context-dependent, culturally and historically conditioned. The article concludes with a suggested model for intervention to enhance positive functioning of children with special needs.

  • 48.
    Almén Åberg, Karin
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Föräldrastöd: Professionellas syn på föräldraskap, behov av föräldrastöd och samverkan2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Background:

    Within the Swedish Child Health Care system parents are offered support both individually and in groups. The work with parental groups is a joint effort including the child health care nurses, the staff at Family Centers, preschool teachers as well as social workers. The child health care nurses also need to cooperate with the preschool teachers working where the child spend its days. The support offered to parental groups within the Child Health Care system does not seem to be updated to meet today’s parents’ need. There is research showing that parents ask for support. In spite of this participation in parental group education is low. The professionals’ view of the parental support work is reflected in their planning and implementation. The aim of this study was to make it easier to offer the right kind of interdisciplinary support using the right kind of methods.

    Aim:

    The aim of this study is to illustrate the view on parenting by staff in Child health care units, preschools and family centers and their need of support as well as interdisciplinary cooperation.

    Method:

    A qualitative content analysis was made of collected data from an interdisciplinary workshop with focus groups discussions. Staff from the child health care department, preschools and family centers participated in the workshop.

    Results:

    The professionals´ view of parenting, need of support and interdisciplinary cooperation was described through six categories which is summarized in the conclusion.

    Conclusion:

    The staff from the diverse sectors describes that there is difficulties for today’s parents in their parenting and this results in a need of a versatile kind of support that is both general and selectively directed. The main findings is that parents need support to believe in themselves and in their parenthood and to strengthen their relationship with their child as well as other adults. In order to offer this the parents should be more involved and the cooperation between the sectors should be improved.

    Keywords:

    Child Health care, Parental support, Cooparation, Preschools, Family Centers

  • 49.
    Amedi, Lahijan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Faili, Vian
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Att möta patienter med en annan etnicitet: Upplevelser ur ett sjuksköterskeperspektiv2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background describes cultural aspects and how nurses relate to patients' ethnicity. Patients' view on health care varies depending on cultural background, which affects the encounter with health care. Nurse's responsibility is to provide care for and treat patients with respect and dignity regardless of ethnicity. During the encounter with patients difficulties may arise in meeting these needs when the understanding of what caused the disease may differ from the nurse. Difficulties in communication and in understanding each culture can lead to misunderstandings. There is a fine line to cultural sensitivity as the patient can easily be treated differently or discriminated against because of their ethnicity. The aim of the thesis is to describe nurse’s experience in encounters between patients with another ethnic background than the majority ethnic population. The method used was a systematic literature review where scientific articles were analyzed. The result is presented in four themes: Understanding the gender perspective in caring, understanding of different modes of expression, knowledge of insight to disease and Educational needs. The result shows that nurses desire more knowledge about culture in their training, and a broader understanding of differences in gender dynamics as cultural encounters were perceived as difficult resulting in a non-caring encounter especially when communication deficiencies were found. Nurses need and want more training about different cultures.

  • 50.
    Amin, Mahgol
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kubo, Tomomi
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    KANBAN Implementation from a Change Management Perspective: A Case Study of Volvo IT2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate and analyze the implementation process of KANBAN, a lean technique, into a section of Volvo IT (i.e. BEAT). The KANBAN implementation into BEAT when ‘resistance for change’ and ‘forces for change’ arise is also analyzed. This implementation of KANBAN is equivalent to change taking place in the Volvo IT’s operational process. The thesis follows theories and literature on change management and lean principles in order to support the research investigation.

    How has KANBAN, with respect to change management, been implemented into an IT organization for its service production? How has KANBAN changed the operational process of the organization?

     The research conducted in the thesis is based on qualitative case study. Focused and in-depth interviews, combined with observations, are carried out to obtain the primary data for the case study. The collected primary and secondary data stems from the literature reviewed, which covers the lean principles, KANBAN, and change management. Moreover, the thesis adopts an abductive approach that goes back-and-forth between the theory and the empirical findings in order to develop a model.

    Due to various factors already existing in the BEAT, minimal resistance to change implementation was found to be present in Volvo IT. This finding indicates that change initiatives found a way to implementation because the predominance of the ‘forces for change’, as compared to, the ‘resistance to change’ is higher in BEAT. The KANBAN implementation into the IT service production is identified to be aligned with Volvo IT’s change implementation objectives. The visualization of the ‘intangible service’ workflow on the Kanban board contributes to identify the source of bottlenecks, which has been removed through effective communication in the BEAT team and better linkages between tasks. The KANBAN effectively deals with change implementation by modifying the way team members work.

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