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  • 1.
    Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Laatikainen, Reino
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Technical Output Report – Pilot A in Sweden2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Locally produced bioethanol for a regional self-sufficient transport fuel system2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Antikainen, Eero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag, Finland.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sustainability assessment of biorefinery and dry digestion systems: Case:Sweden2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Appled Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Polen.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    A REGIONAL MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOGAS  PRODUCTION: Case study: North Savo, Finland. REMOWE Report, Integrated report no: O5.3.3, O5.3.6, O5.4.3, O5.4.4, O5.6.12012Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Developing the anaerobic digestion process through technology integration2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Process optimization is needed for the development and expansion of the biogas industry and to meet the ever growing demand for methane. This thesis explores process technologies for the development of the anaerobic digestion process and includes pre-treatments, studies on the effects of different mixing modes and evaluation of a water treatment technology.

    Two pre-treatments were evaluated, mechanical and electroporation, for treatment of ley crop silage. Mechanical treatment included two milling machines designed for recycling of paper, Grubben deflaker and Krima disperser, and showed an increased biogas production of 59 % and 43 % respectively as well as a positive energy balance and economic results.. Electroporation increased the biogas production with 16 %, however, development is needed to increase its energy efficiency.

    Digester mixing has an effect on the digestion result. The performed review and experiments show that the mixing demand increases with organic loading. Excessive mixing during process start up, instabilities and shock loads leads to increased volatile fatty acid concentrations and process inhibition. Reduction of mixing reduces the effects of process instabilities and periodical mixing with mixing breaks has been shown to be beneficial for biogas production.

    A high temperature membrane filtration unit was evaluated at 70 °C, 90 °C and 110 °C to determine separation efficiencies, permeation speed when treating process water at a biogas plant.  Improved separation can increase the capacity of the substrate pre-processing and reduce process related problems. The results show a total solids separation of 60 %, and an increasing filtration speed with temperature with fluxes of between 113 and 464 L/ h m2. The substrate pre-processing could theoretically handle up to 29 % more substrate as a result.

    Integration of these technologies in a biogas plant show that the pre-treatments studied exhibits a good performance when integrated and that mixing reduction has the potential to lower the process electricity demand by 23 % in the performed case study. However, even though the membrane filtration unit shows promising results it would demand a relatively high energy consumption and lead to limited benefits to a process already at it maximum organic loading.

  • 6.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Division of Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Carlsson, My
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Evaluating the effects of electroporation pre-treatment on the biogas yield from ley crop silage.2014Inngår i: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 174, nr 7, s. 2616-2625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the full biogas potential of some types of biomass is challenging. The complex structures of lignocellulosic biomass are difficult to break down and thus require longer retention times for the nutrients to become biologically available. It is possible to increase the digestibility of the substrate by pre-treating the material before digestion. This paper explores a pre-treatment of ley crop silage that uses electrical fields, known as electroporation (EP). Different settings of the EP equipment were tested, and the results were analyzed using a batch digestion setup. The results show that it is possible to increase the biogas yield with 16 % by subjecting the substrates to 65 pulses at a field strength of 96 kV/cm corresponding to a total energy input of 259 Wh/kg volatile solid (VS). However, at 100 pulses, a lower field strength of 48 kV/cm and the same total energy input, no effects of the treatment were observed. The energy balance of the EP treatment suggests that the yield, in the form of methane, can be up to double the electrical energy input of the process.

  • 7.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Pretreatment of Substrate for Increased Biogas Production2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Olsson, Jesper
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. MDH.
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Birbuet, Juan Cristóbal
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Lindblom, Sandra
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH.
    The potential for waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia2013Inngår i: 1st International Water Association Conference on HolisticSludge Management, 2013, Västerås Sweden, 2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cities of La Paz and El Alto, 573 tons of organic material are disposed in landfills every day. These residues can be used to produce biogas and recycle nutrients, thus alleviating environmental impacts related to waste management. Technical solutions are evaluated through a multicriteria analysis with the purpose of defining a strategy for implementing waste-to-biogas in the two cities. As a result, the development for waste-to-biogas-system is defined in three steps. Step 1 consists of an active extraction system of landfill gas in the already existing landfills. Step 2 implies the establishment of a dry-digestion biogas facility based on present waste collection practices, that is, not segregated waste. Step 3 consists of a biogas plant using dry digestion for processing source segregated bio-waste. The economic feasibility of these three steps is evaluated. Despite prevailing fossil fuels subsidies in the country, implementing waste-to-biogas turn out feasible in the country provided the digestate is commercialized as bio-fertilizer or erosion control material and additional services such as waste collection and deposition are computed in the total economy of the biogas production plant.

  • 9.
    Molin, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden.;PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden..
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Molin, Andreas
    PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Waeckelgard, Ewa
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Experimental Yield Study of Bifacial PV Modules in Nordic Conditions2018Inngår i: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 1457-1463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the first full-year field study in Sweden using bifacial photovoltaic modules. The two test sites are located on flat roofs with a low albedo of 0.05 in Linkoping (58 degrees N) and were studied fromDecember 2016 to November 2017. Site 1 has monofacial and bifacial modules with a 40 degrees tilt facing south, which is optimal for annual energy yield for monofacial modules at this location. Site 2 has monofacial 40 degrees tilt south-facing modules and bifacial vertical east-west orientated modules. The annual bifacial energy gain (BGE) was5% at site 1 and1% at site 2 for albedo 0.05. The difference in power temperature coefficients between bifacial and monofacial modules was estimated to influence BG(E) by + 0.4 and + 0.1 percentage points on site 1 and 2, respectively. A higher albedo could be investigated on a sunny day with fresh snow for the bifacial east-west modules. The specific yield was 7.57 kWh/kW(p), which was a yield increase of 48% compared with tar paper at similar solar conditions.

  • 10.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    System studies of Anaerobic Co-digestion Processes2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion is one pathway to achieving the European Union (EU) goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewable energy, and improving energy efficiency. In this thesis, two different models (Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 and an artificial neural network) are used to simulate a full-scale co-digester in order to evaluate the feasibility of such models. This thesis also includes models of two systems to study the inclusion of microalgae in biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants. One of the studies is a life-cycle assessment in which replacement of the ley crop with microalgae is evaluated. The other study concerns the inclusion of microalgae in case studies of biological treatment in three wastewater treatment plants. Finally, the co-digestion between microalgae and sewage sludge has been simulated to evaluate the effect on biogas and methane yield. The results showed that Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 and the artificial neural network are suitable for replicating the dynamics of a full-scale co-digestion plant. For the tested period, the artificial neural network showed a better fit for biogas and methane content than the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. Simulations showed that co-digestion with microalgae tended to reduce biomethane production. However, this depended on the species and biodegradability of the microalgae. The results also showed that inclusion of microalgae could decrease carbon dioxide emissions in both types of plants and decrease the energy demand of the studied wastewater treatment plants. The extent of the decrease in the wastewater treatment plants depended on surface volume. In the biogas plant, the inclusion of microalgae led to a lower net energy ratio for the methane compared to when using ley crop silage. Both studies show that microalgae cultivation is best suited for use in summer in the northern climate.

  • 11.
    Nordlander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, JinYue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigating the possibility of applying an ADM1 based model to a full-scale co-digestion plant2017Inngår i: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 120, s. 73-83Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the possibility of using a model based on the anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) on a full-scale 4000 m3 digester in order to understand how such theoretical models can be applied to a real industrial process. The industrial scale digester co-digests the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, grease trap sludge, and ley crop silage with varying feed rates and amounts of volatile solids. A year of process data was collected. Biogas flow, methane content/flow, and ammonia nitrogen were the variables that the model was best at predicting (index of agreement at 0.78, 0.61/0.77, and 0.68, respectively). The model was also used to investigate the effect of increasing the volatile solids (VS) concentration entering the digester. According to simulation results, increasing the influent VS concentration will increase biogas and methane outflow (from 1.5 million Nm3 methane to more than 2 million Nm3 methane), but decrease the amounts of biogas/methane per unit of volatile solids (from about 264 Nm3methane per tonne VS to below 215 Nm3 methane per tonne VS).

  • 12.
    Nordlander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH.
    Modeling of a full-scale biogas plant using a dynamic neural network2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Paz, Ana
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Combustion of rapeseed oil for heat production2007Inngår i: IGEC III Conf, 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Enhancing biomethane production by integrating pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes2017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, s. 1074-1083Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic waste is a mature and increasingly used process for biomethane production. However, the efficient use of different fractions of waste is a big concern in anaerobic digestion plants. This study proposes the use of a new process configuration that couples the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste with the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic or green waste. The biochar obtained from pyrolysis was added to a digester as an adsorbent to increase the biomethane content and to support the development of a stable microbial community. In addition, the bio-oil and syngas produced by the pyrolysis process were reformed into syngas and then converted to biomethane via methanation. Modelling and simulations were performed for the proposed novel process. The results showed an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the biomethane volume produced. An overall efficiency of 67% was achieved, whereas the stand-alone anaerobic digestion system had an efficiency of only 52%. The results also indicated a high annual revenue for the integrated process compared to that for an alternative treatment (incineration) of green waste.

  • 15.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review2017Inngår i: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, nr 8, s. 675-728Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

  • 16.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Freidank, Tim
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    Drescher-Hartung, Silvia
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    Daukšys, Vygintas
    Klaipeda University.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    POSSIBILITES FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE DRY DIGESTION PROCESS2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Suhonen,, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Den Boer, Emilia
    Wrocław University of Technology.
    Possibilites for Optimization of Biorefinery process2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 18.
    Wang, C. S.
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jia, H. J.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Wu, J. Z.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Engn, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales..
    Yu, J. C.
    State Grid Tianjin Elect Power Co, Tianjin 300010, Peoples R China..
    Xu, T.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Y.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Renewable and distributed energy integration with mini/microgrids2019Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 237, s. 920-923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Zafar, Muhammad Abdullah
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Optimization of Combined heat and power plant (CHP) integrated with transportation fuel2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Regional energy system consists of the three sections heat, electricity and transport. The alternatives of fossil fuels are getting importance in research fields to reduce its adverse effect on the environment, especially in the transport sector. The bioethanol is focusing on recent years to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy dependence on other countries.

    This study focus on analyzing the energy system including the heat and power plant integrating with transportation fuel production with the best utilization of the locally available energy resources. The four regions of vastmanland Vasteras, Koping, Norberg, Skinskatterberg are considered for the energy resources due to its large arable land. The data regarding local energy resources (household waste, peat and wood chips, coal) used in CHP plant are taken from the different bureau and some are assumed as seen in the previous year's trends. The four crops ( winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, and oats) are focused for biofuel production in the integrated plant. It is very difficult to predict the crops production and its hectares areas because it is dependent upon the weather conditions. The passenger cars only considered for calculating the biofuel demand in considered regions because data is easily available.

    The dynamic model is developed for the optimization of the ethanol plant integrated with CHP plant to reduce the system cost and reduction of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission.  The mixed integer programming is the best way for system optimization and it developed with the help of the GAMS, which is best suited for complex problems.

     The four case studies are analyzed in which different parameters are changed from 2017 to 2030 years. In the first scenario, all parameters are changed next fourteen years with previous trends. The vehicle's number run on gasoline, straw production hectares area and its production are changed in second, third and fourth scenarios respectively.

     The CHP produce the heat and electricity with local fuels and import fuels which have the cheapest production prices. The fuel E05 and tall oil pitch are also considered to use in the system but due to its heavy prices is not used. The region heat and electricity demand satisfied by importing to the region as compared to produce with some sources are very high prices.  The huge amount of ethanol is produced in each scenario because demand is very little in regions, large amount exported all scenario.  The ethanol import in the last three years of the second scenario because the production of ethanol is less and demand is high. The ethanol demand and production is equal from 3rd year to 5th year in the fourth scenario. The exported ethanol l to another region can provide the fuel to more than 500,000 passenger cars in each scenario.

    The ethanol utilization in the region can reduce the CO2 emission effectively. The first scenario emitted 120-140Kt CO2 during fourteen years while it reduced to 89 Kt and 77 Kt in the third and fourth scenario. It reduced 36% and 45% CO2 if  10%/year and 50%/years vehicles run by gasoline cars shifted to E85.

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