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  • 1.
    Acuña, G. J.
    et al.
    Facultad de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Montería, Colombia.
    Berger, M.
    University of Liège, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Liege, Belgium.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Campos, R. A.
    Universidade Federal De Santa Catarina, Departamento De Engenharia Civil, Florianopolis, Brazil.
    Canales, F. A.
    Department of Civil and Environmental, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia.
    Cantor, D.
    Universidad Nacional De Colombia, Sede Medellín, Medellin, Colombia.
    Ciapała, B.
    AGH University of Science and Technology, Department of Fossil Fuels, Centre for Sustainable Development and Energy Efficiency, Krakow, Poland.
    Cioccolanti, L.
    eCampus University, Centro di Ricerca per l’Energia, l’Ambiente e il Territorio, Via Isimbardi 10, Novedrate, Italy.
    De Felice, M.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten, Netherlands.
    de Oliveira Costa Souza Rosa, C.
    European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Petten, Netherlands.
    Teaching about complementarity - proposal of classes for university students - including exercises2022In: Complementarity of Variable Renewable Energy Sources, Elsevier , 2022, p. 687-713Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea behind this chapter is to provide teachers and students with material that can be used while studying renewable energy sources with special attention paid to their complementary characteristics. The questions and exercises included below refer to chapters presented in the book. In case of any questions, we provide the readers with contact details to chapters corresponding authors who would be happy in assisting you in case of any queries.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Laatikainen, Reino
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Technical Output Report – Pilot A in Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Chen, Haoqian
    et al.
    Qingdao Univ, Coll Comp Sci & Technol, Ningxia Rd 308, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China..
    Sui, Yi
    Qingdao Univ, Coll Comp Sci & Technol, Ningxia Rd 308, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China.;Univ Tokyo, Ctr Spatial Informat Sci, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778568, Japan..
    Shang, Wen-long
    Beijing Univ Technol, Coll Metropolitan Transportat, Beijing Key Lab Traff Engn, Beijing 100124, Peoples R China.;Beijing Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Traff & Transportat, Beijing 100044, Peoples R China..
    Sun, Rencheng
    Qingdao Univ, Coll Comp Sci & Technol, Ningxia Rd 308, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhiheng
    Univ Tokyo, Ctr Spatial Informat Sci, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778568, Japan..
    Wang, Changying
    Qingdao Univ, Coll Comp Sci & Technol, Ningxia Rd 308, Qingdao 266071, Peoples R China..
    Han, Chunjia
    Birkbeck Univ London, Dept Management, London WC1E 7HX, England..
    Zhang, Yuqian
    China Inst Marine Human Factors Engn, Yingshanhong Rd 117, Qingdao 266400, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Haoran
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Univ Tokyo, Ctr Spatial Informat Sci, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 2778568, Japan.
    Towards renewable public transport: Mining the performance of electric buses using solar-radiation as an auxiliary power source2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 325, article id 119863Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming the road public transport to run on renewable energy is vital solution to achieve carbon neutral and net zero goals. This paper evaluates the potential of using solar radiation-generated electricity as an auxiliary power supplementary for the battery of electric buses, based on a developed framework that using publicly street-view panoramas, GPS trajectory data and DEM data as input parameters of solar radiation model. A case study of Qingdao, China with 547 bus routes, 28,661 street-view panoramas shows that the solar-radiation electricity generated at noon during the operation accounts for about one-fifth, one-eighth of the total elec-tricity consumption of a bus traveling one kilometer in a sunny day and a cloudy day, respectively. Spatial variability shows significant solar-radiation power generation advantages in newly-launched areas and expressway. The solar power generated in a sunny day can make a bus half of passengers and with air conditioner off at least one extra trip in 2:1 replacement schedule, and nearly close to one extra trip in 4:3 replacement schedule. A correlated relation between the solar-radiation power generation benefit and the operation schedule of electric buses is observed, implying that the high cost of 2:1 replacement schedule for long-distance routes during summer or winter can be reduced. The proposed framework can help us evaluate and understand the feasibility of solar radiation-generated electricity energy of electric bus fleets covering the large-scale urban areas at different times, locations, and weather conditions, so as to support effective decisions at better planning of PV-integrated electric buses.

  • 4.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Locally produced bioethanol for a regional self-sufficient transport fuel system2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Huopana, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Kolehmainen, Mikko
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Antikainen, Eero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag, Finland.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Sustainability assessment of biorefinery and dry digestion systems: Case:Sweden2014Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Huopanaa, Tuomas
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niska, Harri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Appled Sciences, Finland.
    Lõõnik, Jaan
    Estonian Regional and Local Development Agency, Estland.
    den Boer, Emilia
    Wroclaw University of Technology, Polen.
    Song, Han
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A REGIONAL MODEL FOR SUSTAINABLE BIOGAS  PRODUCTION: Case study: North Savo, Finland. REMOWE Report, Integrated report no: O5.3.3, O5.3.6, O5.4.3, O5.4.4, O5.6.12012Report (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Developing the anaerobic digestion process through technology integration2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Process optimization is needed for the development and expansion of the biogas industry and to meet the ever growing demand for methane. This thesis explores process technologies for the development of the anaerobic digestion process and includes pre-treatments, studies on the effects of different mixing modes and evaluation of a water treatment technology.

    Two pre-treatments were evaluated, mechanical and electroporation, for treatment of ley crop silage. Mechanical treatment included two milling machines designed for recycling of paper, Grubben deflaker and Krima disperser, and showed an increased biogas production of 59 % and 43 % respectively as well as a positive energy balance and economic results.. Electroporation increased the biogas production with 16 %, however, development is needed to increase its energy efficiency.

    Digester mixing has an effect on the digestion result. The performed review and experiments show that the mixing demand increases with organic loading. Excessive mixing during process start up, instabilities and shock loads leads to increased volatile fatty acid concentrations and process inhibition. Reduction of mixing reduces the effects of process instabilities and periodical mixing with mixing breaks has been shown to be beneficial for biogas production.

    A high temperature membrane filtration unit was evaluated at 70 °C, 90 °C and 110 °C to determine separation efficiencies, permeation speed when treating process water at a biogas plant.  Improved separation can increase the capacity of the substrate pre-processing and reduce process related problems. The results show a total solids separation of 60 %, and an increasing filtration speed with temperature with fluxes of between 113 and 464 L/ h m2. The substrate pre-processing could theoretically handle up to 29 % more substrate as a result.

    Integration of these technologies in a biogas plant show that the pre-treatments studied exhibits a good performance when integrated and that mixing reduction has the potential to lower the process electricity demand by 23 % in the performed case study. However, even though the membrane filtration unit shows promising results it would demand a relatively high energy consumption and lead to limited benefits to a process already at it maximum organic loading.

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  • 8.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Division of Waste Science and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Carlsson, My
    AnoxKaldnes AB, Lund, Sweden.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Evaluating the effects of electroporation pre-treatment on the biogas yield from ley crop silage.2014In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 174, no 7, p. 2616-2625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exploiting the full biogas potential of some types of biomass is challenging. The complex structures of lignocellulosic biomass are difficult to break down and thus require longer retention times for the nutrients to become biologically available. It is possible to increase the digestibility of the substrate by pre-treating the material before digestion. This paper explores a pre-treatment of ley crop silage that uses electrical fields, known as electroporation (EP). Different settings of the EP equipment were tested, and the results were analyzed using a batch digestion setup. The results show that it is possible to increase the biogas yield with 16 % by subjecting the substrates to 65 pulses at a field strength of 96 kV/cm corresponding to a total energy input of 259 Wh/kg volatile solid (VS). However, at 100 pulses, a lower field strength of 48 kV/cm and the same total energy input, no effects of the treatment were observed. The energy balance of the EP treatment suggests that the yield, in the form of methane, can be up to double the electrical energy input of the process.

  • 9.
    Lindmark, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nilsson, Erik
    Lagerkvist, Anders
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Andreas, Lale
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Carlsson, My
    Luleå University of Technology, Division of Waste Science and Technology.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pretreatment of Substrate for Increased Biogas Production2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lönnqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    KTH, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Olsson, Jesper
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. MDH.
    Espinosa, Cecilia
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Birbuet, Juan Cristóbal
    Center for Promotion of Sustainable Technology (CPTS).
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Persson, Per-Erik
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Lindblom, Sandra
    VAFAB Miljö AB.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH.
    The potential for waste to biogas in La Paz and El Alto in Bolivia2013In: 1st International Water Association Conference on HolisticSludge Management, 2013, Västerås Sweden, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the cities of La Paz and El Alto, 573 tons of organic material are disposed in landfills every day. These residues can be used to produce biogas and recycle nutrients, thus alleviating environmental impacts related to waste management. Technical solutions are evaluated through a multicriteria analysis with the purpose of defining a strategy for implementing waste-to-biogas in the two cities. As a result, the development for waste-to-biogas-system is defined in three steps. Step 1 consists of an active extraction system of landfill gas in the already existing landfills. Step 2 implies the establishment of a dry-digestion biogas facility based on present waste collection practices, that is, not segregated waste. Step 3 consists of a biogas plant using dry digestion for processing source segregated bio-waste. The economic feasibility of these three steps is evaluated. Despite prevailing fossil fuels subsidies in the country, implementing waste-to-biogas turn out feasible in the country provided the digestate is commercialized as bio-fertilizer or erosion control material and additional services such as waste collection and deposition are computed in the total economy of the biogas production plant.

  • 11.
    Mabecua, Fastudo Jorge
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lucas, C.
    Department of Chemical Engineering, Eduardo Mondlane University, Maputo, Mozambique.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Agro-waste, a solution for rural electrification?: Assessing biomethane potential of agro-waste in inhambane province, southern mozambique2021In: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated the biomethane potential of cassava peels from the four most common varieties of cassava grown in Inhambane Province in Mozambique, Chinhembue, Cussi, Cizangara and Nhassumbi. Agro-wastes from coconut wood and jambolan wood processing were also analyzed to give a complete analysis of the most significant sources of agro-waste in the province. The macromolecular composition (carbohydrates, lipids and proteins) was determined and used to calculate the theoretical maximum biochemical methane potential (BMP). The results show that cassava fiber and cassava peel, which are considered to be waste, are viable resources for biomethane production. Further, the results show that cassava fiber and cassava peel have a higher biomethane potential compared with sawdust, and are therefore more suitable for biomethane production. A study to investigate the effect of toxic cyanogenic glycosides and lignin on cassava peels, using pre-treatment techniques to enhance biogas yield, should be carried out. An estimate of how much electricity can be generated based on the availability of agro-waste (cassava residues) and the amount of biomethane produced in our laboratory experiment was carried out. The amount of electricity that can be produced is enough to provide a valuable contribution to the production process in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and in the cassava industry, or some other use in the rural setting. 

  • 12.
    Molin, Elin
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden.;PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden..
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Molin, Andreas
    PPAM Solkraft AB, Corp Res, SE-59072 Ljungsbro, Sweden.;Linkoping Univ, Dept Management & Engn, Div Energy Syst, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden..
    Waeckelgard, Ewa
    Dalarna Univ, Energy Technol, SE-79188 Falun, Sweden..
    Experimental Yield Study of Bifacial PV Modules in Nordic Conditions2018In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 1457-1463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports on the first full-year field study in Sweden using bifacial photovoltaic modules. The two test sites are located on flat roofs with a low albedo of 0.05 in Linkoping (58 degrees N) and were studied fromDecember 2016 to November 2017. Site 1 has monofacial and bifacial modules with a 40 degrees tilt facing south, which is optimal for annual energy yield for monofacial modules at this location. Site 2 has monofacial 40 degrees tilt south-facing modules and bifacial vertical east-west orientated modules. The annual bifacial energy gain (BGE) was5% at site 1 and1% at site 2 for albedo 0.05. The difference in power temperature coefficients between bifacial and monofacial modules was estimated to influence BG(E) by + 0.4 and + 0.1 percentage points on site 1 and 2, respectively. A higher albedo could be investigated on a sunny day with fresh snow for the bifacial east-west modules. The specific yield was 7.57 kWh/kW(p), which was a yield increase of 48% compared with tar paper at similar solar conditions.

  • 13.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    System studies of Anaerobic Co-digestion Processes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of biogas through anaerobic digestion is one pathway to achieving the European Union (EU) goals of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the share of renewable energy, and improving energy efficiency. In this thesis, two different models (Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 and an artificial neural network) are used to simulate a full-scale co-digester in order to evaluate the feasibility of such models. This thesis also includes models of two systems to study the inclusion of microalgae in biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants. One of the studies is a life-cycle assessment in which replacement of the ley crop with microalgae is evaluated. The other study concerns the inclusion of microalgae in case studies of biological treatment in three wastewater treatment plants. Finally, the co-digestion between microalgae and sewage sludge has been simulated to evaluate the effect on biogas and methane yield. The results showed that Anaerobic Digestion Model No.1 and the artificial neural network are suitable for replicating the dynamics of a full-scale co-digestion plant. For the tested period, the artificial neural network showed a better fit for biogas and methane content than the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1. Simulations showed that co-digestion with microalgae tended to reduce biomethane production. However, this depended on the species and biodegradability of the microalgae. The results also showed that inclusion of microalgae could decrease carbon dioxide emissions in both types of plants and decrease the energy demand of the studied wastewater treatment plants. The extent of the decrease in the wastewater treatment plants depended on surface volume. In the biogas plant, the inclusion of microalgae led to a lower net energy ratio for the methane compared to when using ley crop silage. Both studies show that microalgae cultivation is best suited for use in summer in the northern climate.

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  • 14.
    Nordlander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Eva, Thorin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, JinYue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Investigating the possibility of applying an ADM1 based model to a full-scale co-digestion plant2017In: Biochemical engineering journal, ISSN 1369-703X, E-ISSN 1873-295X, Vol. 120, p. 73-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the possibility of using a model based on the anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) on a full-scale 4000 m3 digester in order to understand how such theoretical models can be applied to a real industrial process. The industrial scale digester co-digests the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, grease trap sludge, and ley crop silage with varying feed rates and amounts of volatile solids. A year of process data was collected. Biogas flow, methane content/flow, and ammonia nitrogen were the variables that the model was best at predicting (index of agreement at 0.78, 0.61/0.77, and 0.68, respectively). The model was also used to investigate the effect of increasing the volatile solids (VS) concentration entering the digester. According to simulation results, increasing the influent VS concentration will increase biogas and methane outflow (from 1.5 million Nm3 methane to more than 2 million Nm3 methane), but decrease the amounts of biogas/methane per unit of volatile solids (from about 264 Nm3methane per tonne VS to below 215 Nm3 methane per tonne VS).

  • 15.
    Nordlander, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH.
    Modeling of a full-scale biogas plant using a dynamic neural network2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Paz, Ana
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Wester, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Combustion of rapeseed oil for heat production2007In: IGEC III Conf, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Salman, Chaudhary Awais
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Enhancing biomethane production by integrating pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion processes2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 204, p. 1074-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic waste is a mature and increasingly used process for biomethane production. However, the efficient use of different fractions of waste is a big concern in anaerobic digestion plants. This study proposes the use of a new process configuration that couples the anaerobic digestion of biodegradable waste with the pyrolysis of lignocellulosic or green waste. The biochar obtained from pyrolysis was added to a digester as an adsorbent to increase the biomethane content and to support the development of a stable microbial community. In addition, the bio-oil and syngas produced by the pyrolysis process were reformed into syngas and then converted to biomethane via methanation. Modelling and simulations were performed for the proposed novel process. The results showed an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the biomethane volume produced. An overall efficiency of 67% was achieved, whereas the stand-alone anaerobic digestion system had an efficiency of only 52%. The results also indicated a high annual revenue for the integrated process compared to that for an alternative treatment (incineration) of green waste.

  • 18.
    Skvaril, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Applications of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in biomass energy conversion processes: A review2017In: Applied spectroscopy reviews (Softcover ed.), ISSN 0570-4928, E-ISSN 1520-569X, Vol. 52, no 8, p. 675-728Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass used in energy conversion processes is typically characterized by high variability, making its utilization challenging. Therefore, there is a need for a fast and non-destructive method to determine feedstock/product properties and directly monitor process reactors. The near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique together with advanced data analysis methods offers a possible solution. This review focuses on the introduction of the NIRS method and its recent applications to physical, thermochemical, biochemical and physiochemical biomass conversion processes represented mainly by pelleting, combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, as well as biogas, bioethanol, and biodiesel production. NIRS has been proven to be a reliable and inexpensive method with a great potential for use in process optimization, advanced control, or product quality assurance.

  • 19.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Freidank, Tim
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    Drescher-Hartung, Silvia
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    Daukšys, Vygintas
    Klaipeda University.
    Ahrens, Thorsten
    Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences.
    POSSIBILITES FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE DRY DIGESTION PROCESS2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 20.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nordlander, Eva
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Suhonen,, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Den Boer, Emilia
    Wrocław University of Technology.
    Possibilites for Optimization of Biorefinery process2014Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Wang, C. S.
    et al.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Royal Inst Technol, Sch Chem Sci & Engn, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jia, H. J.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Wu, J. Z.
    Cardiff Univ, Sch Engn, Cardiff CF24 3AA, S Glam, Wales..
    Yu, J. C.
    State Grid Tianjin Elect Power Co, Tianjin 300010, Peoples R China..
    Xu, T.
    Tianjin Univ, Key Lab Smart Grid, Minist Educ, Tianjin 30072, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Y.
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Sustainable Dev Soc & Technol, S-72123 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Renewable and distributed energy integration with mini/microgrids2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 237, p. 920-923Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Zafar, Muhammad Abdullah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Optimization of Combined heat and power plant (CHP) integrated with transportation fuel2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Regional energy system consists of the three sections heat, electricity and transport. The alternatives of fossil fuels are getting importance in research fields to reduce its adverse effect on the environment, especially in the transport sector. The bioethanol is focusing on recent years to reduce the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy dependence on other countries.

    This study focus on analyzing the energy system including the heat and power plant integrating with transportation fuel production with the best utilization of the locally available energy resources. The four regions of vastmanland Vasteras, Koping, Norberg, Skinskatterberg are considered for the energy resources due to its large arable land. The data regarding local energy resources (household waste, peat and wood chips, coal) used in CHP plant are taken from the different bureau and some are assumed as seen in the previous year's trends. The four crops ( winter wheat, spring wheat, spring barley, and oats) are focused for biofuel production in the integrated plant. It is very difficult to predict the crops production and its hectares areas because it is dependent upon the weather conditions. The passenger cars only considered for calculating the biofuel demand in considered regions because data is easily available.

    The dynamic model is developed for the optimization of the ethanol plant integrated with CHP plant to reduce the system cost and reduction of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission.  The mixed integer programming is the best way for system optimization and it developed with the help of the GAMS, which is best suited for complex problems.

     The four case studies are analyzed in which different parameters are changed from 2017 to 2030 years. In the first scenario, all parameters are changed next fourteen years with previous trends. The vehicle's number run on gasoline, straw production hectares area and its production are changed in second, third and fourth scenarios respectively.

     The CHP produce the heat and electricity with local fuels and import fuels which have the cheapest production prices. The fuel E05 and tall oil pitch are also considered to use in the system but due to its heavy prices is not used. The region heat and electricity demand satisfied by importing to the region as compared to produce with some sources are very high prices.  The huge amount of ethanol is produced in each scenario because demand is very little in regions, large amount exported all scenario.  The ethanol import in the last three years of the second scenario because the production of ethanol is less and demand is high. The ethanol demand and production is equal from 3rd year to 5th year in the fourth scenario. The exported ethanol l to another region can provide the fuel to more than 500,000 passenger cars in each scenario.

    The ethanol utilization in the region can reduce the CO2 emission effectively. The first scenario emitted 120-140Kt CO2 during fourteen years while it reduced to 89 Kt and 77 Kt in the third and fourth scenario. It reduced 36% and 45% CO2 if  10%/year and 50%/years vehicles run by gasoline cars shifted to E85.

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