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  • 1.
    Dotzsky, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Konsekvensanalys för ”worst case scenario” på Mälarhamnar AB Västerås2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract

    Consequence analysis ”worst case scenario” at Mälarhamnar AB Västerås

    David Dotzsky

    Mälarhamnar AB is a company that handle large amounts of oil, diesel, biofuel and petrol. That result in a lot of work to prevent accidents. The risks with modern technology is very small but it can’t be eliminated. This project is a continued investigation on a previous consequence analysis for Mälarhamnar AB. It is important to know which authorities who will be involved before and after a worst case scenario at the fuel depot. It is conclusive that the responsibility of each party that is involved is defined. The communication between the involved parties is also important for the most efficient way to deal with the problems that occur after a fire in the depot. The information have been gathered through communication with and information from the environmental and health protection agency in Västerås, Mälardalens fire and rescue association, Västerås municipality, county administrative board in Västmanland and the national agency of preparation for crises among others. The effects from a depot fire would threat people in Västerås if the wind is northeast, then all the pollutants reach the city core. A fire can also cause eutrofication in Lake Mälaren, which might lead to overgrowth of poisonous algae and lack of oxygen. The responsibility is divided on a lot of parties but Mälarhamnar AB is ultimately responsible in case of fire.

    Nyckelord: ARC Miljö, bensin, cistern, myndighet, Mälaren, OKQ8, bränsledepå, olycka, petroleum, tillsyn.

  • 2.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Tre stora industriella investeringar2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
  • 3.
    Fiedler, Frank
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Combined solar and pellet heating systems: Study of energy use and CO-emissions2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study 4 solar and pellet heating systems have been studied with the help of annual dynamic simulations. Two of the systems comprised a pellet stove and two systems were solar combisystems; one with a store integrated pellet burner, the other with a separate pellet boiler.

    The aim was to evaluate their thermal performance and their CO-emissions. The systems have been modelled based on lab measurements of the single system components. The used models allow a detailed study of the dynamic behaviour of the systems.

    The stove systems have the least primary energy consumption provided the auxiliary electricity is taken into account with a conversion factor of 100%. If the auxiliary electricity is taken into account with a conversion of 40% and/or the systems are placed in the heated area the combisystems need less or a similar amount of primary energy.

    Modulating combustion power reduces the number of starts and stops and for most pellet units this reduces the total CO emissions. The obtained annual CO emissions are higher than the values obtained from the standard test methods. It was shown that the average emissions under realistic annual conditions were greater than the limit values of two Eco-labels.

    The system performance can be significantly improved by a proper control of the pellet heater and by sizing the pellet heater according to the size of the peak space heating demand.

    Based on these findings from the simulations two prototypes of a combined solar and pellet heating system has been designed, built and tested; one for the lab and one that has been installed in a demonstration house. The system is very compact and is suitable for detached houses with no heating room or little space for a heating room.

  • 4.
    Färm, Carina
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Constructed Filters and Detention Ponds for Metal Reduction in Storm Water2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Ghaviha, Nima
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Bohlin, Markus
    SICS - swedish institute of computer science, Sweden.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Dahlquist, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    AN ALGORITHM FOR OPTIMAL CONTROL OF AN ELECTRIC MULTIPLE UNIT2014In: Proceedings from The 55th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 55),21-22 October, 2014. Aalborg, Denmark, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper offers a solution for the optimal EMU train (Electric Multiple Unit) operation with the aim of minimizing the energy consumption. EMU is an electric train with traction motors in more than one carriage. The algorithm is based on dynamic programming and the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. To model the train, real data has been used, which was provided by experts from Bombardier Transportation Västerås. To evaluate the model, some experiments have been done on the energy saving in exchange for the increase in the trip time. Moreover a simple accuracy factor is introduced to evaluate the accuracy of the model. The final goal is to use this approach as a base for a driver advisory system, therefore it is important to have the amount of calculations as minimum as possible. The paper also includes the studies done on the calculation time. The solution can be used for driverless trains as well as normal trains. It should be mentioned that this paper is a part of a research which is still in progress and the final model will also be used by Bombardier Transportation Västerås as an evaluation tool for the propulsions systems and trains.

  • 6.
    Gustafsson, Roger
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Miljöledning för underhållsteknik: Vilken miljökompetens behöver underhållspersonal?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this article is to give examples how to remain and in a long run develop a higher interest in maintenance activities and knowledge. First reason is the changed age-distribution with more number of older employees among maintenance personnel staff and second reason is demand for education due the increasing demand in environmental responsibility.

    In spite of there is a lot of knowledge of maintenance in national organizations of interests it will not be used in a sufficient extent in many companies. This knowledge is an important base to use to re-built the missing or loosed skills in companies. The national organization UTEK is involved in European projects to validate knowledge of maintenance. Lost of or bad maintenance activities will always affect on the environment.

    Establish a network between companies is a good way to exchange information in their common business areas. If the existing maintenance department in companies have difficulties to manifest itself, an alternative organization as a personnel co-operative organization can be a solution. That will be lead to better productivity and higher engagement in the personnel. To evaluate the maintenance skills for personnel to a good basic level will in most case lead that they further will search for more information and cause demand for increased efforts of education from educational institutions.

  • 7.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Olsson, Sandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Esther och Harry handlar för miljön: En genomförandebeskrivning och utvärdering2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi har gjort en barnbok med syftet att de yngsta barnen, på ettlustfyllt och vardagsnära vis, ska få ett intresse- och en inblick i detkretslopp som konsumtion och avfall utgör. Vi tycker att justkonsumtionens påverkan på miljön och främst klimatförändringarär ett aktuellt ämne och att barnboken som form är ett bra sätt attundervisa barn med. Vår bok vänder sig till barn i sexårsåldern.Processen har inkluderat faktainsamling som vår bok grundar sig i,kontinuerlig kontakt med barngrupp samt förskollärare sommålsättning att bokens innehåll ska tilltala den tänkta målgruppen.Resultatet av vårt arbete utvärderades tillsammans med fyra styckenlärare som i lugn och ro fått använda- och granskat boken. Vid ettutvärderingsseminarium samtalade vi kring hur de upplevt boken.Responsen var mycket positiv. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi draslutsatsen att en barnbok i berättande form är ett mycket bra medeldå man vill förmedla kunskaper, om avfall och konsumtion i ettkretslopp, till barn.

  • 8.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Corporate sustainability leaders and their reporting on sustainable development: environmental profile focus2010In: The Sixteenth Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference. The Kadoorie Institute, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China: Conference Proceedings, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and  product related environmental impacts of a company can form a basis for defining the corporate environmental profile,  as production and  product related environmental profiles,  as well as for defining environmental leaders. This distinction between production and  product related environmental issues  is particularly important when  considering the  environmental profile  within sectors   with   prominent  product  related  profiles,   such   as  the   environmental  technology  sector. Previous  research  has   shown  low   levels   of  awareness  of  the   production  and   product  related dimensions of the  environmental profile  among companies in the  environmental technology sector. Consideration of production and  product related environmental dimensions should also  be of great importance to companies in other  sectors.  This paper presents results from  a study into  description and  reporting of environmental issues  among 19 companies ranked as Global  Supersector Leaders in

    2009/2010 by the Dow Jones Sustainability Index (DJSI).

    The  results show   that  all  of  these  companies are  aware   of  production and   product related environmental aspects.  There  are  also  examples, both  as  headings on  websites and  as  sections  in sustainability  reports,  where   companies structure  their   environmental  initiatives separately  with respect  to production (or their  own  operations) and  products. In addition, the  results show  that  the environmental profile  of a company may  also  include environmental engagement, with  or without links to the core business, in the local community or in society,  as initiatives to encourage responsible environmental behavior among employees, consumers and the public.  The paper ends with a proposed model  of corporate environmental profile.

  • 9.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Is the Swedish environmental goods and services industry ‘green’? 2009In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference. Track 4B Clean products and production: implementing zero. Utrecht University, Netherlands  July 5-8, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental technology sector (ETS) delivers environmentally preferably products. Little is known about whether these companies set environmental objectives relating to their own production processes. This paper presents results from an online survey on environmental work in enterprises listed by the Swedish Environmental Technology Council (Swentec). The survey found that only 21 % to 45 % of companies provide information about  environmental work on their website. This paper proposes environmental aspects in production and product as bases for corporate greening, as well as defining ‘green’ and ‘green-green’ business and concludes that companies within environmental industry should be expected to be green-green business.

    Key words: Environmental technology sector, environmental goods and services, clean technology, ‘green’ business, ‘green-green’ business

     

  • 10.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Is the Swedish Environmental Goods and Services Industry Green?: Product and production perspectives2010Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In most business sectors environmental programs focus on direct, production-related environmental impacts. The design and development of products with reduced environmental impact is considered more difficult. The opposite applies in the environmental technology sector. The business model of environmental technology companies focuses on delivering solutions that contribute to improving the environmental performance of their customers. Products and services delivered by this sector have prominent environmental profiles. However, companies in this sector may not necessarily set and implement environmental goals for their own activities and manufacturing processes, and may not clearly distinguish between production and product related environmental aspects.

    This thesis presents results of an online survey of environmental technology companies listed by the Swedish Environmental Technology Council (Swentec). The survey found that depending on the subsector, only between 21% and 45% of companies provide information about their environmental work on their website.

    Environmental impacts of a company may be product and/or production related. The survey found that these dimensions are treated differently, and are not always clearly differentiated in environmental tools and guidelines, such as the ISO 14000 series, the Reporting Guidelines for UK Business, the GRI and The Swedish Annual Accounts (ÅRL). There are also differences in the ways that information about production and product related environmental impacts are considered within the environmental technology industry. Some companies clearly distinguish between product and activity related environmental issues, while others are unclear about the distinction between their products and their activities in environmental policies and management. While some companies in the sector limit the environmental information they disseminate to the environmental benefits of their products, others explicitly articulate that the predominantly product related environmental profiles in the sector drive them to additionally minimise environmental impacts of their own activities.

    This thesis proposes environmental aspects of products and production as bases for corporate environmental profiles, corporate greening, and for defining ‘green’ and ‘green-green’ business, and concludes that companies within the environmental industry should be expected to be green-green business. This thesis concludes that companies within the environmental technology sector should increase their use of both production and product related environmental profile information in their presentations on their own websites and at platforms such as Swentec. Furthermore, the thesis shows that the use of the term ‘process’ within environmental technology sector to describe both the companies’ own operations and their products can create ambiguities in understanding. Companies that deliver ‘processes’ as products should avoid ambiguity by describing their own operations with terms such as ‘production processes’, ‘production’, ‘manufacturing process’, ‘operation’ or ‘activity’.

  • 11.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nature's Best -Success Factors Behind the Qulity Label for Ecoturism in Sweden2006In: Sustainable development on the national, regional and local level.: Polish experiences and their possible implementaion in Ukraine. / [ed] S.Kozlowski; H.Haladyj, Lublin: Katolocki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana Pawla II , 2006, p. 54-62Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality label for ecotourism Nature’s Best was developed during 2001 and launched in 2002. Since launching, this innovative labelling system has become increasingly popular within the tourism industry and is now one of the leading ecotourism labels in Sweden. It is therefore interesting to study the factors behind the success of the label and analyse why the label has become attractive to the consumers and the tours operators. Conscientious efforts and partnerships at all levels, government support, an easily navigated and attractive web site with tours search functions, an integrated approach and multiple benefits for all parties involved with and affected by the ecotourism are some of main factors that have contributed to the successful development and spreading of the label.

  • 12.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Nature's Best (To, co najlepsze w naturze/dla natury)- czynniki sukcesu stojace za znakiem jakosci ekoturystyki w Szwecji.2006In: Rozwoj zrownowazony na szczeblu krajowym regionalnym i lokalnym.: Doswiadczenia polskie i mozliwosci ich zastosowania na Ukrainie. / [ed] S. Kozlowski, A.Haladyj, Lublin: Katolocki Uniwersytet Lubelski Jana pawla II , 2006, p. 233-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [pl]

    99 procent wszyskich szwedzkich firm to male przedsiebiorstwa, a cztery z dziesieciu zatrudnionych w sektorze prywatnym osob pracuje w malych spolkach (MSP). Male i srednie firmy maja kluczowe znaczenie dla ochrony srodowiska i zrownowazonego rozwoju. Zgodnie z Nutek, Szwedzka Agencja Wzrostu Ekonomicznego i Regionalnego, jedno z trzech przedsiebiorstw (31%) jest aktywnie zaangazowane  w ustalanie i osiaganie celow srodowiskowych.  W pracy nad srodowiskiem moze byc wykorzystywany szereg roznorodnych narzedzin. Nalezy dodac, ze 43 % malych przedsiebiorstw, ktore podejmuja aktywnie prace srodowiskowa, nie stosuje w tym celu zadnego konkretnego srodka. Wiekszosc narzedzi uzywanych do ustalania i osiagania celow srodowiskowych prze MSP to ogolne srodki pracy srodowiskowej; tylko nieliczne sposrod nich sa przystosowane do uzycia w malych przedsiebiorstwach. ISO 14001 jest najbardziej powszechnym narzedziem pracy srodowiskowej malych przedsiebiorstw.W Szwecji dostepnych jest jednak kilka instrumentow, ktore byly stoworzone, aby pomoc malym przedsiebiorstwom w pracy nad kwestiami srodowiska i zrownowazonego rozwoju. Jednym z nich jest znak jakosci dla ekosturystyki – Nature’s Best (To co najlepsze w naturze/dla natury). Znak przyjeto w 2001 roku, a wdrozono w roko 2002. Od poczatku, ten innowacyjny system snakowanie stal  sie popularny w przemysle turystycznym i jest obenie jednym z wazniejszych znakow ekosturystyki w  Szwecji.

  • 13.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Product and production related dimensions of environmental work in the Swedish environmental technology industry.2009In: Proceedings of the 15th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference. Track 4B Clean products and production: implementing zero. Utrecht University, Netherlands July 5-8, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and product related environmental impacts are treated differently, and are not always clearly differentiated in different environmental tools and guidelines. The companies within environmental technology are not always aware of these dimensions in information about their environmental engagement. Companies within this sector should increase their use of both product and production related environmental profile information in their presentation at their own websites and at platforms such as Swentec. The paper reveals confusion in the use of the term ‘process’ for both the companies’ own production processes and for companies’ products. Companies which deliver ’processes’ as their products should in order to avoid obscurity  describe  companies’ own operations with  terms  such as ‘production process’, ‘production’ ‘manufacturing process’, ‘operation’ or ‘activity’.

  • 14.
    Guziana, Bozena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Swedish SMEs in the environmental technologies and services sector and their corporate social responsibility performance.2007In: Paradigms of Corporate Sustainablity.: Proceedings of Track 16, International Sustainable Development Research Conference 2007 / [ed] Tarja Ketola, Vaasa: Vaasan yliopisto , 2007, p. 80-91Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental technology companies operate according to a business model in which they deliver solutions to improve the environmental performance of their customers. Little is known about whether these companies set and implement environmental objectives relating to their own activities and products. This paper presents results from a questionnaire-based survey on implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) agenda in Swedish small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the environmental technologies and services sector (ETS). The survey found that a large majority of the companies that responded (83 %) actively set environmental objectives and that nearly half of these companies set environmental objectives both for company processes and for their products. A quarter of the companies set environmental goals that only relate to their products and a quarter  only set environmental goals for the company processes. ISO 14000 is the most commonly applied tool for setting these goals, although 31 % of companies do not use any particular tool for this. The results show a significant increase in environmentally active companies compared to a survey conducted four years previously. We conclude that initiatives to encourage growth of the ETS sector should include environmental management issues among SMEs in this sector.

  • 15.
    Hamrin, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Marin undersökning av utvalda havsstränder inom Härnösands kommun: En studie av bottenfauna2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete skrivs på uppdrag av Härnösand kommun, som vill ha ett underlag för vart kommunen kan exploatera sin mark ytterligare. Härnösands kommun ligger i södra Ångermanland och här utgör Bottenhavet kommungräns åt öster.

    En bottenfaunainventering har utförts på 25 lokaler efter kommunens kust, metoden för inventeringen har varit SS-EN 28565 ”Vattenundersökningar - Utformning och användning av kvantitativ provtagningsutrustning för bottenfauna på grunda hårdbottnar i sötvatten” (ISO 8265:1988). De infångade djuren har artbestämts, räknats och jämförts mot AAB index och Shannons diversitets index. Resultatet har visat att somliga lokaler har både ett högt art- och individantal medan andra lokaler, både har ont om individer och arter. Förklaringar till detta kan delvis bero på att många lokaler har legat väldigt nära utlopp och i dessa prover har både limniska och marina djur funnits. En annan förklaring till detta kan vara att somliga lokaler är väldigt karga medan andra är omgivna av mycket växtlighet och därmed mer näring. De olika indexen har visat väldigt olika värden för miljökvalitén, något som eventuellt kan förklaras att AAB index modifierades för att kunna användas till den valda provtagningsmetoden

  • 16.
    Hamrin, Åsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Är det lönt att yttra sig över bygglov?: Studie av effekterna från Sundsvalls miljökontors remissvar i bygglovsärenden.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete skrivs på uppdrag av miljökontoret i Sundsvalls kommun. Miljökontoret vill veta om och hur deras yttranden i bygglovsärenden ger avtryck i bygglovs- och byggprocessen, vart i processen de har störst chans att påverka, och hur de kan förbättra sina remissvar i bygglovsärenden. Tolv ärendens bygglovsremisser har granskats. Elva av de tolv remisserna är ärenden gällande fritids- och enbostadshus, det tolfte ärendet gäller en byggnad i skyddsvärd natur. Bakgrundsfaktan till denna rapport har inhämtats från SFS 1986:223 Förvaltningslag och SFS 1987:10 Plan och bygglag samt från två rapporter från Boverket. En intervju med en byggnadsinspektör har genomförts. I denna rapport redovisas vad en remiss är och några begrepp angående bygglovsprocessen och byggprocessen förklaras. Remissgången mellan stadsbyggnadskontoret och miljökontoret i Sundsvalls kommun redovisas och även hur miljökontorets remissvar senare hanteras av stadsbyggnadskontoret. Resultatet har visat att miljökontorets remissvar kan förbättras genom att de förkortas dem och att miljökontorets avtryck i processen finns i form av att byggherrarna läser och tar fasta på det mesta i miljökontorets yttranden. Resultatet har också visat att miljökontoret har störst chans att påverka bygglovs- och byggprocessen genom att begära att något lyfts fram vid byggsamrådet.

  • 17.
    Hansen, Rickard
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Smoke spread calculations for fires in underground mines2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the research project “Concept for fire and smoke spread prevention in mines”, conducted by a research group at Mälardalen University.The project is aimed at improving fire safety in mines in order to obtain a safer working environment for the people working for the mining companies in Sweden or for visitors in mines open to the public.This report deals with the issue on smoke spread calculations for fires in underground mines.The main purposes of the report are:- Using both one- or two-dimensional calculation models as well as three-dimensional CFD calculation models.- Positioning the design fires (a pool fire, a fire in a loader, a fire in a loader in a sprinklered drift, a cable fire and a bus fire) at various sites with respect to for example the ventilation system.- Investigating the complexities of the various models, their limitations and deficiencies etc.- Comparing the results from the calculation models with each other and with experimental data where applicable and available.The work in this report started with describing smoke spread in underground mines in general and then continuing with describing three types of calculation models used in this report. After that calculations and simulations were conducted – using the three models – for the five designated design fire scenarios and the results were presented for strategic sites with respect to egress safety and the intervention of the fire and rescue services. The results from the CFD simulations were thereafter validated with respect to flame temperature and grid size convergence. It is misleading to fully compare the outputs of the three calculation models with each other without considering the differences and limitations of the three models as they are based upon different assumptions that differ considerably. For example the hand calculation expressions and the mine ventilation network simulation program assume unidirectional flow in the drifts compared with FDS that account for multi directional flows in the drifts. Also the hand calculation expressions and the mine ventilation network simulation program both assume complete mixture of air and fire gases while FDS does not make that assumption. Visibility is not one of the output parameters of the mine ventilation network simulation program, thus limiting the available data for comparison. But one of the purposes of this report was to investigate the complexities, limitations and deficiencies of the involved models.The advantage of the one- and two-dimensional models is the fact that the computational requirements are considerably lower than compared with a CFD model. Also with Ventgraph it is possible to obtain fast and transient solutions even though the simulated system of mine drifts is vast and complex. The advantage of FDS is the fact that it will model the area closest to the fire most accurately of the three models, for example accounting for multi directional flows in the near area of the fire. The disadvantages of the models are for example that it is not possible to fully account for the highly variable heat release rate of for example a fire in a tyre or in a vehicle when using a mine ventilation network program, as the ramp up to the maximum heat release rate is assumed to be linear and that every fire in a branch is assumed to be constant after reaching the maximum heat release rate. This does not apply to heat release rate curves that are uniform in shape such as a pool fire; in this case the heat release rate values used will be practically the same in all three types of calculation models.Also the time periods of the simulations differ between the three models as the simulations in FDS will become impractically long as the time to simulate increases due to higher computational requirements. Thus only the first 10-20 minutes were simulated in FDS and so the chance of comparison in for example the case of the fire in the loader is strongly limited.When comparing the results of the three calculation models the following conclusions can be made:- The mine ventilation network simulation program generally shows higher temperatures at the measuring points compared with the outputs of the other two models. One probable reason for this is that the heat release rate could not be represented as adequately as for the other two models; in all cases the heat release rate levels were higher for the mine ventilation network simulation program.- Generally the hand calculations showed much lower visibility figures than the CFDmodel. One reason for this – besides the fact that we are dealing with two models withvastly different approaches - is most likely in the difference in the types of smokecharacteristic factors used in the two types of models.- The FDS simulations generally showed small changes in temperature when comparingwith the other two models. This could be attributed to the fact that the measuring pointsare positioned at fairly large distances from the fire and thus the fire gases will coolconsiderably. Also the maximum heat release rate of some of the fires was small - ~1MW – and thus the impact on the nearby environment will be limited.- The results of the hand calculations with respect to the visibility is a good approximationfor the design fires with fairly low maximum heat release rate as the stratification in thiscase will be almost nonexistent and thus the smoke spread can be assumed to be equal tothe ventilation velocity in a drift (one dimensional smoke spread).- With respect to the egress safety the visibility will be the critical factor. In the case of thepool fire (design fire) the visibility will start to decrease at an early stage of the fire bothaccording to the hand calculations and the FDS simulation. After approximately a fewminutes the visibility in a large section of the connecting main ramp will be affected dueto the open nature of the area. Thus the egress will have to take place at an early stage inorder to ensure safety. Regarding the fire in the loader, the fire in the parking drift andthe cable fire the hand calculations indicate a sharp decline in visibility after a fewminutes, but the facts that the FDS simulation showed no differences in visibility and thatthe heat release rate is relatively small in all three cases (<1 MW) would indicate that thevisibility would be affected but in a limited manner and thus the egress safety will not belargely affected during the first 10-20 minutes due to for example the large spaces in themine drifts. With respect to the bus fire the same conclusions are drawn as in the case ofthe pool fire except that the FDS simulation predicts a much slower smoke spread thanthe results from the hand calculations.- With respect to the intervention from the fire and rescue services the visibility will also bethe critical factor as for the egress safety. The loader fire in the sprinklered drift and thecable fire should generally not pose any large problem to the intervention of the fire andrescue service, as the maximum heat release is small and the smoke spread largely limited.But the pool fire, the loader fire and the bus fire will be problematic to the interventionof the fire and rescue service as the maximum heat release is large and the smoke spreadis extensive affecting a large area before the arrival of the fire and rescue service (>30minutes). Thus the fire and rescue service will have to start the intervention at a largedistance from the site of the fire and work its way towards the fire. This will take a longtime and will decrease the chance of rescuing any personnel left in the area.As no data from conducted full-scale fire experiments were found that were applicable to any ofthe five design fire scenarios, future work should deal with validating the results of the threemodels with experimental results from conducted full scale fire tests corresponding to any of thefive design fire scenarios. In this case more profound comparisons and conclusions can bedrawn. The work and reflections from this report can be used when working on the full-scale fireexperiment.Measuring points should be placed in the near vicinity to the fire as well as sites further awayfrom the fire (> 50 m), this in order to effectively investigate and compare the results of one- andtwo-dimensional models versus a three dimensional model.Also further and deeper studies of the applied mine ventilation network simulation programshould be performed, investigating for example the assumptions and calculation models behindthe specific software.

  • 18.
    Hellebrandt, Aniko
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The potential of biodegradation on 1, 1, 1-trichloro-2, 2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane, based upon co-metabolism of indigenous bacteria2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project is to evaluate the potential of a bioreactor system to degrade DDT based upon co-metabolism of indigenous bacteria. The study was performed with soil samples spiked with four different concentrations of DDT. The prepared sludge was circulated at a steady rate of revolution per minute in bioreactors with added M8 solution, cabbage leaf extract and molasses. The experiment was carried out for 7 days and chemical analysis and toxicity testing was accomplished at the beginning and the end of the experiment. The chemical analysis was essential to support the conclusions of the ecotoxicology tests. Ecotoxicology test was performed for the assessment of the toxicity (in terms of bioavailable

    measures) of the sludge samples, and was carried out with the Ostracodtoxkit sediment toxicity test, with the freshwater benthic crustacean test species Heterocypris incongruens. As part of the project the potential of the bioremediation method phytoremediation have been studied. Brassica Juncea seeds have been cultivated in the soil spiked with four different concentrations of DDT for one month, under stable circumstances. Growth of the plants was measured at the end of the experiment, and a chemical analysis was carried out. A thorough literature review was carried out for both the bioreactor and the phytoremediation experiments in order to obtain information about methods and theoretical background. The ecotoxicology tests and the chemical analysis showed increased p,p’- DDT concentrations in the bioreactors I. and II. at the end of the 7 day experiment, the reasons of which are not known, and require further studies.

  • 19.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Risk modeling; Definitions and methods of risk modeling in relation to shipping in Lake Mälaren2003In: Proceeding from 44th Scandinavian Conference on simulation and modeling, 2003Conference paper (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 20.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Odelström, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Karim, Adel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Pollutant control in an inland water harbour: -a case study of Västerås harbour2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every average sized harbour use a lot of cranes, trucks and other vehicles for loading and reloading incoming and out going ships. These vehicles are usually run by different diesel distillates, which emit pollution to the atmosphere. According to legal permissions based upon both European and national legalisations, the emission factors have to be reported in to the municipal environmental protection authorities. This present study presents methods in calculating gas exhaust emissions from these vehicles which effect the surrounding environment both to the nearby water and to the regional atmosphere. The calculation model is based upon fuel consumption and future possibilities to decrease this consumption and trade out some of the worst polluting distillates to other more ecological fuel systems.

  • 21.
    Johansson Westholm, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Use of Blast Furnace Slag for Removal of Phosphorus from Wastewater in Sweden—A Review2010In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 826-837Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Research on Phosphorus (P) removal capacity by blast furnace slags (BFS) has been undertaken in Sweden for the last decade. Both laboratory experiments and field trials have been carried out. While laboratory investigations revealed that BFS has a high P-sorption capacity (95–100%), P removal in field trials was much lower, ranging from 40 to 53%. In addition, a number of problems have been observed in BFS field testing including clogging, sulfuric odor and environmental (regulatory) concerns about possible leaching of heavy metals from the slag. In spite of these problems, and questioning by the environmental regulatory authorities, research continues to provide evidence that BFS can be regarded as a suitable filter media, and attempts have also been undertaken in order to further improve the P-removal capacity of this adsorbing material.

  • 22.
    Jonsson, Lisa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Inventering av Maskinisten 6 och Valhall 2 på LEAX fastigheter i Köping enligt MIFO fas 12009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a degree project in environmental engineering at Mälardalens university. Its purpose has been to perform a risk assessment on whether or not any contaminations are present in the soil at two properties in Köping. The assessment was to be done accordingly to a method that has been set up by The Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket). The method for investigation of contaminated sites is called MIFO. MIFO consists of two stages. In the first stage historical studies, a visit at the site, and studies of maps make up the basic data for the risk assessment. This study only contains the first stage of MIFO. The properties that have been examined are Maskinisten 6 and Valhall 2 in Köping. At Maskinisten 6 the present building was built in the 1970s. The buildings on Valhall 2 was built in the early 1940s as a part of an old mechanical industry named KMV. These properties are now rented by LEAX Mekaniska AB which also is a mechanical industry. LEAX produces mechanical components for industries and vehicles. In LEAX processes, oils, cutting fluids and washing fluids are the most commonly used chemicals. The assessments of possible pollutants toxicity, the pollution levels, the possibility of spreading, and possible exposure on humans and or the environment has led to different risk classes for the two properties. Maskinisten 6 has been classed in risk class 3. Valhall 2 has been classed in risk class 2. The difference is due to the historical differences. At Valhall 2, an assumption has been made that some dangerous, for the business common, chemicals has been used at some point and at some quantities. This assumption was made due to the fact that mechanical industry has been the main activity on the location for about 70 years. If evidence that these dangerous chemicals have not been used at all can be shown, the risk assessment may be revalued.

  • 23.
    Larsson, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dricksvattenkvalite i enskilda vattentäkter: Landskrona kommun2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The problem with bad drinking water in wells are a wide problem in an landscape such as Skåne. The purpose of this report is to work up all the data from the different analysis regarding drinking water quality from wells in Landskrona municipality. The parameters that were analysed were microorganisms, the content of nitrate and nitrite and also the concentration of pesticides. Many reports in the field of the subject were collected to get a good picture and a better knowledge of the different problems that lie ahead. This resulted in various conclusions but some of the conclusions was confirmed from other examinations. That wells in the ground are more exposed than wells in mountain. The concentration of pesticides were very high in many of the wells wich shows that this will be a great problem for us to deal with in the future. Examinations in both Denmark and remaining parts of Sweden also show high concentration of pesticides. This only confirm that the problem isn’t just a local here in the municipality.

  • 24.
    Levin, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Riktvärden för förorenad mark: En undersökning av hur riktvärden för förorenad mark har förändrats gentemot tidigare riktvärden samt hur de påverkas av variationer i geologiska och hydrogeologiska parametrar2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Risk assessment is made to determine risks with contaminated areas and to determine which treatment the area requires. In Sweden, risk assessment is divided into three levels: risk analysis, facilitated risk assessment and detailed risk assessment. In detailed risk assessment site-specific guideline values are developed to compare with values of contaminants that are measured in the area.

    Site-specific guideline values vary with geological and hydrogeological parameters. The purpose of this report is to examine which of these parameters that affect the guideline values. The examination was done using a calculating program for consideration from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency from the year of 1997. The study shows that some of the geological and hydrogeological parameters affect the site-specific guideline values for metals in different ways and others do not.  

    Using the program from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is a simple way to calculate site-specific guideline values. It’s important to make sure that relevant values are chosen to get correct results. The calculating program is still not definitive so it’s important to be careful when using it.

    Another purpose of the report is to compare how guideline values have developed from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency’s model for calculating guideline values from the year of 1997 with their new report whit the same purpose from the year of 2007. Guideline values for all metals that have been considered are lower in the new model from the year of 2007 compared to the model from the year of 1997.

  • 25.
    Milestad, Cecilia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Zars, Pär
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hållbar stadsutveckling: En jämförande studie av hållbara bostadsprojekt och miljöindikatorer2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    PROBLEM: Environmental issues often contain complex connections which are hard to analyse and explain in a simple way, without using far-reaching or rough simplifications. With ongoing urbanisation, cities become a key role in reaching sustainable development.

    AIM: The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the usefulness of two tools to create environmental indicators. The indicators are then used to evaluate four housing projects which all have a sustainable approach. 

    METHOD: The method used is inductive, where empirical data is collected and analysed to create a result.

    RESULTS: EFFem is easy to use and when dealing with transparency and nuance, the tool is satisfying in creating sustainability indicators. The results, however, are not always unambiguous. SGA is suitable for analysing certain aspects of sustainability projects as done in this thesis. In its current state it is not eligible for extensive analysis of project sustainability because it does not meet the demands for transparency and sources.  Finally, smaller building projects, especially the Jöns Ols project, seem to have lesser environmental impact than larger scale projects.

  • 26.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Industrial by-products in treatment of metals from polluted water2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Water treatment can be carried out effectively by passive, low cost methods, as an addition or alternative to existing advanced technology. Energy and resource use can be optimized (i.e. minimized) by reusing by-products from local or regional manufacturing of timber and steel. The ability of pine bark and blast furnace slag to treat metal contaminated water, primarily landfill leachate, has been evaluated. Several issues of concern were addressed in laboratory experiments and pilot scale measurements at a landfill site, including metal adsorption capability, saturation, variables influencing the adsorption process and potential leaching of organic toxicants from pine bark. The data was analyzed using kinetic modeling, regression and multivariate data analysis, i.e. PCA. These experiments showed that pine bark and blast furnace slag have great potential to retain metals from solution. Pine bark could also be used to treat solutions with high concentrations (>200 mg/l) and containing several heavy metals simultaneously (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and Ni). A constructed pilot plant showed poor retention of metals, which was somewhat improved by increased contact time, a variable which was found to be important in one of the laboratory experiments. Studies of organic content in landfill leachate, primarily dissolved organic carbon (DOC), showed that this could limit adsorption to pine bark. Another important finding, which is in contrast to the suggestions of other researchers, was that leaching of phenols from pine bark constituted only a small fraction of the DOC and was not toxic to the test-organism Daphnia Magna at neutral pH. In order to understand more about the relationships between the different variables, a multivariate approach (PCA) was applied to data on the treatment of landfill leachate with pine bark. This study showed that the metal concentration of the leachate was the variable most strongly related to metal adsorption. The concentration of DOC had only a minor effect according to PCA. Overall, pine bark and blast furnace slag can be used as adsorbents, but with caution and preferably in effluents of moderate metal concentration and low DOC.

  • 27.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Metal retention from leachate using Industrial Waste Products2007Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill leachate arises when water percolates through a landfill. The degree and type of pollution is dependent on the content of the landfill but also on a range of other factors, including the age of the landfill and the landfilling technique. In recent years, concerns about potentially hazardous compounds in landfill leachate have stimulated research into on-site treatment. Examples of new techniques for treatment are the sequent batch reactor technique (SBR), wetland systems and different forms of filter solutions.

    Lilla Nyby landfill is the municipal landfill in Eskilstuna, Sweden. Leachate streams have been found on site that are weaker than the main stream. One of these has been investigated in the present study. It contains heavy metals, especially zinc, copper and nickel, in concentrations which require treatment. Low strength landfill leachate streams require special treatment. There are various reasons for this, but examples can be geological reasons or dilution problems in the treatment facility for the main leachate.

    The technique chosen for the leachate stream, reactive filters, is rather new and few pilot scale experiments have been conducted. Therefore many questions still remain concerning the applicability of the method on site, and there was a need for more experimental data. Previous research has shown that many industrial by-products may be suitable to capture metals from leachate. Among the materials previously recommended, blast furnace slag and pine bark had advantages which were well suited for the present application. They were also available in large quantities near the site. A column experiment was set up at the landfill and three filter materials were chosen; pine bark and two types of blast furnace slag. In addition, one of the columns was filled with sand as a reference. As a complement to the column study, laboratory experiments were conducted at Mälardalen University. The aim of the laboratory experiments was to investigate factors that might limit metal retention by the filter materials. Different concentrations and contact times were tested as well as the presence of other substances (i.e. metals and organic carbon).

    The results from the first laboratory experiments (initial metal concentration, competing metal ions and contact time) and the on-site column study were contradictory. Metal uptake in the laboratory was very efficient, as has also been found by other researchers. On-site, many factors influenced sorption and uptake was very unstable, especially for the slags. It was found that pine bark is more effective and stable than the slags with respect to metal retention, especially at low concentrations. The contact time between the substrate and metals is important for effective retention. The final experiment, showed that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) can greatly inhibit metal retention. To further develop reactive filter technology, a method to reduce the DOC content may be necessary.

    In contrast to what has been previously assumed, leaching of COD from the pine bark column at Lilla Nyby landfill was negligible. Finally, some suggestions for future work on reactive filter technology are made. For instance, it could be interesting to develop an alternative technique for filtration. Packed columns have been addressed with a series of problems, related to hydraulic parameters. By using fluidised reactors, a comparison with batch experiments becomes possible.

  • 28.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Biogödsel och kompost - en resurs för jordbruket: Resultat från ett fältförsök2007Report (Other scientific)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med ORC-försöket var att undersöka hur olika organiska gödselmedel med ursprung från både stad och land inverkar på markens kemiska, fysikaliska och mikrobiologiska egenskaper. Skördens mängd och kvalitet var en annan viktig faktor som studerades. De olika behandlingarna utgjordes av hushållskompost blandat med parkavfall, biogödsel från biogasframställning, rötslam från reningsverk, flytgödsel från svin samt fast gödsel från nötkreatur. Som en jämförelse fanns även ogödslade respektive handelsgödslade led med i försöket.

    Parcellerna lades ut i fältet efter noggranna studier med hjälp av NIR- (near infrared radiation) mätningar för att hitta försöksrutor som avvek så lite som möjligt från varandra avseende de fysikaliska markegenskaperna. Tillsatserna av de olika organiska restprodukterna skedde sen på ett sätt som i möjligaste mån skulle efterlikna bondens normala brukningsmetoder. De flytande gödselmedlena, dvs svingödsel respektive biogödsel från biogasrötning tillsattes på försommaren i växande gröda. Kompost, rötslam och kogödsel, som alla har en mer fast karaktär, tillsattes istället strax före plöjning på hösten. Jordprover för analys ca fyra veckor efter skörd.

    Förutom att studera diverse kemiska och fysikaliska mått, som pH, lerhalt, koncentrationer av kol, kväve, fosfor, svavel mm, användes även mikrobiologiska mått för att undersöka vilken effekt de olika gödningsmedlen hade på markegenskaperna. Markens mikroorganismer påverkas i hög grad av sin omgivning samtidigt som deras aktivitet har betydelse för markens odlingsegenskaper, till exempel vad gäller näringstillförsel och energiflöden. Att studera hur olika mikroorganism-grupper påverkas av de organiska gödningsmedlen kan alltså vara ett sätt att få ett mått på hur marken reagerar på tillsatsen av dessa. Mängden och kvaliteten på skörden från varje provruta analyserades dessutom årligen för att kunna jämföra den direkta gödslingseffekten av de olika tillsatserna på skördeutbytet.

    Resultaten från de långliggande fältförsöken visade att de organiska gödningsmedlen hade flera positiva effekter på såväl grödans tillväxt och kvalitet som markens kemiska och mikrobiologiska egenskaper. Inte i något fall observerades några direkta negativa effekter av vare sig kompost, biogödsel eller rötslam på markens produktivitet.

    I organiska gödningsmedel är näringsämnena inte alltid direkt tillgängliga för växtrötter och mikroorganismer utan frigörs allteftersom de omsätts i marken. Detta är en skillnad jämfört med handelsgödsel, där näringsämnena förekommer i mycket lättlöslig och lättillgänglig form. Vid användning av organiska gödningsmedel kan det därför ibland vara befogat att tillföra extra näringsämnen, framförallt kväve, för att tillgodose grödans behov, åtminstone de första åren innan ett kväveförråd hunnit byggas upp i marken. Komposten hade jämförelsevis lägst halt av lättillgängligt kväve, eftersom en del av detta förloras vid själva komposteringsprocessen. I en biogasprocess däremot, som sker i ett helt slutet system, förloras nästan inget kväve utan detta återfinns i slutprodukten. I ORC-försöket var det också biogödseln från rötning av källsorterat hushållsavfall som stod sig bäst i jämförelse med handelsgödsel i fråga om skördeutbyte och kvalitet. Biogödseln hade en positiv inverkan på flera av de mikrobiologiska aktiviteter som mättes i laboratoriet.

    Det är värt att notera att även rötslam från reningsverk, som ju debatterats en hel del, inte visade några negativa effekter på grödans tillväxt eller markmikroorganismernas aktivitet. Rötslammets innehåll av fosfor var högre än för de andra gödningsmedlen, däremot var kväveinnehållet inte lika högt som hos biogödseln.

  • 29.
    Petterson, Sandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vinberg, Ulrika
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arboga Mekaniska Verkstad: Förslag på saneringsåtgärder gällande gjuteriet och plåtverkstaden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The industrialization in Sweden has increased the large number of areas that have been contaminated with various types of pollution. One of those sites are the property Höjen 3:24 in Arboga where “Arboga Mekaniska Verkstad” once been. The property wants to increase the use of the old former foundry building with the adjacent “plate-workshop” and believe there are two options for the building: That the building either should be used as a warehouse/concert hall, or rebuilt into a cultural center.

     

    An environmental evaluation has shown that the levels of heavy metals are over the Swedish environmental protection agency guidelines of less sensitive land. The purpose of this report has been to provide possible suggestions for remedial action for these two options and to describe the effects, consequences and costs of the various proposals. It appears from the report that there are two possible solutions to reduce exposure and proliferation of heavy metal pollution in the building. If the building is used for storage and concerts then the pollution should be encapsulated, while if the building is built into a cultural center, it is suggested that the pollutants are to be removed.

     

    In an encapsulation it is suggested that the floor surfaces are reconstructed, the walls must be painted with an elastic paint and all the dust on the beams are to be vacuumed. In addition to the measures proposed is that the ground floor is dug up and the walls are milled down a few millimeters to remove the highest levels of pollutions. But there are some uncertainties and knowledge gaps in the report. It is mainly the economic aspect as calculated using prices from construction firms on the Internet and estimates on the building's size and degree of pollution. There are also gaps and uncertainties about the pollution distribution and dissemination of building materials, soil and groundwater.

  • 30.
    Rahman, Sunni
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Water hyacinth - Effects on sustainable Devolopment: A minor field study about water hyacinth in Lake Victoria in Kisumu, Kenya2008Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    The aim of the study was to do a minor field study in Kisumu, Kenya. My thesis in Ecological Economics C, 10p and the purpose was to explain the association between water hyacinth and sustainable development. What are the main effects on environments, ecological

    and social effects in Kisumu in Kenya? This paper will address environmental, economical and social effects related to the water hyacinth. I have chosen the qualitative method because

    I want to asses general impression and understand different processes and social connections. Interviews are made which aims to give a deeper focus by letting the interviewed person

    describe and openly answer the questions. The study is conducted as a combination of literature reviews, qualitative interviews with parties or people who are involved and other

    organisations in Kenya and from observations. The theoretical approach was Sustainable devolopment, control of social, economical and ecological perspective on regional development.

    Sustainable development include social, ecological and economics, all three are depended of each other to make progress. From a social point of view the plants give people a

    society and provide work and knowledge on how to recycle the weed. Economically, it is a disaster but the good opportunities come from recycling even if it contains a lot of water. Eutrofication and blocking of sunlight are the most ecological effects caused by water

    hyacinth. If people are prepared to vote for honest representative no bribes will take place, these kind of statement are important and its time that people takes responsibility for their act,

    mainly environmental responsibility which are important for our common future. It should be expensive to destroy the nature, on the other side you do not know the value according to

    Dryzek. A suggested idea is to turn this into a tourist attraction which hopefully will become popular. To remove the weed by the biological method is the best controlled, cheapest and it

    is the most sustainable method of weevil’s which eats the leaves of the plants.

    Contact: Sunni Rahman

    Telephone: +4670-768 52 54

    E-mail: srn01001@student.mdh.se

  • 31.
    Råberg, Linnéa
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Översyn av vattenskyddsföreskrifter med tillhörande vattenskyddsområde i Hallstahammars kommun.: Vilka revideringsbehov finns?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water is an important food and an important natural resource. In order to protect these are the Environmental Code and the EU directive given to water protection and related water protection regulations will be established for all water sources until 2010. Those who will prepare a water protection and related water protection regulations is the municipality or person responsible for water supply. The person then decides and declares the area as water protection and related water protection regulations are municipal or provincial government. The idea of creating a water protection is to protect the water supply and the body of water against pollution caused by point sources, diffuse sources and accidents combined. Hallstahammar Municipality has a water protection and related water protection regulations and those set up in 1997, the question is whether these are the needs to be revised. Literature studies on geological and hydrological conditions in Hallstahammar Municipality was also studying literature with regard to current legislation and other parameters needed to establish a water protection and related water protection regulations. Literature studies showed that the need to revise the map of the water protection zone, there were few and minor revisions were needed in their water protection regulations.

  • 32.
    Sand, Ulf
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Dynamics of wood particle pyrolysis applied to gas-solids fluidisation2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents modelling and simulation aspects and results concerning pyrolysis of wood solids. The presented investigations are focused mainly on two processes; pyrolysis of single wood solids and pyrolysis of wood particles exposed to different levels of fluidisation.

    The studies presented begin with the modelling of single solids pyrolysis using both a twophase transport model and the porous media transport model. These are two equation approaches to model the mass, heat and momentum transport connected with the pyrolysis of the wood. A novel modelling feature in the present work is that the inner, the outer and the boundary layers of the heating and reacting wood solids are considered giving new possibilities to further investigate the pyrolysis phenomena. The models include the transition of important parameters during the decomposition of the wood structure, such as: density, thermal conductivity, mass diffusivity, porosity, permeability and emissivity. The simulation results are compared with experimental data from literature.

    Further on, resolving of the solids boundary layers allows for new models to be developed concerning mass, heat and momentum transport through the solids surfaces interface. Correlations are made for both the particle Nusselt and Sherwood numbers and a pyrolysis induced diffusivity and drag model is also created.

    From the studies on the pyrolysis of the single wood solids the impact of the pyrolysis is incorporated in the modelling of gas-solids fluidised systems with pyrolysing wood particles. The simulation of the particulate flow is modelled as two-phase flows where the rheology of the fluidised particles is taken into account by the use of the kinetic theory model approach. Two cases are presented concerning this type of process, the first is the model of the municipal circulating fluidised bed in Västerås in Sweden and the second is a numerical investigation of the impact of the authors developed correlations for mass, heat and momentum transfer of the pyrolysing solids.

  • 33.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Investigation of mutual antagonism in the presence of sodium and ammonia during anaerobic digestion2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Skogsfjord, Michael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Blom, Minna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Masugnsslaggens potential som filtermaterial för metaller i vägdagvatten2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stormwater from roads often contain heavy metals. The most common metals in storm water from roads are lead, copper, cadmium, nickel, and zinc. These pollutants constitute a stress for organisms in recipients that receive the stormwater. In this report lead, copper and zinc have been reduced from road storm water through filtration in columns with granulated iron slag and sand. Iron slag is a by-product from the iron making process, with a high sorption capacity, which makes it suitable as a filter material for water polluted with metals. The sand in this study has been used as reference material. The reducing capacity in the stormwater for the iron slag used in this study, “hyttsand”, was 79 % for lead, 82 % for copper and 92 % for zinc. The reducing capacity of the iron slag was also investigated in batch studies.

  • 35.
    Skogsfjord, Michael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Blom, Minna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Naturliga filtermaterial för reduktion av metaller i dagvatten2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polluted storm water from a metal recycling industry has been filtrated through columns that contained two different adsorbents, peat and pine bark. Peat is an organic soil, mainly used for energy production, and pine bark, a by-product from the forest industry. In Sweden, there are a lot of resources of peat as well as pine bark. Used as filter materials, they are relatively cheep and, like other kinds of filtermaterial used as adsorbents, they have varied capacity to adsorb metals in water. The capacity for the filter materials to adsorb metals depends on the physical structure and chemical contents of the peat and pine bark as well as the water metal composition. Results from this study show that pine bark had the highest adsorption capacity to reduce copper, lead and zinc from the specific storm water.

  • 36.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The industry role in policymaking: Policy learning in climate politics2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climatic change has sparked a broad range of responses on all societal levels. New initiatives and negotiations, scientific findings, and technological developments, have established a novel framework for policymaking and industrial abatement investments. Lessons on the evolving framework should be analysed and utilised to handle the dynamic reality of climate policymaking processes.

    Governments in the majority of economies only have an indirect and long-term influence on reducing industrial emissions, as they do not own the emitting operations. As representing one-third of the global carbon dioxide emissions, industry is therefore a key stakeholder group in whether or not the political agenda will be fulfilled. How industry perceives that obstacles and opportunities affect investment calculi are thus important. Hence, policymakers should facilitate policy learning (PL) to aid the creation of effective and efficient political agendas. This is important to acknowledge the policy and investment experiences of industrial actors and to deal with a number of plausible investment obstacles identified under the novel framework.

    Taking stock of PL and other policy theories, this thesis is aimed to develop recommendations for facilitating PL and thus contributing to more effective and efficient climate policy frameworks. The results highlight the role of industry in abatement and political strategies where policymakers need to gain knowledge on how industries perceive abatement investment obstacles and how these may be bridged. The intrinsic learning values of government-industry negotiated agreements (NAs) are emphasised and a framework for operationalising PL through NA designs is developed. PL is furthermore identified as important, and NAs are recommended as a policy instrument, to fill knowledge gaps identified in two case-studies of promoting complex and novel industrial operations. This thesis also recommends a participatory policy evaluation tool that is sensitive to industrial competitiveness and establishes a forum for discussions on perceived investment obstacles and opportunities under different conditions. The results are not aimed to provide a blueprint for a comprehensive climate policy framework but as a contribution to literature and the incremental learning that this thesis strongly promotes.

  • 37.
    Thorin, Eva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Manbo, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Tommy, Törnqvist
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Examination med hjälp av dagbok- erfarenheter från en kurs tillhörande civilingenjörsutbildningen i samhällsteknik vid Mälardalens högskola2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Ett intressant sätt att kombinera examination och inlärning är att examinera genom att studenterna under kursens gång får skriva dagbok och göra reflektioner över sin egen inlärning. Fördelen är också att det befrämjar kontinuerlig inlärning. Vi har provat denna examinationsform i en kurs tillhörande årskurs 4 inom vår civilingenjörsutbildning (civilingenjör i samhällsteknik). En stor del av kursen består av ett projektarbete och anledningen till att vi från början valde dagbok som examinationsform var att vi bedömde att vi därmed skulle få större möjligheter att göra en rättvis bedömning av studenternas individuella kunskaper. Kursen gick första gången under vårterminen 2006 och för andra gången vårtterminen 2007. Våra erfarenheter är övervägande positiva men det finns också nackdelar och svårigheter som t ex lärarinsats, studenters ovana vid formen och kriterier för betygssättning.

  • 38.
    Tilling, Karina
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Att styra hållbar utveckling: Om miljöledning och dess översättningar i statsförvaltningen2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of environmental management systems is a way for the Swedish government to manage the work for sustainable development via central government agencies. Environmental management systems (EMS) were originally developed as a tool for continual improvement of environmental performance in industrial companies, following the circle of “Plan, Do, Check, Act”. The aim of using EMS was to facilitate integration of environmental considerations in all agency activities, both internal and external. The purpose of the thesis is to study translation processes of environmental issues related to the EMS project in central government agencies. In order to study the construction of environmental issues in EMS work in agencies, and the consequences of these constructions in relation to ecological sustainable development, four studies have been conducted; first, a study of documents related to the EMS project; second, a study of the Swedish Road Administration and their work with EMS; third, a study of translations in the network for EMS implementation; and fourth, a focus group study of management groups in five agencies.The analysis shows how the external references have been a central part of the translation processes taking place in the EMS project. This is explained as a result of the use of the international EMS standard, ISO 14001, which has become a frequent reference in the project. The influence of ISO 14001 is explained in the thesis as a consequence of the perceived lack of interest at management and government levels in the implementation of EMS projects in agencies. Related to the common adoption are also the external, certified environmental auditors and consultants auditing the results of the EMS implementation and thereby influencing the translation processes taking place in the project. As a result the activities for sustainable development by state agencies have become an issue for the audit and judgement by private actors.Another consequence is the focus of the measurable and non-conflict environmental aspects matching the EMS rationale. Contested environmental issues however do not match the model and may therefore attain less attention of environmental management. Under the influence of the EMS rationale the translation of ecological sustainable development becomes restricted to environmental issues constructed as EMS issues. Related to this is the learning that remains restricted to the EMS rationale. A vital implication is the need for dialogue on the role of state administration for sustainable development beyond EMS activities.

  • 39.
    vienola, sari
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Identifiering av deponerat material i en deponi samt metodikförslag för upprättande av vattenbalans.2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Högbytorp is Ragn-Sells’ largest waste facility and it is located north of Stockholm. There is an old landfill still in use, but at the end of this year it will be closed. The waste deposited on the landfill can, through decomposition, give rise to a large amount of methane gas, which is an energy rich gas that can be used for heat and electricity production. To receive a relatively large amount of gas, the decomposition requires a high moisture content in the waste. Therefore the landfill is dependent on precipitation input, although when the landfill is covered, rainfall can no longer infiltrate the landfill and hence irrigation might be necessary to sustain gas production. To know where to irrigate, knowledge about the material content in the landfill is necessary. Thus the purpose of this report is to identify and describe what kind and amount of waste that has been deposited on the landfill and also where the waste has been placed. The purpose is also to investigate the availability of methods and that are used in Sweden for establishing a water balance for a landfill. The identification work showed that the landfill consists mainly of household-, construction- and industrial waste, retted sludge from sewage treatment plants and soil, which all can produce large quantities of methane gas. The investigation about the different methods for conducting a water balance resulted in the presentation of two methods. One of the methods is called Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) and is a computer simulation. The other method is an equation established by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency (Naturvårdsverket). Both of the methods works well for obtaining a water balance, however modification is needed for each of them in order to be well suited for the studied landfill, so that realistic and site specific results can be obtained.

  • 40.
    Vienola, Sari
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Lakningsförsök med furubarksflis: en utredning om utsläpp av fenolföreningar samt metallsorption2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The filters used today to purify water are often expensive and the need to find new filter materials is substantial. Studies of pine bark have shown that this is a material that may be used as an alternative to conventional filter materials, such as activated carbon. However, the study of pine bark has shown that a leakage of phenolic compounds may occur when using the material for water purification. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to investigate the release of phenols from pine bark, in order to evaluate the use of pine bark as a filter material. Another assignment is to investigate the amount of metals adsorbed by the filter material. The studies were carried out through three leaching experiments. As leachates, double deionised water and storm water were used. The phenol concentration in the leachate was determined for both double deionised water and storm water. The degree of metal sorption was measured only for the storm water. The measured phenol concentration in the double deionised water was 4.40 mg/L and in the storm water 4.81 mg/L. These concentrations exceed the Canadian guideline value, of 4.0 μg/L, more than a 1000 times. No metal sorption occurred as the metal content of the storm water was too low. Instead a release of metals from the pine bark into the eluate of the storm water occurred. The leaching attempts also resulted in a decline of the pH-values of the two different waters. The pH-values for the double deionised water and the storm water decreased from 7.0 to 4.3 and from 6.0 to 4.2 respectively. A release of phenols was ascertained with a significant difference in concentrations between double deionised water and storm water. Therefore it is not advisable to use pine bark filters for purification of water with low concentrations of metals, as the filter material may release metals into the water under such conditions.

    Keywords: pine bark, phenol, filter materials, leaching, metal sorption, toxicity

    Nyckelord: furubarksflis, fenol, filtermaterial, lakning, metallsorption, toxicitet

  • 41.
    Weidl, Galia
    Mälardalen University, Department of Energy.
    Root Cause Analysis and Decision Support on Process Operation2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
  • 42.
    Willenius, Ann-Christin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Radon i flerbostadshus: Kartläggning av fastighetsförvaltarnas egenkontroll avseende radon2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Radon is a hazardous substance that cannot be perceived by our senses. It has long been known that exposure to high radon levels for a long period of time will ultimately cause lung cancer. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority estimates that 500 people die annually due to this. Although most of them are smokers, even non-smokers suffer from lung cancer caused by radon. The statutory value for radon in homes today is 200 Bq/m³. Several years of research points to the fact that 63% of all those who develop lung cancer have been exposed to radon levels between 100-200 Bq/m³. This is why the WHO has lowered the recommended value to  100 Bq/m³,  and The Radiation Safety Authority of Sweden also has the same recommendation today. This study has been rendered to the Municipality of Eskilstuna, and its environmental and emergency management. The study has identified 72 % of the rental properties for radon measurements and action through personal visits to 14 large and medium-sized property managers in Eskilstuna. Several conclusions can be made from the study. Generally, very few measurements have been made and these have shown 6 % of high radon levels. The various property managers are at very different levels regarding their work with radon and there are very big differences amongst them as regards giving priority to the issue with radon. In 2020, the Swedish parliament has decided that no one should be exposed to radon levels above 200 Bq/m³ in their homes. Today there is legislation that applies against radon in apartment buildings as well as effective methods to reduce radon levels. However, the problem is instead the fact that there is a lack of resources at hand for the public health inspectors. Consequently, it seems rather impossible achieving the goal set for 2020. Thus it is of utmost interest to highlight this problem for the politicians that ultimately set the budget for the services in the municipality.

  • 43.
    Wiman, Helena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Vesa, Minna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ekologisk status på Stäholmsbäcken: Enligt EU:s vattendirektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete skrivs på uppdrag av länsstyrelsen i Västmanland, som vill ha en ekologisk statusbedömning av Stäholmsbäcken. En ekologisk statusbedömning enligt EU:s vattendirektiv utförs i tre delar, biologiska, kemiska och hydromorfologiska kvalitetsfaktorer. Den biologiska delen bestod i att på en provplats ta fem prover på bottenfaunan med hjälp av handhåvsmetoden. Djuren artbestämdes och därefter gjordes indexberäkningarna ASPT, DJ-index och MISA. De biologiska kvalitetsfaktorerna fick ett otillfredsställande resultat. DJ-indexets resultat var sämst och fick därmed styra, one out – all out. Normalt går man inte vidare till nästa steg, som är de kemiska kvalitetsfaktorer, utan ser på vilka förbättringsåtgärder som ska genomföras. I detta examensarbete undersöktes även de båda andra kvalitetsfaktorerna. Den kemiska delen bestod av bestämning av näringsämnen i vattendraget och den hydromorfologiska delen bestod av bland annat identifiering av vandringshinder, vägövergångar, diken, markanvändningen i närmiljön och i delavrinningsområdet. De kemiska och de hydromorfologiska testerna styrkte resultatet i och med att det också blev otillfredsställande. Förklaringen till detta är att både närmiljön och avrinningsområdet är starkt påverkat av jordbruket. För att förbättra Stäholmsbäckens status bör skyddszoner och/eller en våtmark anläggas.

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