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  • 1.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    Research Institutes of Sweden Västerås, Sweden.
    Inayat, Irum
    National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Jan, Naila
    National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    Research Institutes of Sweden Västerås, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduard Paul
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    MBRP: Model-based Requirements Prioritization Using PageRank Algorithm2019Inngår i: Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference APSEC 2019, Putrajaya, Malaysia, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Requirements prioritization plays an important role in driving project success during software development. Literature reveals that existing requirements prioritization approaches ignore vital factors such as interdependency between requirements. Existing requirements prioritization approaches are also generally time-consuming and involve substantial manual effort. Besides, these approaches show substantial limitations in terms of the number of requirements under consideration. There is some evidence suggesting that models could have a useful role in the analysis of requirements interdependency and their visualization, contributing towards the improvement of the overall requirements prioritization process. However, to date, just a handful of studies are focused on model-based strategies for requirements prioritization, considering only conflict-free functional requirements. This paper uses a meta-model-based approach to help the requirements analyst to model the requirements, stakeholders, and inter-dependencies between requirements. The model instance is then processed by our modified PageRank algorithm to prioritize the given requirements. An experiment was conducted, comparing our modified PageRank algorithm’s efficiency and accuracy with five existing requirements prioritization methods. Besides, we also compared our results with a baseline prioritized list of 104 requirements prepared by 28 graduate students. Our results show that our modified PageRank algorithm was able to prioritize the requirements more effectively and efficiently than the other prioritization methods.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Muhammad
    et al.
    RISE SICS, Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Inayat, Irum
    SERL, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    RISE SICS, Research Institutes of Sweden, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jan, Naila
    SERL, National University of Computer & Emerging Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Requirements dependencies-based test case prioritization for extra-functional properties2019Inngår i: ICST Workshop on Testing Extra-Functional Properties and Quality Characteristics of Software Systems ITEQS'19, 2019, s. 159-163Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of requirements’ information in testing is a well-recognized practice in the software development life cycle. Literature reveals that existing tests prioritization and selection approaches neglected vital factors affecting tests priorities, like interdependencies between requirement specifications. We believe that models may play a positive role in specifying these inter-dependencies and prioritizing tests based on these inter-dependencies. However, till date, few studies can be found that make use of requirements inter-dependencies for test case prioritization. This paper uses a meta-model to aid modeling requirements, their related tests, and inter-dependencies between them. The instance of this meta-model is then processed by our modified PageRank algorithm to prioritize the requirements. The requirement priorities are then propagated to related test cases in the test model and test cases are selected based on coverage of extra-functional properties. We have demonstrated the applicability of our proposed approach on a small example case.

  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, S.
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Runtime Verification Tool for Detecting Concurrency Bugs in FreeRTOS Embedded Software2018Inngår i: Proceedings - 17th International Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Computing, ISPDC 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2018, s. 172-179, artikkel-id 8452035Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a runtime verification tool for embedded software executing under the open source real-time operating system FreeRTOS. The tool detects and diagnoses concurrency bugs such as deadlock, starvation, and suspension based-locking. The tool finds concurrency bugs at runtime without debugging and tracing the source code. The tool uses the Tracealyzer tool for logging relevant events. Analysing the logs, our tool can detect the concurrency bugs by applying algorithms for diagnosing each concurrency bug type individually. In this paper, we present the implementation of the tool, as well as its functional architecture, together with illustration of its use. The tool can be used during program testing to gain interesting information about embedded software executions. We present initial results of running the tool on some classical bug examples running on an AVR 32-bit board SAM4S. 

  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, s. 77-80Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015Inngår i: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, s. 41-47Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016Inngår i: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017Inngår i: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 49-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016Inngår i: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, s. 16-31Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 10. Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Mahmoud, Waleed A.
    Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Video2008Inngår i: Proceedings of The Annual SIGRAD Conference, Stockholm, 2008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Using Empirical Distributions to Characterize Web Client Traffic and to Generate Synthetic Traffic2000Inngår i: Conference Record / IEEE Global Telecommunications ConferenceVolume 1, 2000, 2000, s. 428-433Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We model a web client using empirical probability distributions for user clicks and transferred data sizes. By using a heuristic threshold value to distinguish user clicks in a packet trace we get a simple method for analyzing large packet traces in order to get information about user OFF times and amount of data transferred due to a user click. We derive the empirical probability distributions from the analysis of the packet trace. The heuristic is not perfect, but we believe it is good enough to produce a useful web client model. We use the empirical model to implement a web client traffic generator. The characteristics of the generated traffic is very close to the original packet trace, including self-similar properties.

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2008Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hagsand, Olof
    Dynarc AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Marsh, Ian
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    TCP over High Speed Variable Capacity Links: A Simulation Study for Bandwidth Allocation2002Inngår i: Protocols for High Speed Networks Workshop, 2002, s. 117-129Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Acimovic, Aleksandar
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bajceta, Aleksandar
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Test script design approaches supporting reusability, maintainability and review process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Software testing is widely considered to be one of the most important parts of software development life-cycle. In this research, we investigated potential improvements in the testing process and design of automated test scripts inside Bombardier Transportation. For the creation of automated test scripts BT is using a group of programs called TAF (Test Automation Framework). These scripts are used for testing Train Control Management System (TCMS), software that is used for managing the train. TAF can export its test scripts in XML format. XML scripts are analyzed in order to identify the most frequent changes. To better understand the life cycle of automated Test scripts official documentation that defines the Verification and Validation process inside BT was analyzed. Also, an interview was conducted with one of the responsible persons for testing. We believe that we have found a possible solution for improving testing process and creation of automated test scripts in BT, and to evaluate it proof of concept tool was developed. The main idea behind the tool is to write the test script using keywords which are based on analysis that was conducted on test specification documentation. These keywords represent frequent actions that are being tested on the train. By storing those actions in keywords re-usability of test script is being increased. Also, because they are based on naturally language, they are having positive effect on readability and maintenance of the test script.

  • 15.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automated Synthesis of Model Comparison Benchmarks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Model-driven engineering promotes the migration from code-centric to model-based software development. Systems consist of model collections integrating different concerns and perspectives, while semi-automated model transformations generate executable code combining the information from these. Increasing the abstraction level to models required appropriate management technologies supporting the various software development activities. Among these, model comparison represents one of the most challenging tasks and plays an essential role in various modelling activities. Its hardness led researchers to propose a multitude of approaches adopting different approximation strategies and exploiting specific knowledge of the involved models. However, almost no support is provided for their evaluation against specific scenarios and modelling practices. This thesis presents Benji, a framework for the automated generation of model comparison benchmarks. Given a set of differences and an initial model, users generate models resulting from the application of the first on the latter. Differences consist of preconditions, actions and postconditions expressed using a dedicated specification language. The generator converts benchmark specifications to design-space exploration problems and produces the final solutions along with a model-based description of their differences with respect to the initial model. A set of representative use cases is used to evaluate the framework against its design principles, which resemble the essential properties expected from model comparison benchmark generators.

  • 16.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Langer, Philip
    EclipsSource, Austria.
    Posse, Ernesto
    Zeligsoft, Canada.
    Towards Seamless Hybrid Graphical-Textual Modelling for UML and Profiles2017Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer, 2017, s. 20-33Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling languages, in particular those described in terms of UML profiles, use graphical notations to maximise human understanding and facilitate communication among stakeholders. Nevertheless, textual notations are preferred for specific purposes, due to the nature of a specific domain, or for personal preference. The mutually exclusive use of graphical or textual modelling is not sufficient for the development of complex systems developed by large heterogeneous teams. We envision a modern modelling framework supporting seamless hybrid graphical and textual modelling. Such a framework would provide several benefits, among which: flexible separation of concerns, multi-view modelling based on multiple notations, convenient text-based editing operations, and text-based model editing outside the modelling environment, and faster modelling activities. In this paper we describe our work towards such a framework for UML and profiles. The uniqueness is that both graphical and textual modelling are done on a common persistent model resource, thus dramatically reducing the need for synchronisation among the two notations.

  • 17.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Intra-component Resource Sharing on a Virtual Multiprocessor Platform2016Inngår i: ACM SIGBED Review: Special Issue on 8th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems, 2016, s. 31-32Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software development facilitates the development process of large and complex software systems. By the advent of multiprocessors, the independently developed components can be integrated on a multi-core platform to achieve an efficient use of system hardware and a decrease in system power consumption and costs. In this paper, we consider a virtual multiprocessor platform where each component can be dynamically allocated to any set of processors of the platform with a maximum concurrency level. Global-EDF is used for intra-component scheduling. The existing analysis for such systems have assumed that tasks are independent. In this paper, we enable intra-component resource sharing for this platform. We investigate using a spin-based resource sharing protocol with the accompanying analysis that extends the existing analysis for independent tasks. We briefly illustrate and evaluate our initial results with an example.

  • 18.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Resource Sharing among Prioritized Real-Time Applications on Multiprocessors2015Inngår i: ACM SIGBED Review - Special Issue on the 6th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems Homepage archiveVolume 12 Issue 1, 2015, s. 46-55Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new protocol for handling resource sharing among prioritized real-time applications composed on a multiprocessor platform. We propose an optimal priority assignment algorithm which assigns unique priorities to the applications based on information in their interfaces. We have performed experimental evaluations to compare the proposed protocol (called MSOS-Priority) to the current state of the art locking protocols under multiprocessor partitioned scheduling, i.e., MPCP, MSRP, FMLP, MSOS, and OMLP. The valuations show that MSOS-Priority mostly performs significantly better than alternative approaches.

  • 19.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An optimal spin-lock priority assignment algorithm for real-time multi-core systems2017Inngår i: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, artikkel-id 8046310Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Support for exclusive access to shared (global) resources is instrumental in the context of embedded real-time multi-core systems, and mechanisms for achieving such access must be deterministic and efficient. There exist two traditional approaches for multiprocessors when a task requests a global resource that is locked by a task on a remote core: a spin-based approach, i.e. non-preemptive busy waiting for the resource to become available, and a suspension-based approach, i.e. the task relinquishes the processor. A suspension-based approach can be viewed as a spin-based approach where the lowest priority on a core is used during spinning, similar to a non-preemptive spin-based approach where the highest priority on a core is used. By taking such a view, we previously provided a general model for spinning, where any arbitrary priority can be used for spinning, i.e. from the lowest to the highest priority on a core. Targeting partitioned fixed-priority preemptive scheduled multiprocessors and spin-based approaches that use a fixed priority for spinning per core for all tasks, we aim at increasing the schedulability of multiprocessor systems by using the spin-lock priority per core as parameter. In this paper, we present (i) a generalization of the traditional worst-case response-time analysis for non-preemptive spin-based approaches addressing an arbitrary but fixed spin-lock priority per core, (ii) an optimal spin-lock priority assignment (OSPA) algorithm per core, i.e. an algorithm that will find a fixed spin-lock priority per core that will make the system schedulable, whenever such an assignment exists and, (iii) comparative evaluations of the OSPA algorithm with the spin-based and suspension-based approaches where OSPA showed up to 38% improvement compared to both approaches.

  • 20.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Koroorian, Fereidon
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Granlund, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Investigating Alternatives for System Architectures to Enhance Discrete Manufacturing2019Inngår i: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, Vol. 15, nr 8, artikkel-id 1550147719868668Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the possibility of advancing discrete manufacturing using system architectures that are developed for Collaborative Process Automation Systems. Collaborative Process Automation System is a technology that has the potential to achieve production excellence for process industry. However, not much attention has been paid on using the architectures based on Collaborative Process Automation Systems for discrete manufacturing domains. In this article, we propose a base architecture consisting of three layers, and we discuss various alternatives to make the communications among the layers. We consider legacy components in the proposal, in contrast to most of the related works. In order to show the practicality of the proposed alternatives, we present an example that has been implemented in an ongoing project at ABB Robotics in Sweden.

  • 21.
    Afsharmazayejani, R.
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Yazdanpanah, F.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Rezaei, A.
    Northwestern University, Evanston, United States.
    Alaei, M.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    HoneyWiN: Novel honeycomb-based wireless NoC architecture in many-core era2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 10824 LNCS, s. 304-316Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although NoC-based systems with many cores are commercially available, their multi-hop nature has become a bottleneck on scaling performance and energy consumption parameters. Alternatively, hybrid wireless NoC provides a postern by exploiting single-hop express links for long-distance communications. Also, there is a common wisdom that grid-like mesh is the most stable topology in conventional designs. That is why almost all of the emerging architectures had been relying on this topology as well. In this paper, first we challenge the efficiency of the grid-like mesh in emerging systems. Then, we propose HoneyWiN, a hybrid reconfigurable wireless NoC architecture that relies on the honeycomb topology. The simulation results show that on average HoneyWiN saves 17% of energy consumption while increases the network throughput by 10% compared to its wireless mesh counterpart. 

  • 22.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Alone, Snehal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glocksien, Kerstin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Software Test Process Improvement Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review and an Industrial Case Study2016Inngår i: Journal of Systems and Software JSS, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 111, s. 1-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software test process improvement (STPI) approaches are frameworks that guide software development organizations to improve their software testing process. We have identified existing STPI approaches and their characteristics (such as completeness of development, availability of information and assessment instruments, and domain limitations of the approaches) using a systematic literature review (SLR). Furthermore, two selected approaches (TPI NEXT and TMMi) are evaluated with respect to their content and assessment results in industry. As a result of this study, we have identified 18 STPI approaches and their characteristics. A detailed comparison of the content of TPI NEXT and TMMi is done. We found that many of the STPI approaches do not provide sufficient information or the approaches do not include assessment instruments. This makes it difficult to apply many approaches in industry. Greater similarities were found between TPI NEXT and TMMi and fewer differences. We conclude that numerous STPI approaches are available but not all are generally applicable for industry. One major difference between available approaches is their model representation. Even though the applied approaches generally show strong similarities, differences in the assessment results arise due to their different model representations.

  • 23.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bruneliere, Hugo
    AtlanMod Team, Inria, France.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Sadovykh, Andrey
    Softeam, France.
    Mazzini, Silvia
    Intecs, Italy.
    Cariou, Eric
    Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.
    Truscan, Dragos
    Åbo Akademi Univ., Turku, Finland.
    Cabot, Jordi
    Jordi Cabot ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Field, Daniel
    ATOS, Madrid, Spain.
    Pomante, Luigi
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Smrz, Pavel
    Brno Univ. of Technol., Brno, Czech Republic.
    The MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL Project: MegaModelling at Runtime — Scalable Model-Based Framework for Continuous Development and Runtime Validation of Complex Systems2017Inngår i: The 2017 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design DSD'17, 2017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the European electronic industry is to enhance productivity while reducing costs and ensuring quality in development, integration and maintenance. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles and techniques have already shown promising capabilities but still need to scale to support real-world scenarios implied by the full deployment and use of complex electronic components and systems. Moreover, maintaining efficient traceability, integration and communication between two fundamental system life-time phases (design time and runtime) is another challenge facing scalability of MDE. This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "MegaModelling at runtime -- Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems" (MegaM@Rt2), whose aim is to address the above mentioned challenges facing MDE. Driven by both large and small industrial enterprises, with the support of research partners and technology providers, MegaM@Rt2 aims to deliver a framework of tools and methods for: 1) system engineering/design & continuous development, 2) related runtime analysis and 3) global model & traceability management, respectively. The diverse industrial use cases (covering domains such as aeronautics, railway, construction and telecommunications) will integrate and apply such a framework that shall demonstrate the validation of the MegaM@Rt2 solution.

  • 24.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction2016Inngår i: Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering / [ed] Witold Pedrycz, Giancarlo Succi and Alberto Sillitti, Springer-Verlag , 2016, s. 33-58Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general acceptance that software engineering datasets often contain noisy, irrele- vant or redundant variables, very few benchmark studies of feature subset selection (FSS) methods on real-life data from software projects have been conducted. This paper provides an empirical comparison of state-of-the-art FSS methods: information gain attribute ranking (IG); Relief (RLF); principal com- ponent analysis (PCA); correlation-based feature selection (CFS); consistency-based subset evaluation (CNS); wrapper subset evaluation (WRP); and an evolutionary computation method, genetic program- ming (GP), on five fault prediction datasets from the PROMISE data repository. For all the datasets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve—the AUC value averaged over 10-fold cross- validation runs—was calculated for each FSS method-dataset combination before and after FSS. Two diverse learning algorithms, C4.5 and na ??ve Bayes (NB) are used to test the attribute sets given by each FSS method. The results show that although there are no statistically significant differences between the AUC values for the different FSS methods for both C4.5 and NB, a smaller set of FSS methods (IG, RLF, GP) consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy. We conclude that in general, FSS is beneficial as it helps improve classification accuracy of NB and C4.5. There is no single best FSS method for all datasets but IG, RLF and GP consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy within statistically significant boundaries.

  • 25.
    Aglianò, Simone
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Resource Management and Control in Virtualized SDN Networks2018Inngår i: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 2018, s. 47-53Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Software defined networking and network virtual-ization are widely considered promising techniques for reducing the complexity of network management in many contexts that require high Quality of Service (QoS) and the support for heterogeneous architectures. In this paper we address a network architecture, here called a virtualized SDN network, that combines the benefits of SDN and virtualization. To cope with the demand for efficiently sharing a platform among several services, here a resource management mechanism to reserve and control network resources among various services in the virtualized SDN networks is proposed. The mechanism is implemented on an SDN controller and a set of experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 26.
    Ahlén, Richard
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Grönholm, Robin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    En analys av ljudlatens i Windows 10 på tillgängliga enheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written during a project done by two students at Mälardalen University during the course DVA331. The purpose of this project was to determine if it was possible to reduce the latency on devices with Windows 10 to what is possible on an iOS device. The reason behind this research is that Windows 10 has come with an API that supports low latency sounds. This study was made on an iPhone 4S, iPhone 6, Nokia Lumia 720 and a Nokia Lumia 920 with a contact microphone that was put on the device. The latency was measured 50 times per version of an application implemented for both operating systems. The latency could be measured between the point where the surface is touched and and the point where sound is audible, using the microphone and the audio processing software Audacity. The readings proved that iOS is still a lot faster than Windows 10 and that Windows 10 is way above the accepted audio processing limit. Further research showed that the Windows 10 reading results were caused by the Lumia devices long input latency. User tests were made on 10 individuals with the response that the latency on the Windows 10 devices was a lot longer than the iOS devices. The conclusion was that the Lumia devices used in this study were not suitable for responsive sound applications but that Windows 10 devices with lower input latency that are better suited and that new readings should be done to determine if this is the case.

  • 27.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Gambardella, Luca
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia.
    Handling Constraints in Combinatorial Interaction Testing in the Presence of Multi Objective Particle Swarm and Multithreading2017Inngår i: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, nr 01, s. 20-36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial strategies have received a lot of attention lately as a result of their diverse applications in areas of research, particularly in software engineering. In its simple form, a combinatorial strategy can reduce several input parameters (configurations) of a system into a small set of these parameters based on their interaction (combination). However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially highly configurable systems. To implement this feature within a strategy, many difficulties arise for construction. While there are many combinatorial interaction testing strategies nowadays, few of them support constraints. This paper presents a new strategy, called Octopus to construct a combinatorial interaction test suites with the presence of constraints. The design and algorithms are provided in the paper in detail. The strategy is inspired by the behaviour of octopus to search for the optimal solution using multi-threading mechanism. To overcome the multi judgement criteria for an optimal solution, the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation is used. The strategy and its algorithms are evaluated extensively using different benchmarks and comparisons. The evaluation results showed the efficiency of each algorithm in the strategy. The benchmarking results also showed that Octopus can generate test suites efficiently as compared to state-of-the-art strategies.

  • 28.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia..
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Constrained Interaction Testing: A Systematic Literature Study2017Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. PP, nr 99Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data is extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation & application and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this study also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains such as software product lines, fault detection & characterization, test selection, security and GUI testing. The study ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges and future work in the area.

  • 29.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    An Intelligent Healthcare Service to Monitor Vital Signs in Daily Life – A Case Study on Health-IoT2017Inngår i: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 43-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital signs monitoring for elderly in daily life environment is a promising concept that efficiently can provide medical services to people at home. However, make the system self-served and functioning as personalized provision makes the challenge even larger. This paper presents a case study on a Health-IoT system where an intelligent healthcare service is developed to monitor vital signs in daily life. Here, a generic Health-IoT framework with a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) is presented. The generic framework is mainly focused on the supporting sensors, communication media, secure and safe data communication, cloud-based storage, and remote accesses of the data. The CDSS is used to provide a personalized report on persons’ health condition based on daily basis observation on vital signs. Six participants, from Spain (n=3) and Slovenia (n=3) have been using the proposed healthcare system for eight weeks (e.g. 300+ health measurements) in their home environments to monitor their health. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the DSS’s classification are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively while k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases are considered. The initial user evaluation result demonstrates the feasibility and performance of the implemented system through the proposed framework.

  • 30.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Altarabichi, Mohammed Ghaith
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ginsberg, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Glaes, Robert
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Östgren, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sorensen, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Avision-based indoor navigation system for individuals with visual impairment2019Inngår i: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0974-0635, E-ISSN 0974-0635, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 188-201Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation and orientation in an indoor environment are a challenging task for visually impaired people. This paper proposes a portable vision-based system to provide support for visually impaired persons in their daily activities. Here, machine learning algorithms are used for obstacle avoidance and object recognition. The system is intended to be used independently, easily and comfortably without taking human help. The system assists in obstacle avoidance using cameras and gives voice message feedback by using a pre-trained YOLO Neural Network for object recognition. In other parts of the system, a floor plane estimation algorithm is proposed for obstacle avoidance and fuzzy logic is used to prioritize the detected objects in a frame and generate alert to the user about possible risks. The system is implemented using the Robot Operating System (ROS) for communication on a Nvidia Jetson TX2 with a ZED stereo camera for depth calculations and headphones for user feedback, with the capability to accommodate different setup of hardware components. The parts of the system give varying results when evaluated and thus in future a large-scale evaluation is needed to implement the system and get it as a commercialized product in this area.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Catalina, Carlos Alberto
    ITCL Polígono Industrial Villalonquéjar c/López Bravo, 70. 09001 BURGOS, Spain.
    Limonad, Lior
    Smart Wearable and IoT Solutions, IBM Research, Haifa, Israil.
    Hök, Bertil
    Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Flumeri, Gianluca Di
    Cognitive States in Operative Environment, BrainSigns, Italy.
    Cloud-based Data Analytics on Human Factor Measurement to Improve Safer Transport2018Inngår i: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, s. 101-106Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving safer transport includes individual and collective behavioural aspects and their interaction. A system that can monitor and evaluate the human cognitive and physical capacities based on human factor measurement is often beneficial to improve safety in driving condition. However, analysis and evaluation of human factor measurement i.e. Demographics, Behavioural and Physiological in real-time is challenging. This paper presents a methodology for cloud-based data analysis, categorization and metrics correlation in real-time through a H2020 project called SimuSafe. Initial implementation of this methodology shows a step-by-step approach which can handle huge amount of data with variation and verity in the cloud.

  • 32.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Three Phase Computer Assisted Biofeedback Training System Using Case-Based Reasoning2008Inngår i: Proc. 9th European Conference on Case-based Reasoning, 2008, s. 57-68Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofeedback is a method gaining increased interest and showing good results for a number of physical and psychological problems. Biofeedback training is mostly guided by an experienced clinician and the results largely rely on the clinician's competence. In this paper we propose a three phase computer assisted sensor-based biofeedback decision support system assisting less experienced clinicians, acting as second opinion for experienced clinicians. The three phase CBR framework is deployed to classify a patient, estimate initial parameters and to make recommendations for biofeedback training by retrieving and comparing with previous similar cases in terms of features extracted. The three phases work independently from each other. Moreover, fuzzy techniques are incorporated into our CBR system to better accommodate uncertainty in clinicians reasoning as well as decision analysis. All parts in the proposed framework have been implemented and primarily validated in a prototypical system. The initial result shows how the three phases functioned with CBR technique to assist biofeedback training. Eventually the system enables the clinicians to allow a patient to train himself/herself unsupervised.

  • 33.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity2008Inngår i: Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity, ISSN 1867-366X, Vol. 1, s. 3-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent analysis of heterogeneous data and information sources for efficient decision support presents an interesting yet challenging task in clinical envi-ronments. This is particularly the case in stress medicine where digital patient re-cords are becoming popular which contain not only lengthy time series measurements but also unstructured textual documents expressed in form of natural languages. This paper develops a hybrid case-based reasoning system for stress di-agnosis which is capable of coping with both numerical signals and textual data at the same time. The total case index consists of two sub-parts corresponding to signal and textual data respectively. For matching of cases on the signal aspect we present a fuzzy similarity matching metric to accommodate and tackle the imprecision and uncertainty in sensor measurements. Preliminary evaluations have revealed that this fuzzy matching algorithm leads to more accurate similarity estimates for improved case ranking and retrieval compared with traditional distance-based matching crite-ria. For evaluation of similarity on the textual dimension we propose an enhanced cosine matching function augmented with related domain knowledge. This is im-plemented by incorporating Wordnet and domain specific ontology into the textual case-based reasoning process for refining weights of terms according to available knowledge encoded therein. Such knowledge-based reasoning for matching of tex-tual cases has empirically shown its merit in improving both precision and recall of retrieved cases with our initial medical databases. Experts in the domain are very positive to our system and they deem that it will be a valuable tool to foster wide-spread experience reuse and transfer in the area of stress diagnosis and treatment.

  • 34.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    A Generic System-level Framework for Self-Serve Health Monitoring System through Internet of Things(IoT)2015Inngår i: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, Vol. 211, s. 305-307Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor data are traveling from sensors to a remote server, data is analysed remotely in a distributed manner, and health status of a user is presented in real-time. This paper presents a generic system-level framework for a self-served health monitoring system through the Internet of Things (IoT) to facilities an efficient sensor data management.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Boubezoul, Abderrahmane
    UPE-IFSTTAR/TS2/SIMU&MOTO, F-77447 Marne la Vallée Cedex, France.
    Forsström, Nils Göran Gustav
    Sherif, Nabaz
    Stenekap, Daniel
    Espie, Stephane
    Sundström, Anton
    Södergren, Rasmus
    Data Analysis on Powered Two Wheelers Riders’ Behaviour using Machine Learning2019Inngår i: First International Conference on Advances in Signal Processing and Artificial Intelligence ASPAI' 2019, Barcelona, Spain, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing powered two-wheeler rider behavior, i.e. classification of riding patterns based on 3-D accelerometer/gyroscope sensors mounted on motorcycles is challenging. This paper presents machine learning approach to classify four different riding events performed by powered two wheeler riders’ as a step towards increasing traffic safety. Three machine learning algorithms, Random Forest (RF), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used to classify riding patterns. The classification is conducted based on features extracted in time and frequency domains from accelerometer/gyroscope sensors signals. A comparison result between different filter frequencies, window sizes, features sets, as well as machine learning algorithms is presented. According to the results, the Random Forest method performs most consistently through the different data sets and scores best.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Brickman, Staffan
    Dengg, Alexander
    Fasth, Niklas
    Mihajlovic, Marko
    Norman, Jacob
    A Machine Learning Approach to Classify Pedestrians’ Event based on IMU and GPS2019Inngår i: International Conference on Modern Intelligent Systems Concepts MISC'18, 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates and implements six Machine Learning (ML) algorithms, i.e. Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Decision Tree (DT), Random Forest (RF), Extra Tree (ET), and Gradient Boosted Trees (GBT) to classify different Pedestrians’ events based on Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Pedestrians’ events are pedestrian movements as the first step of H2020 project called SimuSafe1 with a goal to reduce traffic fatalities by doing risk assessments of the pedestrians. The movements the MLs’ models are attempting to classify are standing, walking, and running. Data, i.e. IMU, GPS sensor signals and other contextual information are collected by a smartphone through a controlled procedure. The smartphone is placed in five different positions onto the body of participants, i.e. arm, chest, ear, hand and pocket. The recordings are filtered, trimmed, and labeled. Next, samples are generated from small overlapping sections from which time and frequency domain features are extracted. Three different experiments are conducted to evaluate the performances in term of accuracy of the MLs’ models in different circumstances. The best performing MLs’ models determined by the average accuracy across all experiments is Extra Tree (ET) with a classification accuracy of 91%. 

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    A Case-Based Reasoning System for Knowledge and Experience Reuse2007Inngår i: Proceedings of the 24th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, 2007, s. 70-80Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience is one of the most valuable assets technicians and engineer have and may have been collected during many years and both from successful solutions as well as from very costly mistakes. Unfortunately industry rarely uses a systematic approach for experience reuse. This may be caused by the lack of efficient tools facilitating experience distribution and reuse. We propose a case-based approach and tool to facilitate experience reuse more systematically in industry. It is important that such a tool allows the technicians to give the problem case in a flexible way to increase acceptance and use. The proposed tool enables more structured handling of experience and is flexible and can be adapted to different situations and problems. The user is able to input text in a structured way and possibly in combination with other numeric or symbolic features. The system is able to identify and retrieve relevant similar experiences for reuse.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Efficient Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis Using a Case-Based Experience Sharing System2007Inngår i: The 20th International Congress and Exhibition on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics Engineering Management, COMADEM 2007, Faro, Portugal, 2007, s. 305-314Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has to adjust quickly to changes in their surroundings, for example reducing staff during recession and increasing staff when the market demands it. These factors may cause rapid loss of experience, collected during many years, or require experienced staff to spend considerable resources in training new staff, instead of focusing on production. This is recognised as very costly for companies and organisations today and also reduces competitiveness and productivity. Condition Monitoring, diagnostics and selection of efficient preventive or corrective actions is a task that often requires a high degree of expertise. This expertise is often gained through sometimes very expensive mistakes and can take many years to acquire leading to a few skilled experts. When they are not available due to changes in staff or retirements the company often faces serious problems that may be very expensive, e.g. leading to a reduced productivity.

    If some deviation occurs in a machine, a fault report is often written; an engineer makes a diagnosis and may order spare parts to repair the machine. Fault report, spare parts, required time and statistics on performance after repair are often stored in different databases but so far not systematically reused. In this paper we present a Case-Based experience sharing system that enables reuse of experience in a more efficient way compared with what is mostly practiced in industry today. The system uses Case-Based-Reasoning (CBR) and limited Natural Language Processing. An important aspect of the experience management tool is that it is user-friendly and web-based to promote efficient experience sharing. The system should be able to handle both experiences that are only in house as well as sharing experience with other industries when there is no conflicting interest. Such a CBR based tool enables efficient experience gathering, management and reuse in production industries. The tool will facilitate the users with an interactive environment to communicate with each other for sharing their experiences. Depend on the user; the security level of the system will be varied to share knowledge among the collaborating companies.

    The system identifies the most relevant experiences to assess and resolve the current situation. The experience is stored and retrieved as a case in the collaborative space where experience from various companies may have been stored under many years. Reusing experience and avoiding expensive mistakes will increase the participating companies' competitiveness and also transfer valuable experience to their employees. One of the benefits is also the opportunity and facility to identify people with similar tasks and problems at different companies and enable them to share their experience, e.g. if a technician has solved a similar problem recently and is in the near, the most efficient solution may be to call the expert and ask for assistance. In future, one may access this tool through his/her mobile device via wireless or mobile communications using Global Positioning System, GPS, enables the system to suggest experts nearby, willing and able to share the knowledge and quickly assist in resolve the problem.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för datavetenskap och elektronik.
    Westin, Jerker
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Groth, Torgny
    A fuzzy rule-based decision support system for Duodopa treatment in Parkinson2006Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A decision support system (DSS) was implemented based on a fuzzy logic inference system (FIS) to provide assistance in dose alteration of Duodopa infusion in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, using data from motor state assessments and dosage. Three-tier architecture with an object oriented approach was used. The DSS has a web enabled graphical user interface that presents alerts indicating non optimal dosage and states, new recommendations, namely typical advice with typical dose and statistical measurements. One data set was used for design and tuning of the FIS and another data set was used for evaluating performance compared with actual given dose. Overall goodness-of-fit for the new patients (design data) was 0.65 and for the ongoing patients (evaluation data) 0.98. User evaluation is now ongoing. The system could work as an assistant to clinical staff for Duodopa treatment in advanced Parkinson's disease.

  • 40.
    Ahrén, Christina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Nyblad, Ida
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Investigating DRAM bank partitioning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the page coloring technique bank partitioning and if it can be applied on commercial hardware platforms to reduce execution time jitter for specific tasks. We have also investigated how to alter execution times using bank partitioning. Unpredictable latency created by execution time jitter is a problem in real-time computing on commercial hardware platforms. We have run experiments that try to prove that the bank partitioning method we use alters the execution time and that thrashing occurs in the main memory if we run multiple instances of a workload. We receive significant changes in execution times when using bank partitioning and we can determine that thrashing occurs. However, due to the lack of the ability to measure the hardware performance counter for row buffer misses, we cannot determine if thrashing occurs in the main memory level. Since we cannot determine when, or if thrashing occurs in the main memory we find that we cannot reduce execution time jitter on the two systems that we have tested using bank partitioning on. We also find that execution times of specific tasks can be altered by reducing the number of bank bins associated with the specific task. The execution time of the task is increased if we reduce the number of bins associated with it.

  • 41.
    Aisa, J.
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Villarroel, J. L.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain .
    Almeida, L.
    University of Porto, Porto, Portugal.
    Soft real-time traffic communication in loaded Wireless Mesh Networks2016Inngår i: IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems - Proceedings, WFCS, 2016, artikkel-id Article number 7496503Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial applications have been shifting towards wireless multi-hop networks in recent years due to their lower cost of deployment and reconfiguration compared with their wired counterparts. These wireless networks usually must support real-time communication to meet the application requirements. For this reason, Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are potential candidates for industrial applications as they support a fixed infrastructure of static nodes for relaying packets. To meet the application demands, we modify the wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro) to support soft real-time traffic in WMNs with chain topologies over IEEE 802.11. We employ tele-operation of mobile robots as our case study, and perform extensive simulation and laboratory experiments. We show that the data delivery ratio is increased up to 42% in a scenario with 7 nodes, when the maximum end-to-end delay tolerated by the application is doubled. This is particularly suited to soft real-time applications that can trade longer delays by higher reliability. Moreover, when compared with a distributed priority-based token-passing protocol (RT-WMP), the lower overhead of WICKPro allows, in an error-free scenario, obtaining a throughput improvement of 33.42% on average.

  • 42.
    Aisa, Jesus
    et al.
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    Fotouhi, Hossein
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Almeida, Luis
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Villarroel, José Luis
    Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain.
    DoTHa - A Double-threshold Hand-off Algorithm for Managing Mobility in Wireless Mesh Networks2016Inngår i: 21st IEEE Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation ETFA'16, 2016, artikkel-id 7733511Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless communication will play an increasingly important role in future factory automation and process control, where the presence of mobile autonomous devices is expected to grow. However, wireless links are prone to errors due to shadowing and multi-path fading, which is even more severe in dynamic environments. These problems can be attenuated by using a mesh backbone to which mobile node connect to, using a hand-off algorithm. This solution is particularly important under real-time requirements typically found in factory automation. In this paper, we devise the Double-Threshold Hand-off (DoTHa) algorithm, a novel hand-off mechanism that triggers a hand-off in various environmental conditions. As a case study, we carry out the tele-operation of a mobile robot through a wireless mesh network in an indoor setting, using a wireless chain network protocol (WICKPro-SRT) that supports soft real-time traffic. We empirically compared DoTHa with two existing hand-off algorithms based on single and double hysteresis margin. The results revealed that DoTHa achieves Data Delivery Ratio (DDR) close to 100% whereas the single hysteresis-based hand-off suffers from frequent disconnections, dropping DDR to 88%. The double hysteresis-based hand-off shows higher ping-pong effect than DoTHa, doubling the number of hand-offs in some scenarios.

  • 43.
    Akalin, Neziha
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    An Evaluation Tool of the Effect of Robots in Eldercare on the Sense of Safety and Security2017Inngår i: Social Robotics: 9th International Conference, ICSR 2017, Tsukuba, Japan, November 22-24, 2017, Proceedings / [ed] Kheddar, A.; Yoshida, E.; Ge, S.S.; Suzuki, K.; Cabibihan, J-J:, Eyssel, F:, He, H., Springer International Publishing , 2017, s. 628-637Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study presented in this paper is to develop a quantitative evaluation tool of the sense of safety and security for robots in eldercare. By investigating the literature on measurement of safety and security in human-robot interaction, we propose new evaluation tools. These tools are semantic differential scale questionnaires. In experimental validation, we used the Pepper robot, programmed in the way to exhibit social behaviors, and constructed four experimental conditions varying the degree of the robot’s non-verbal behaviors from no gestures at all to full head and hand movements. The experimental results suggest that both questionnaires (for the sense of safety and the sense of security) have good internal consistency.

  • 44.
    Akalin, Neziha
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    The Relevance of Social Cues in Assistive Training with a Social Robot2018Inngår i: 10th International Conference on Social Robotics, ICSR 2018, Proceedings / [ed] Ge, S.S., Cabibihan, J.-J., Salichs, M.A., Broadbent, E., He, H., Wagner, A., Castro-González, Á., Springer , 2018, s. 462-471Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether social cues, such as facial expressions, can be used to adapt and tailor a robot-assisted training in order to maximize performance and comfort. Specifically, this paper serves as a basis in determining whether key facial signals, including emotions and facial actions, are common among participants during a physical and cognitive training scenario. In the experiment, participants performed basic arm exercises with a social robot as a guide. We extracted facial features from video recordings of participants and applied a recursive feature elimination algorithm to select a subset of discriminating facial features. These features are correlated with the performance of the user and the level of difficulty of the exercises. The long-term aim of this work, building upon the work presented here, is to develop an algorithm that can eventually be used in robot-assisted training to allow a robot to tailor a training program based on the physical capabilities as well as the social cues of the users.

  • 45.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, United Kingdom.
    EXE-SPEM: Towards cloud-based executable software process models2016Inngår i: MODELSWARD 2016 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development, 2016, s. 517-526Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Executing software processes in the cloud can bring several benefits to software development. In this paper, we discuss the benefits and considerations of cloud-based software processes. EXE-SPEM is our extension of the Software and Systems Process Engineering (SPEM2.0) Meta-model to support creating cloud-based executable software process models. Since SPEM2.0 is a visual modelling language, we introduce an XML notation meta-model and mapping rules from EXE-SPEM to this notation which can be executed in a workflow engine. We demonstrate our approach by modelling an example software process using EXE-SPEM and mapping it to the XML notation. 

  • 46.
    Alajrami, S.
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sljivo, Irfan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, A.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom .
    Isberg, Petter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards cloud-based enactment of safety-related processes2016Inngår i: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 9922, 2016, s. 309-321Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering safety-critical systems is a complex task which involves multiple stakeholders. It requires shared and scalable computation to systematically involve geographically distributed teams. The paper proposes a model-driven cloud-based enactment architecture automating safety-critical processes. This work adapts our previous work on cloud-based software engineering by enriching the architecture with an automatic support for generation of both, product-based safety arguments from failure logic analysis results and process-based arguments from the process model and the enactment data. The approach is demonstrated using a fragment of a process adapted from the aerospace domain. 

  • 47.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017Inngår i: Software Engineering Research, Management and Applications SERA-2017, Springer, 2017, s. 179-192Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experi- ence of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision sup- port can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three dis- tance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this archi- tecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 48.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Enabling GSD Task Allocation via Cloud-based Software Processes2017Inngår i: International Journal of Networked and Distributed Computing, ISSN 2211-7938, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 221-232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Allocating tasks to distributed sites in Global Software Development (GSD) projects is often done unsystematically and based on the personal experience of project managers. Wrong allocation decisions increase the project’s risks as tasks have dependencies that are inherited by the distributed sites. Decision support can help make the task allocation a more informed and systematic process. The challenges in allocating tasks to distributed sites exist because of three distance dimensions between sites (geographical, temporal and cultural). An informed task allocation decision needs to consider these distances. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to integrate and semi-automate the calculation of an existing Global Distance Metric (GDM) into an architecture that supports executing cloud-based software processes. We analyze the potential of integrating the GDM into this architecture and identify the needed extensions to the architecture.

  • 49.
    Alajrami, Sami
    et al.
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Romanovsky, Alexander
    Newcastle University, UK.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Cost-Aware Scheduling of Software Processes Execution in the Cloud2018Inngår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development - Volume 1, 2018, s. 203-212Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using cloud computing to execute software processes brings several benefits to software development. In a previous work, we proposed a reference architecture, which treats software processes as workflows and uses cloud computing to execute them. Scheduling the execution in the cloud impacts the execution cost and the cloud resources utilization. Existing workflow scheduling algorithms target business and scientific (data-driven) workflows, but not software processes workflows. In this paper, we adapt three scheduling algorithms for our architecture and propose a fourth one; the Proportional Adaptive Task Schedule algorithm. We evaluate the algorithms in terms of their execution cost, makespan and cloud resource utilization. Our results show that our proposed algorithm saves between 19.74% and 45.78% of the execution cost and provides the best resource (virtual machine) utilization compared to the adapted algorithms while providing the second best makespan. 

  • 50.
    Alemzadeh, H.
    et al.
    University of Virginia, United States.
    Barbosa, R.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Brancati, F.
    Resil Tech S.r.l, Italy.
    Gallina, Barbara
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Lawford, M.
    McMaster University, Canada.
    Natella, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Netkachova, K.
    City University of London, United Kingdom.
    Pietrantuono, R.
    Federico II University of Naples, Italy.
    Silva, N.
    CRITICAL Software S.A, Portugal.
    Message from the WoSoCer workshop organizers2017Inngår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 28th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops, ISSREW 2017, s. xxxviii-, artikkel-id 8109232Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
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