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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Altarabichi, Mohammed Ghaith
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ginsberg, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Glaes, Robert
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Östgren, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sorensen, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, Sweden.
    Avision-based indoor navigation system for individuals with visual impairment2019Ingår i: International Journal of Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 0974-0635, E-ISSN 0974-0635, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 188-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Navigation and orientation in an indoor environment are a challenging task for visually impaired people. This paper proposes a portable vision-based system to provide support for visually impaired persons in their daily activities. Here, machine learning algorithms are used for obstacle avoidance and object recognition. The system is intended to be used independently, easily and comfortably without taking human help. The system assists in obstacle avoidance using cameras and gives voice message feedback by using a pre-trained YOLO Neural Network for object recognition. In other parts of the system, a floor plane estimation algorithm is proposed for obstacle avoidance and fuzzy logic is used to prioritize the detected objects in a frame and generate alert to the user about possible risks. The system is implemented using the Robot Operating System (ROS) for communication on a Nvidia Jetson TX2 with a ZED stereo camera for depth calculations and headphones for user feedback, with the capability to accommodate different setup of hardware components. The parts of the system give varying results when evaluated and thus in future a large-scale evaluation is needed to implement the system and get it as a commercialized product in this area.

  • 2.
    Akalin, Neziha
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Enhancing Social Human-Robot Interaction with Deep Reinforcement Learning.2018Ingår i: Proc. FAIM/ISCA Workshop on Artificial Intelligence for Multimodal Human Robot Interaction, 2018, MHRI , 2018, s. 48-50Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to develop an autonomous social robot for elderly individuals. The robot will learn from the interaction and change its behaviors in order to enhance the interaction and improve the user experience. For this purpose, we aim to use Deep Reinforcement Learning. The robot will observe the user’s verbal and nonverbal social cues by using its camera and microphone, the reward will be positive valence and engagement of the user.

  • 3.
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Human Robot Interaction Solutions for Intuitive Industrial Robot Programming2012Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades the use of industrial robots has increased the efficiency as well as competitiveness of many companies. Despite this fact, in many cases, robot automation investments are considered to be technically challenging. In addition, for most small and medium sized enterprises (SME) this process is associated with high costs. Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are likely to exceed installation costs by a large margin. Furthermore, traditional programming methods for industrial robots are too complex for an inexperienced robot programmer, thus assistance from a robot programming expert is often needed.  We hypothesize that in order to make industrial robots more common within the SME sector, the robots should be reprogrammable by technicians or manufacturing engineers rather than robot programming experts. In this thesis we propose a high-level natural language framework for interacting with industrial robots through an instructional programming environment for the user.  The ultimate goal of this thesis is to bring robot programming to a stage where it is as easy as working together with a colleague.In this thesis we mainly address two issues. The first issue is to make interaction with a robot easier and more natural through a multimodal framework. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high level commands. Interaction with simple voice commands and gestures enables the manufacturing engineer to focus on the task itself, rather than programming issues of the robot. This approach shifts the focus of industrial robot programming from the coordinate based programming paradigm, which currently dominates the field, to an object based programming scheme.The second issue addressed is a general framework for implementing multimodal interfaces. There have been numerous efforts to implement multimodal interfaces for computers and robots, but there is no general standard framework for developing them. The general framework proposed in this thesis is designed to perform natural language understanding, multimodal integration and semantic analysis with an incremental pipeline and includes a novel multimodal grammar language, which is used for multimodal presentation and semantic meaning generation.

  • 4.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ameri E., Afsh
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Towards Creation of Robot Programs Through User InteractionManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel system for task-level programming of industrial robots. The user interacts with an industrial robot by giving instructions in a structured natural language and by selecting objects through an augmented reality interface. The proposed system consists of two parts. First, a multimodal framework that provides a natural language interface to the user. This framework performs modality fusion, semantic analysis and helps the user to interact with the system easier and more naturally. The proposed language architecture makes it possible to manipulate, pick or place objects in a scene through high-level commands. The second component is the POPStar planner, which is based on partial order planner (POP), that takes landmarks extracted from user instructions as input, and creates a sequence of actions to operate the robotic cell with minimal makespan. The proposed planner takes advantage of partial order capabilities of POP to plan execution of actions in parallel and employs a best-first search algorithm to seek a series of actions that lead to a minimal makespan. The proposed planner can as well handle robots with multiple grippers, and  parallel machines. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which are processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the proposed system can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production based on the user's instructions.

  • 5.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Ameri E., Afshin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Curuklu, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Scheduling for Multiple Type Objects Using POPStar Planner2014Ingår i: Proceedings of the 19th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'14), Barcelona, Spain, September, 2014, 2014, s. Article number 7005148-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, scheduling of robot cells that produce multiple object types in low volumes are considered. The challenge is to maximize the number of objects produced in a given time window as well as to adopt the  schedule for changing object types. Proposed algorithm, POPStar, is based on a partial order planner which is guided by best-first search algorithm and landmarks. The best-first search, uses heuristics to help the planner to create complete plans while minimizing the makespan. The algorithm takes landmarks, which are extracted from user's instructions given in structured English as input. Using different topologies for the landmark graphs, we show that it is possible to create schedules for changing object types, which will be processed in different stages in the robot cell. Results show that the POPStar algorithm can create and adapt schedules for robot cells with changing product types in low volume production.

  • 6.
    Akan, Batu
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Object Selection using a Spatial Language for Flexible Assembly2009Ingår i: 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 2009. (ETFA 2009), Mallorca, Spain, 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a new simplified natural language that makes use of spatial relations between the objects in scene to navigate an industrial robot for simple pick and place applications. Developing easy to use, intuitive interfaces is crucial to introduce robotic automation to many small medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Due to their continuously changing product lines, reprogramming costs are far higher than installation costs. In order to hide the complexities of robot programming we propose a natural language where the use can control and jog the robot based on reference objects in the scene. We used Gaussian kernels to represent spatial regions, such as left or above. Finally we present some dialogues between the user and robot to demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed system.

  • 7.
    Alexander, Karlsson
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design and Development of a Wireless Multipoint E-stop System for Autonomous Haulers2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Safety-related functions are important in autonomous industrial applications and are featured in an extensive body of work contained within the standards. The implementation of safety-related systems is commonly done by an external company at a great cost and with limited flexibility. Thus, the objective of this thesis was to develop and implement a safety-related system using o-the-shelf products and to analyse how well it can comply with the established standards of safety-related functions. This work has sought to review the current standards for safety-functions, the eectsof harsh radio environments on safety-related systems, and how to validate the safety-function.The system development process was used to gain knowledge by rst building the concept based on pre-study. After the pre-study was nished, the process moved to the development of software, designed to maintain a wireless heartbeat as well as to prevent collisions between the autonomous and manual-driven vehicles at a quarry, and implementation of the system in real hardware. Finally, a set of software (simulations) and hardware (measurements in an open-pit mine) tests were performed to test the functionality of the system. The wireless tests showed that the system adhered to the functional requirements set by the company, however, the evaluated performance level according to ISO 13849-1 resulted in performance level B which is insucient for a safety-related function. This work demonstrates that it is not possible to develop a safety-related system using the off-the-shelf products chosen, without hardware redundancy.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Carlstedt, Gustav
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automated Testing of Robotic Systems in Simulated Environments2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With the simulations tools available today, simulation can be utilised as a platform for more advanced software testing. By introducing simulations to software testing of robot controllers, the motion performance testing phase can begin at an earlier stage of development. This would benefit all parties involved with the robot controller. Testers at ABB would be able to include more motion performance tests to the regression tests. Also, ABB could save money by adapting to simulated robot tests and customers would be provided with more reliable software updates. In this thesis, a method is developed utilising simulations to create a test set for detecting motion anomalies in new robot controller versions. With auto-generated test cases and a similarity analysis that calculates the Hausdorff distance for a test case executed on controller versions with an induced artificial bug. A test set has been created with the ability to detect anomalies in a robot controller with a bug.

  • 9.
    Arroyo Rubio, Fernando
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A SIMULATION ENVIRONMENT FOR AUTOMATIC NIGHT DRIVING AND VISUAL CONTROL2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This project consists on developing an automatic night driving system in a simulation environment. The simulator I have used is TORCS. TORCS is an Open Source car racing simulator written in C++. It is used as an ordinary car racing game, as a IA racing game and as a research platform. The goal of this thesis is to implement an automatic driving system to control the car under night conditions using computer vision. A camera is implemented inside the vehicle and it will detect the reflective light-markers placed along the roadside. The car is oriented only with the lights the camera can see.

  • 10.
    Ayoub, Ayoub
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Berg, Carl Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Design of a Dynamic Boom Suspension System in a Hybrid Wheel Loader2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Wheel loaders are under the influence of low frequency vibrations that may be harmful for the health of the operator, and for the productivity of the machine. The strong vibrations can significantly impact the operation of the machine since they are not equipped with wheel suspension systems and due to their work environment in rough terrains with uneven surfaces. The risk of spilling or dropping the load is also increased and they can introduce higher mechanical stress that can wear out parts faster. The focus of this thesis work is to develop an approach for damping these vibrations dynamically by improving the functionality of the electrohydraulic system in Volvo's prototype wheel loader LX1. The dynamic damping system controls the cylinder of the lift framework to make it behave as a damper. The system utilizes the lift cylinder pressure and piston position as feedback to adjust the oil flow in the cylinder using the proposed control system. Results indicate that the proposed technique is capable of attenuation that is comparable with the existing boom suspension system based on accumulators through simulations and experimental tests.

  • 11.
    Bengtsson, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Robotic Calibration using Kinematic Coupling2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial robot calibration is a very important tool when extra precision and repeata- bility is required, also to make it possible to change robot without reprogramming. The difference between the virtual robot and the real robot can be as much as 8-15mm [1]. Presently used methods for calibration are both expensive and time-consuming. This the- sis will test a method of calibration that is simple and cheap, using kinematic coupling. The repeatability of the calibration and improvements to the method have been investi- gated, as well as the impact of lost-space motion at different positions of the robot. The thesis shows that the precision of the robot when coupling is better than ±0.05mm. A problem with backlash in a gearbox was solved using statistical method and by adding an external force affecting the coupling. Also a simulation of the coupling is developed to more easily identify errors in any axis.

  • 12.
    Bengtsson, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    MACHINE LEARNING FOR MECHANICAL ANALYSIS2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not reliable to depend on a persons inference on dense data of high dimensionality on a daily basis. A person will grow tired or become distracted and make mistakes over time. Therefore it is desirable to study the feasibility of replacing a persons inference with that of Machine Learning in order to improve reliability. One-Class Support Vector Machines (SVM) with three different kernels (linear, Gaussian and polynomial) are implemented and tested for Anomaly Detection. Principal Component Analysis is used for dimensionality reduction and autoencoders are used with the intention to increase performance. Standard soft-margin SVMs were used for multi-class classification by utilizing the 1vsAll and 1vs1 approaches with the same kernels as for the one-class SVMs. The results for the one-class SVMs and the multi-class SVM methods are compared against each other within their respective applications but also against the performance of Back-Propagation Neural Networks of varying sizes. One-Class SVMs proved very effective in detecting anomalous samples once both Principal Component Analysis and autoencoders had been applied. Standard SVMs with Principal Component Analysis produced promising classification results. Twin SVMs were researched as an alternative to standard SVMs.

  • 13.
    Blom, Jonatan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Autonomous Hauler Loading2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I det här examensarbetet har designat och implementerat komponenter till ettsystem för automatiserad materialhantering i anläggningsbranschen, en autonomhjullastare. Examensarbetet avslutas med en uppvisning av den prototyp somvi implementerat våra komponenter på. Vårt främsta bidrag till systemet är enny mjukvarudesign, med det nya upplägget har det blivit enklare att integreranya komponenter i systemet. Förutom plattformen så har vi tagit fram komponenteroch lösningar för era delsystem som krävs för autonom operation medhjullastaren, dessa har vi listat några av dessa nedan.ˆ Tillståndsmaskin för hantering av övergripande uppdrag.ˆ Bildbehandlingsalgoritmer, som utifrån LiDAR data parametriserar lastmottagaren(i detta examensarbete en dumper)ˆ Dynamisk translationsalgoritm, denna används för att genomföra en tömningssekvenspå en godtycklig koordinat.Mycket jobb har även lagts på utveckling av underliggande system och funktionalitet,bland annat har vi implementerat kommunikations protokoll och APIför en LiDAR skanner samt ett API för en servo controller. Vi har också konstrueraten mekanisk vagga för LiDAR skannern och servomotorn i CAD, dennakonstruktion tillverkade vi senare i en CNC fräs.

  • 14.
    Carlén Eriksson, Lennie
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Scharff Willners, Jonatan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Body Area Network with Gait Symmetry Analyses2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Smart portable devices is increasing in popularity in many fields. In motion tracking many devices have been created in the last years as a help in motivation and observation for training. Most of them is for tracking distance moved, heart-rate and some more basic functions. For deeper analyses in motion tracking a more advanced system is needed. The system needs to be small and light to not influence the movement of the subject in a negative way. It should preferably be cheap. Two other factors is that the system needs to be easy to use, both in the interface and deployment.

    Symmetry in motion is an key-element to effective use of energy. Measuring the symmetry in gait should then help to improve motion. This could be used as a tool for more efficient training or to faster recover from an injury. For a stroke-patient this could perhaps decrease the time of rehabilitation and remind the patient to move one leg. To create this, a reliable communication between a data sink and sensor nodes has been developed. The sensor nodes is gathering nine dimensions IMU data, accelerometer, gyroscopes and magnetometer, each in three dimensions. The data is saved to a database where it can be extracted for further analyses.

    Testing of the script language for Bluetooth devices, BGScript for time synchronisation has been done to see if it is able to use for frequencies high enough for a system to measure movement.

  • 15.
    Carnbo, Linda
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Framtagning av en utvecklingsprocess för automation - baserat på konceptet Lean Automation2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the globalization today the competition in the market has in- creased and it requires flexibility and produce according to customer demand. In order to reduce the cost of wages industrial companies are now considering moving the manufacturing to low-cost countries. To keep up with the competition in the market without moving the manu- facturing abroad, Lean Automation was developed. The concept of Lean Automation is to reduce the perceived complexity with automa- tion and make automation available for new users and in new applica- tions.

    Haldex Brake Products are situated in Sweden and want to maintain the manufacturing of the automatic brake adjusters in the country. It is a product well-known and highly exposed to the competition in the mar- ket. Due to this situation Haldex are collaborating with Mälardalen University to develop a robotic cell based on the concept of Lean Au- tomation. It will be installed on their assembly line in 2012.

    The goal with this master thesis is to create a development process for automation, which can enable the company to be more competitive in the market and this by using their own knowledge to develop automat- ed solutions for higher efficiency in the production line. In addition to the development process for automation, programming of the Lean Au- tomation robotic cell is to be conducted.

    The conducted work in the master thesis was the programming of the robotic cell and the development process for automation. The pro- gramming was made Lean by reducing waste of time when working with the programmed code. This by a clear structure in the program- ming which makes it easy to handle. A development process for auto- mation was made and used for developing a robotic cell for the assem- bly line. The robotic cell was then tested at Haldex, an important stage before implementing the cell on the assembly line. Testing the robotic cell will give important information about how the equipment actually runs and failures can be observed and adjusted. Testing of the robotic cell will continue after the end of this master thesis. 

  • 16.
    Cedervall, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Hök, Andreas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Förstudie för automatisering av skateboardtillverkning2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a thesis that was carried out during spring 2012. The report covers the development of a preliminary study to Performance Sk8. The purpose of the study is to facilitate and contribute inspiration to Performance Sk8 to run an automation project to bring home their production to Sweden from China. The reason is to gain a greater ability to control quality, produce smaller batches and reduce the cycle time to reduce costs.

    The goal is that the preliminary study shall meet the requirements and wishes Performance Sk8 and other partners defined. The pre study will contain different cost proposals for the automation of selected process and serve as a basis for procurement of the equipment.

    The pre study has resulted in some proposed solutions to the various steps required to automate Performance Sk8 ́s production. In addition to the proposed solutions are also concept proposal which has developed with suggestions for flows, prices and other information that can help Performance Sk8 in its ongoing automation project.

  • 17.
    Coradeschi, Silvia
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Akademin för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Cortellessa, Gabriella
    Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Rome, Italy; Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie della Cognizione (ISTC-CNR), Rome, Italy.
    Severinson Eklundh, Kerstin
    KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Social robotic telepresence2011Ingår i: the 6th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI 2011).HRI, ACM Digital Library , 2011, s. 5-6Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 18.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Resource Optimized Stereo Matching in Reconfigurable Hardware for Autonomous Systems2011Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for compact, high-speed, and low-power vision systems for enabling real-time mobile autonomous applications. The best approach to achieve this is to implement the bulk of the application in hardware. Reconfigurable hardware meet these requirements without the limitation of fixed functionality that accompanies application-specific circuits. Resource constraints of reconfigurable hardware calls for optimized implementations i terms of resource usage with maintained performance.

    The research group in Robotics at Mälardalen University is moving toward the completion of a reconfigurable hardware-platform for stereo vision, coupled with a compact embedded computer. This system will incorporate hardware-based preprocessing components enabling visual perception for autonomous machines. This thesis covers the reconfigurable hardware section of the vision system concerning the realization of scene depth extraction. It shows the advantages of image preprocessing in hardware and propose a resource optimized approach to stereo matching. The work quantifies the impact of reduced resource utilization and a desire for increased accuracy in disparity estimation. The implemented stereo matching approach performs on par with recent similar implementations in terms of accuracy, but excels in terms of resource utilization and resource sharing, as the external memory requirement is removed for larger images.

    Future work aims to further include processes for navigation, and structure and object recognition. Furthermore, the system will be adapted to real world scenarios, both indoors and outdoors.

  • 19.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Resource Limited Hardware-based Stereo Matching for High-Speed Vision System2011Ingår i: ICARA 2011 - Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Automation, Robotics and Applications, 2011, s. 465-469Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a limited implementation of areabasedstereo matching for minimal resource utilization. It shows that it is possible to achieve an acceptable disparity map without the use of expensive resources. The matching accuracy for the single-row SAD can even outperform that of its full-row counterpart. Additionally, it excels in terms of frame rate and resource utilization, and is highly suitable for real-time stereo-vision systems.

  • 20.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    Ekström, Mikael
    Asplund, Lars
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Utilization and Performance Considerations in Resource Optimized Stereo Matching for Real-Time Reconfigurable Hardware2012Ingår i: VISAPP 2012 - Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer Vision Theory and Application, vol. 2, 2012, s. 415-418Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a set of approaches for increasing the accuracy of basic area-based stereo matching methods. It is targeting real-time FPGA systems for dense disparity map estimation. The methods are focused on low resource usage and maximized improvement per cost unit to enable the inclusion of an autonomous system in an FPGA. The approach performs on par with other area-matching implementations, but at substantially lower resource usage. Additionally, the solution removes the requirement for external memory for reconfigurable hardware together with the limitation in image size accompanying standard methods. As a fully piped complete on-chip solution, it is highly suitable for real-time stereo-vision systems, with a frame rate over 100 fps for Megapixel images.

  • 21.
    Falk, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Rickard, Willman
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Mobile Robot Platform for Measuring Ionizing Radiation on Floor-Surfaces2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 22.
    Forsberg, Axel
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Wavelet-Based Surface Electromyogram Feature Extraction for Hand Gesture Recognition2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The research field of robotic prosthetic hands have expanded immensely in the last couple of decades and prostheses are in more commercial use than ever. Classification of hand gestures using sensory data from electromyographic signals in the forearm are primary for any advanced prosthetic hand. Improving classification accuracy could lead to more user friendly and more naturally controlled prostheses. In this thesis, features were extracted from wavelet transform coefficients of four channel electromyographic data and used for classifying ten different hand gestures. Extensive search for suitable combinations of wavelet transform, feature extraction, feature reduction, and classifier was performed and an in-depth comparison between classification results of selected groups of combinations was conducted. Classification results of combinations were carefully evaluated with extensive statistical analysis. It was shown in this study that logarithmic features outperforms non-logarithmic features in terms of classification accuracy. Then a subset of all combinations containing only suitable combinations based on the statistical analysis is presented and the novelty of these results can direct future work for hand gesture recognition in a promising direction.

  • 23.
    Gorgis, Elias
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Lindgren, Peder
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automatiserad Högtryckstvätt2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningar och beräkningar av en rengöringsprocess med ibc-containers vid Allemballage har gjorts. En automatiserad lösning har tagits fram där vissa delar har tillhandahållits i förväg som rengöringsverktyg. Uppgiften blev att studera om verktyget klarade av de räckvidder som var avgörande samt att fastsälla om den robot som kunden ville använda sig av kunde utföra uppgiften genom att ta reda på vilket moment som uppstod för att sedan ta fram en simulering av processen i RS. Räckvidden undersöktes dels i RS men även ett presentationsunderlag togs fram. Momentet undersöktes dels praktiskt där man fastställde de krafter som verkade och teoretiskt där man sedan beräknade momentet. Det sista som gjordes var en simulering på hur processen kan se ut då en IRB4600-robot ifrån Abb och rengöringsverktyg utförde en rekonditionering av en IBC.

    Resultaten har visat att momentet i kortare stunder överstiger det krav som ställs på önskad robot men att verktyget klarar de räckvidder som ställs. Räckvidden och momentet har visat sig vara beroende av varandra då en minskning av räckvidden leder till ett mindre moment, vise versa.

    Med de undersökningar som gjorts och det resultat som tagits fram är rekommendationen i dagsläget att man bör lägga en beställning på det aktuella rengöringsverktyget. Vidare så anses robot IRB4600 kunna utföra uppgiften som tänkt, mindre justeringar bör då göras vid de ställen som visat sig utgöra det största momentet vid rengöring.

  • 24.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    AUTOMATIC BRAKING DISC ANALYSIS SYSTEM2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Group Truck Technology has the ambition to automate parts of their routine service. Therefore a project was launched to investigate which parts of the routine that could be automated. The idea of this project is to lower the time spent on the service and also improve the working environment for the personnel. The purpose of this thesis is to develop and build a conceptional prototype for a low-cost crack detecting sensor. This thesis is a part of a larger proof of concept project which Volvo GTT runs in cooperation with Robotdalen and Robot Application Center (RAC). The work done in this thesis has been based on literature studies, interviews and company visits. The gathered knowledge and observations was translated into what would be required to fit the needs. This thesis covers different techniques that could be used to detect flaws in braking discs. However, this thesis is mostly focused on one non-destructive method technique based on induced eddy currents. Several non-destructive techniques and conceptual designs has been tested and evaluated with varying results during this project. The result of this thesis was a design that reacts to discontinuities in conductive materials, such as the grey cast iron material used in the Volvo trucks braking discs. The results are represented as a voltage drop change and can be visualized by an oscilloscope. This study shows that the method of choice has the potential to be used as a crack detecting system and that the system can be built reliable with rather cheap components. Further development should aim towards making the design even cheaper and the components should be assembled on a PCB instead of a breadboard in order to make the system less sensitive to noise and easier to assemble alongside the trucks braking discs.

  • 25.
    Hampus, Carlsson
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Martina, Öhlund
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    LOW COST ULTRA WIDEBANDRADAR FOR HUMAN PROTECTION2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the UWB radars available on the market today are expensive and often closed forfurther development due to proprietary rights. Therefore it is difficult to fully understand and adaptthe functionality of an available UWB system to fit one’s needs. The consulting-firm Addiva purchasedan UWB radar to be used in a safety system. However, the radar had limitations and the functionalityof it was partly unknown. This master thesis was inspired from this issue to examine the possibilitiesof developing a low-cost UWB radar, with main focus on research of human detection. The systemshould be easy to understand and modify, as well as reporting reliable data from the scanning. Theresults indicate that such a system can be developed. However, further development to the UWB radarneeds to be made in order to have a complete system.

  • 26.
    Hanson, Lars
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Wiktorsson, Magnus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Virtual Verification of Human-Industrial robot Collaboration in Truck Tyre Assembly2015Ingår i: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-industrial robot collaboration has been introduced as the ultimate combination for industry. The endurance and strength of a robot is combined with a human’s flexibility, precision and quality skills. One challenge in the implementation of human-industrial robot collaboration is to create a safe working station for the operators, therefore most of the research focuses on these safety aspects. Industrial designers and engineers verify and optimise workstations in different simulation and visualisation tools in order to improve competitiveness, reduce late changes and reduce cost. Several robot tools and digital human modelling tools are available, but there are no or few simulation and visualisation tools that include both humans and robots. The aim of the proposed paper is to illustrate how unique software can be used to verify human-industrial robot collaboration. This software is a combination of the robot simulation tool IPS and the digital human modelling tool IMMA. The software demonstration is promising, covering the gap between digital human modelling tools and robot simulation tools. The simulation and visualisation tools generate pictures and animations, as well as quantified numbers to aid well-founded decision-making. The demonstration software was used to analyse a truck tyre assembly station. Fully manual, fully automated and human-industrial robot collaboration were compared.

    Practitioner Summary: The presented paper illustrates simulation and visualisation software for the virtual verification of Human - Industrial Robot collaboration. The software demonstration is a combination of the robot simulation tool IPS and the digital human modelling tool IMMA. The software demonstration is promising, covering the gap between digital human modelling tools and robot simulation tools.

    Keywords: ergonomics, digital human modelling, robot simulation, simulation and visualisation

  • 27.
    Hasanzadeh, Mujtaba
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Hengl, Alexandra
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Real-Time Pupillary Analysis By An Intelligent Embedded System2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With no online pupillary analysis methods today, both the medical and the research fields are left to carry out a lengthy, manual and often faulty examination. A real-time, intelligent, embedded systems solution to pupillary analysis would help reduce faulty diagnosis, speed-up the analysis procedure by eliminating the human expert operator and in general, provide a versatile and highly adaptable research tool. Therefore, this thesis has sought to investigate, develop and test possible system designs for pupillary analysis, with the aim for caffeine detection. A pair of LED manipulator glasses have been designed to standardize the illumination method across testing. A data analysis method of the raw pupillary data has been established offline and then adapted to a real-time platform. ANN was chosen as classification algorithm. The accuracy of the ANN from the offline analysis was 94% while for the online classification the obtained accuracy was 17%. A realtime data communication and synchronization method has been developed. The resulting system showed reliable and fast execution times. Data analysis and classification took no longer than 2ms, faulty data detection showed consistent results. Data communication suffered no message loss. In conclusion, it is reported that a real-time, intelligent, embedded solution is feasible for pupillary analysis.

  • 28.
    Hellsing, Manne
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Almers, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Robotiserad tillverkning av prefabricerade väggelement2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes a thesis carried out by Fredrik Almers and Manne Hellsing, students at Mälardalen University in the engineering program, Innovation and product design. The assignment has been carried out in behalf of Robotdalen (Västerås, Sweden) in the period 2015-01-20 – 2015-06-11. The assignment was to explore possibilities of manufacturing prefabricated wall elements using industrial robots. The task also included to determine which robot tools that was needed and also designing one of them. The purpose of the assignment was to develop the first robot tool required for the manufacturing and to investigate whether the production time can be reduced by 70 percent compared to manual work.

    To be able to address the problem in a scientific way, the project was split into three phases. The first concerning information gathering, the second concept development and the third the design of the tool.

    The data collection included analyzing literature, previous work that had been done in the project and conducting study visits. At this stage it was also revealed which tools were necessary and which one of these that would be designed. It takes six different tools to manufacture a wall element and the one that were designed was a multifunctional beam assembly tool. A function analysis and a requirements specification were also established in this phase. They were used as a basis for further work.

    The goal of the concept generation phase was to develop a final concept where the basic features of the tool was presented. The problem was divided into two parts and each part solution was developed and evaluated individually. Through discussions and the use of appropriate product development tools a final concept could be established. The functions of the final concept was to grab hold of the wooden beam, compress it with another beam and then nail them together. To solve this, existing components as grippers, pneumatic cylinders and linear units were used.

    The goal of the design phase was to go from a fundamental principle concept to a fully finished and fully specified design. To achieve this CAD were used to calculate the components strength and how they would work together. Trough contact and advice collected from the suppliers the various components were selected. The designing of the tool has been based on the requirement specifications and the function analysis.

    The result of this project is a robotic tool that manages to nail together two wooden beams with two nails in under five seconds. It does not require any help to accomplish this task and can handle several different beam dimensions. The tool is designed with a frame of aluminum profiles, whereupon the necessary components for the task are installed. Thus it is easy to maintain and change the design of the tool if needed. With the help of this tool, the production time for a wall element is reduced up to 90 percent, according to simulations in the CAD environment compared to manual work.

  • 29.
    Holmqvist, Niclas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    HANDHELD LIDAR ODOMETRY ESTIMATION AND MAPPING SYSTEM2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ego-motion sensors are commonly used for pose estimation in Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) algorithms. Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) are popular sensors but suffer from integration drift over longer time scales. To remedy the drift they are often used in combination with additional sensors, such as a LiDAR. Pose estimation is used when scans, produced by these additional sensors, are being matched. The matching of scans can be computationally heavy as one scan can contain millions of data points. Methods exist to simplify the problem of finding the relative pose between sensor data, such as the Normal Distribution Transform SLAM algorithm. The algorithm separates the point cloud data into a voxelgrid and represent each voxel as a normal distribution, effectively decreasing the amount of data points. Registration is based on a function which converges to a minimum. Sub-optimal conditions can cause the function to converge at a local minimum. To remedy this problem this thesis explores the benefits of combining IMU sensor data to estimate the pose to be used in the NDT SLAM algorithm.

  • 30.
    Jansson, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Blomstrand, Rasmus
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    REAL-TIME PREDICTION OF SHIMS DIMENSIONS IN POWER TRANSFER UNITS USING MACHINE LEARNING2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 31.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluating Vivado High-Level Synthesis on OpenCV Functions for the Zynq-7000 FPGA2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    More complex and intricate Computer Vision algorithms combined with higher resolution image streams put bigger and bigger demands on processing power. CPU clock frequencies are now pushing the limits of possible speeds, and have instead started growing in number of cores. Most Computer Vision algorithms' performance respond well to parallel solutions. Dividing the algorithm over 4-8 CPU cores can give a good speed-up, but using chips with Programmable Logic (PL) such as FPGA's can give even more.

    An interesting recent addition to the FPGA family is a System on Chip (SoC) that combines a CPU and an FPGA in one chip, such as the Zynq-7000 series from Xilinx. This tight integration between the Programmable Logic and Processing System (PS) opens up for designs where C programs can use the programmable logic to accelerate selected parts of the algorithm, while still behaving like a C program.

    On that subject, Xilinx has introduced a new High-Level Synthesis Tool (HLST) called Vivado HLS, which has the power to accelerate C code by synthesizing it to Hardware Description Language (HDL) code. This potentially bridges two otherwise very separate worlds; the ever popular OpenCV library and FPGAs.

    This thesis will focus on evaluating Vivado HLS from Xilinx primarily with image processing in mind for potential use on GIMME-2; a system with a Zynq-7020 SoC and two high resolution image sensors, tailored for stereo vision.

  • 32.
    Joonatan, Mänttäri
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Evaluation of Intuitive VR-based HRI for Simulated Industrial Robots2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    While the accessibility and technology behind industrial robots is improving as well as becomingless expensive, the installation and conguration of industrial robot cells still proves tobe an expensive venture, especially for small and mid-sized companies. It is therefore of greatinterest to simulate robot cell installations, both for verication of system functionality as wellas for demonstration purposes for clients.However, the construction and conguration of a simulated robot cell is a time-consumingprocess and requires expertise that is often only found in engineers who are experienced withsoftware programming and spacial kinematics. If the process were to be simplied it would bringgreat advantages not only concerning the more ecient use of the time of software engineers butalso in marketing applications.As this paper will show, the use of Virtual Reality (VR) in simulating, displaying andcontrolling robots is a well investigated subject. It has been shown that VR can be used to showrobot simulation in more detail and to specify path movement in task programming. This paperfocuses upon nding and evaluating an intuitive Human Robot Interface (HRI) for interactingwith simulated robots using virtual reality.An HRI is proposed and evaluated, using the Oculus Rift Head Mounted Display (HMD)to display a 3-dimensional (3D) VR environment of a Robot Cell in ABB RobotStudio. Usingmarker-based tracking enabled by ARToolkit, the user's position in real world coordinates isforwarded to the virtual world, along with the position and orientation of a hand-held tool thatallows the user to manipulate the robot targets that are part of the simulated robots program.The system as an HRI was successful in giving the user a strong sense of immersion andgiving them a much better understanding of the robot cell and the positions of the dened robottargets. All participants were also able to dene robot targets much faster with the proposedinterface than when using the standard RobotStudio tools. Results show that the performance ofthe tracking system is adequate with regards to latency and accuracy for updating user positionand hand-held tool when using a video capture resolution of 640x480.

  • 33.
    Karlsson, Ahlexander
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Skoglund, Robert
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Video-rate environment recognition through depth image plane segmentation for indoor service robot applications on an embedded system2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As personal service robots are expected to gain widespread use in the near future there is a need for these robots to function properly in a large number of different environments. In order to acquire such an understanding this thesis focuses on implementing a depth image based planar segmentation method based on the detection of 3-D edges in video-rate speed on an embedded system. The use of plane segmentation as a mean of understanding an unknown environment was chosen after a thorough literature review that indicated that this was the most promising approach capable of reaching video-rate speeds. The camera used to capture depth images is a Kinect for Xbox One, which makes video-rate speed 30 fps, as it is suitable for use in indoor environments and the embedded system is a Jetson TX1 which is capable of running GPU-accelerated algorithms. The results show that the implemented method is capable of segmenting depth images at video-rate speed at half the original resolution. However, full-scale depth images are only segmented at 10-12 fps depending on the environment which is not a satisfactory result.

  • 34.
    Khalid, Omar
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Caliskan, Duygu
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ore, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Hanson, Lars
    Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Simulation and evaluation of industrial applications of Human-Industrial Robot Collaboration cases2015Ingår i: Nordic Ergonomics Society 47th Annual Conference NES 2015, 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Presented in this paper are two cases from a heavy vehicle manufacturer which demonstrate the potential width of Human-Industrial Robot Collaboration workstations. Case I simulates in machining environments, the assisted inspection of inline engine blocks and Case II simulates in logistics environments, the assisted material preparation for assembly line orders. The analysis and simulations were carried out with a software tool that combined digital human modelling, robotic simulation, path planning and use of technical computing tools. Results demonstrate the improvement of process ergonomics and cycle time.

  • 35.
    Kiselev, Andrey
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Scherlund, Mårten
    Giraff Technologies AB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Kristoffersson, Annica
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Efremova, Natalia
    Plekhanom University, Moscow, Russia.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för naturvetenskap och teknik.
    Auditory immersion with stereo sound in a mobile robotic telepresence system2015Ingår i: 10th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, 2015, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory immersion plays a significant role in generating a good feeling of presence for users driving a telepresence robot. In this paper, one of the key characteristics of auditory immersion - sound source localization (SSL) - is studied from the perspective of those who operate telepresence robots from remote locations. A prototype which is capable of delivering soundscape to the user through Interaural Time Difference (ITD) and Interaural Level Difference (ILD) using the ORTF stereo recording technique was developed. The prototype was evaluated in an experiment and the results suggest that the developed method is sufficient for sound source localization tasks.

  • 36.
    Kovala, Weronica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Autonomous Vehicle with Obstacle Identification and Detection2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    For att gora det mojligt for sjukhuspersonal att spendera mer tid med sina patienter sa har dethar examensarbetet fokuserat pa hur en autonom robot skulle kunna utfora en del av deras arbete.Roboten ar byggd for att navigera i en sjukhusmiljo samtidigt som den drar en sjukhussang ochundviker hinder samt manniskor. En navigationsalgoritm har implementerats tillsammans meden manniskodetektering. Prototypen klarar av att navigera i testmiljon, ett kontorslandskap, i enriktning som anvandaren har bestamt samtidigt som den undviker hinder. Under arbetet sa harmalet varit en lag slutkostnad, eftersom en lag kostnad skulle gora det mojligt att implementerasystemet pa ett riktigt sjukhus. Losningen det har arbetet presenterar ar ett multi-sensorsystem somklarar av att navigera genom en okand miljo utan att krocka med nagra hinder samtidigt som denbehaller sin riktning. Analoga avstandssensorer, motorenkodrar for positionering av motorer samten kamera for manniskodetektering har implementerats. Prototypen innehaller ett forsta forsok tillen mjukvara for manniskodetektering, vilken inte slutfordes under projekttiden. Resultaten visar attbara anvanda navigationen och hanteringen av sensordata till denna fungerar i dagslaget. Men allmjukvara kan i dagslaget inte koras pa det inbyggda systemet eftersom det blir for langsamt.

  • 37.
    Lafih, Amil
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Actuator control using pre-calibrated force data on a quadrocopter2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom flygande robotar, är stabilitet kontrollen oerhört känsligt till styrdonets prestation, och mjukvaru modulen som utför kontrollen, är ofta förknippad med en lång och problematisk justerings fas starkt beroende av de enskilda styrdonen. Styrdonen är ofta elektriska motorer med propeller. Motor och propeller kombinationen uppträder olika för varje val av komponent, även om komponenterna är försedda från samma återförsäljare och modell. Syftet med detta projekt är att utveckla en intelligent styrdons modul för flygande robotar, omfattad av en BLDC motor och propeller, som blir oberoende av den särskilda motor och propeller kombination som används. Genom att samla kraft data för de fyra styrdonen som används på en quadrocopter, kunde relationen mellan kraft och kontroll signal bli definierad och lagrad i program minnet för kontrol kortet. En batteri monitor och en Kraft-PWM kontroller implementerades, vilket tar kraft data som ingång och skickar ut motsvarande PWM-signal som utgång. Tester var gjorda med en prototyp av Iqarus quadrocopter och genom att binda fast den med rep till golvet, testades den för upplyfts fasen. Experimenten visade teoretiska och praktiska resultat, vilket visar att quadrocoptern bevarade förmågan att lyfta rakt uppåt utan någon övrig kontroll, förutsatt ordentlig vikt balans av quadrocoptern.

  • 38.
    Lindgren, Billy
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Kuosmanen, Giancarlo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    An Autonomous Robot for Collecting Waste Bins in an Office Environment2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work is to introduce autonomous robots for collecting waste bins in an officeenvironment. Since the environment will contain humans, therefore, the robot-human interactionis essential so that neither the robot nor humans come in harm’s way. To prevent this, the robotneeds to be able to communicate with the humans, and it has to operate in a safe way in the officeenvironment. To facilitate this there is a need to investigate the state-of-the-art in various fieldssuch as: mapping, path planning and, machine-human interaction. The result is a robot that isable to map an indoor environment and use the map to its advantages for producing a suitable pathfrom any given position to any desired location. While traversing the path, sensor data is gatheredfor obstacle detection and avoidance in order to handle dynamic environments.

  • 39.
    Marcus, Ventovaara
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Arman, Hasanbegović
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    A Method for Optimised Allocation of System Architectures with Real-time Constraints2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimised allocation of system architectures is a well researched area as it can greatly reduce the developmental cost of systems and increase performance and reliability in their respective applications.In conjunction with the recent shift from federated to integrated architectures in automotive, and the increasing complexity of computer systems, both in terms of software and hardware, the applications of design space exploration and optimised allocation of system architectures are of great interest.This thesis proposes a method to derive architectures and their allocations for systems with real-time constraints.The method implements integer linear programming to solve for an optimised allocation of system architectures according to a set of linear constraints while taking resource requirements, communication dependencies, and manual design choices into account.Additionally, this thesis describes and evaluates an industrial use case using the method wherein the timing characteristics of a system were evaluated, and, the method applied to simultaneously derive a system architecture, and, an optimised allocation of the system architecture.This thesis presents evidence and validations that suggest the viability of the method and its use case in an industrial setting.The work in this thesis sets precedence for future research and development, as well as future applications of the method in both industry and academia.

  • 40.
    Marielle, Gallardo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Sweta, Chakraborty
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    DECISION-MAKING FOR AUTONOMOUS CONSTRUCTION VEHICLES2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous driving requires tactical decision-making while navigating in a dynamic shared space environment. The complexity and uncertainty in this process arise due to unknown and tightly-coupled interaction among traffic users. This thesis work formulates an unknown navigation problem as a Markov decision process (MDP), supported by models of traffic participants and userspace. Instead of modeling a traditional MDP, this work formulates a Multi-policy decision making (MPDM) in a shared space scenario with pedestrians and vehicles. The employed model enables a unified and robust self-driving of the ego vehicle by selecting a desired policy along the pre-planned path. Obstacle avoidance is coupled within the navigation module performing a detour off the planned path and obtaining a reward on task completion and penalizing for collision with others. In addition to this, the thesis work is further extended by analyzing the real-time constraints of the proposed model. The performance of the implemented framework is evaluated in a simulation environment on a typical construction (quarry) scenario. The effectiveness and efficiency of the elected policy verify the desired behavior of the autonomous vehicle.

  • 41.
    Martinsson, Jonas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Examine vision technology for small object recognition in an industrial robotics application2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explains the development of a computer vision system able to find and orient relatively small objects. The motivations is exchanging a monotonous work done by hand and replace it with an automation system with help of an ABB IRB 140 industrial robot. The vision system runs on a standard PC and is developed using the OpenCV environment, originally made by Intel in Russia. The algorithms of the system is written in C++ and the user interface in C++/CLI. With a derived test case, multiple vision algorithms is tested and evaluated for this kind of application. The result shows that SIFT/SURF works poorly with multiple instances of the search object and HAAR classifiers produces many false positives. Template matching with image moment calculation gave a satisfying result regarding multiple object in the scene and produces no false positives. Drawbacks of the selected algorithm developed where sensibility to light invariance and lack of performance in a skewed scene. The report also contains suggestions on how to precede with further improvements or research.

  • 42.
    Norlin, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Songmahadthai, David
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    MULTI-DRONE CONTROL SYSTEM2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Planning and controlling traffic for multiple drones in a system without intercommunication betweenthe drones is a daunting proposition. This paper presents a thesis work developing a multi-dronecontrol system capable of planning and executing missions in a 3-D aerial space. Generic 2-D pathplanning algorithms are extended into the 3-D space to handle multiple parts of the path planning,creating highways through a gridded area which is used as obstacles for other drones.Three path planning algorithm are compared with other each other wavefront, Astar and po-tential fields, scheduling is also documented to find the optimal drone amount that the system canhandle given an area of interest, this is done to see how often and for how long drones stand idle.Simulations and equations have been implemented to verify and compare results.

  • 43.
    Nyxén, Primus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Borgersen, Gustav
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Using an evolutionary algorithm to search for control algorithm parameters with a quadrocopter as hardware in the loop2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the process of finding control loop parameters for a quadrocopter using machine learning techniques and a hardware in the loop evaluation method. A quadrocopter is an Unattended Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with four rotors that can be controlled individually to steer the vehicle. The purpose of the control loop is to keep the roll, pitch and yaw-angles of the quadrocopter to a predefined value by regulating the thrust of each rotor. A quadrocopter is designed and manufactured and a control algorithm is implemented on the built in controller board. An Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) is implemented on a Personal Computer (PC) and an automated search for control parameters using hardware in the loop with the quadrocopter as evaluation model is performed. The results show that a quadrocopter can be used together with hardware in the loop to improve the control algorithm parameters.

  • 44.
    Olsson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Automationsfabriken2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Möjligheternas värld är en utställning som ska presenteras på olika mässor. Hjärtat i utställningen är automationsfabriken som är en automatiserad anläggning som ska tillverka leksaksbilar. Automationsfabriken ska invigas på mässan Scanautomatic och ProcessTeknikden 9-11 oktober 2012. Då möjligheternas värld är ett samarbete mellan näringsliv och skola bidrar företag och skolor med hjälp och samarbetar för att projektet ska bli lyckat. Prevas del i projektet är att ta fram ett styrsystem i form av ett MES och SCADA system till fabriken samtatt göra hemsidan där bilar kan beställas och integrera den med styrsystemet.

    Målet med examensarbetet är att utveckla styrsystemet och ta fram ett HMI genom att använda programvaror från Wonderware. Slutprodukten är i form av kod och objekt, och den funktionalitet de skapar tillsammans. Styrsystemet ska kunna kopplas upp mot fabriken och styra produktionen, förutsatt att övriga delar i projektet levererar det de ska.

    Arbetet började med att studera fabriken och etablera ett gränssnitt mellan styrsystemet ochPLCn som styr produktionsutrustningen, samt att ta fram ett grundläggande HMI. Sedan har ett simuleringsläge tagits fram med utgångspunk från gränssnittet för att simulera produktionsmiljön. Utifrån den här simuleringsmiljön och ett HMI har sedan funktioner tagits fram en i taget och testats, för att tillsammans senare utgöra den helhet som är styrsystemet. Här finns funktioner som beslutsprocesser för skapandet av nya produktions- och leveransordrar, hämtning av kundordrar, styrning av pick´n place enheten, informationshantering av innehållet i bufferten, samt registrering av alla ordrar och operationer i ett manufacturing execution system (MES).

    Styrsystemet har slutsligen kopplats samman med databasen där nya kundordrar registreras och genom att använda simuleringsmiljön och det HMI som utvecklats för fabriken har styrsystemet testats med goda resultat där styrsystemet klarar av att hantera hela produktionen från orderingång till leverans.

  • 45.
    Olsson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Extended target tracking using Gaussian processes on stick-pixel defined objects2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, I present the performance of a extended target tracking algorithm that utilizes Gaussianprocesses. The extended target tracking algorithm is evaluated on objects corresponding to roadusers, with automotive use in mind. The measurements that denes the object to be tracked arederived from stereo image sensor disparity and is called Stick-pixels or Stixels. The process ofgenerating these measurements are also presented in this work.It consists of two separate methods,one relying on stereo image frames and one purely dened by object characteristics and pose. Theextended target tracking algorithm has been tested on three types of simulated road users, car, cyclistand pedestrian. To evaluate the performance of the target tracking algorithm three measures areused, error in position, orientation discrepancy over time and intersection over union.

  • 46.
    Palm, William
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Fischer, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    PATH CONTROL OF AN AUTOMATED HAULER2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 300 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The vision of self driving cars has existed for a long time and the field of autonomous vehicles has been of great interest to researchers and companies. Volvo construction equipment presented their Electrical Site project in September 2016, with predictions of reducing carbon emission up to 95% and total cost of ownership by 25%. In the project, multiple autonomous haulers are intended to work in a fleet, loading, unloading and charging in a cyclic behavior. This masterthesis focus on the lateral control system of the automated hauler platform HX. The platform is modeled in an comprehensive simulation environment and three different control algorithms have been implemented and tested; An adaptive Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) controller, Stanley and the Proportional Integral + Proportional controller. The PID controller is tuned using the Nyquist stability criterion and the other two algorithms are tuned using a Genetic Algorithm. Results indicate that, to reach the optimal performance of the tested algorithms, manual tuning from experimental testing is required.

  • 47.
    Persson, Anders
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Platform development of body area network for gait symmetry analysis using IMU and UWB technology2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Having a device with the capability of measure motions from gait produced by a human being, could be of most importance in medicine and sports. Physicians or researchers could measure and analyse key features of a person's gait for the purpose of rehabilitation or science, regarding neurological disabilities. Also in sports, professionals and hobbyists could use such a device for improving their technique or prevent injuries when performing. In this master thesis, I present the research of what technology is capable of today, regarding gait analysis devices. The research that was done has then help the development of a suggested standalone hardware sensor node for a Body Area Network, that can support research in gait analysis. Furthermore, several algorithms like for instance UWB Real-Time Location and Dead Reckoning IMU/AHRS algorithms, have been implemented and tested for the purpose of measuring motions and be able to run on the sensor node device. The work in this thesis shows that a IMU sensor have great potentials for generating high rate motion data while performing on a small mobile device. The UWB technology on the other hand, indicates a disappointment in performance regarding the intended application but can still be useful for wireless communication between sensor nodes. The report also points out the importance of using a high performance micro controller for achieving high accuracy in measurements.

  • 48.
    Persson, Niklas
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Andersson, Tom
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    DEVELOPMENT OF A ROBUST CASCADE CONTROLLER FOR A RIDERLESS BICYCLE2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A controlled riderless bicycle is desired for the purpose of testing autonomous vehicles ability to detect and recognise cyclists. The bicycle, which is a highly unstable system with complex dynamics have been subject to research for over a century, and in the last decades, controllers have been developed for autonomous bicycles. The controllers are often only evaluated in simulation, but some complex controllers have been developed on real-life bicycles as well. The goal of this work is to validate sensors and subsystems of an instrumented bicycle and to develop a robust controller which can balance a bicycle by using actuation on the steering axis alone. Using an iterative design process, the sensor measuring the lean angle and the steering system are improved and validated. By sensing the lean angle, the handlebar is manipulated to make the bicycle stable. For this purpose, a P, PD, two different PID, an LQR and a fuzzy controller are developed, evaluated and compared. The results show that the bicycle can ride without human interaction on a bicycle roller in different velocities. Additionally, numerous experiments are conducted in an outdoor environment in several different terrains, where the proposed control structure manages to balance and steer the bicycle.

  • 49.
    Pettersson-Gull, Pontus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    Johansson, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system.
    INTELLIGENT ROBOTIC GRIPPER WITH AN ADAPTIVE GRASP TECHNIQUE2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a robotic gripper with an intelligent sensor system to grasp objects with an adaptive grasp technique. Two techniques are used, one for small objects and one for large objects. The sensor system is able to detect the object and measure its size to adapt the grasp. Optical motion sensors are used to see when the object is slipping between the fingers which means that more force needs to be applied. This makes it possible to grasp rigid and soft objects without damaging them. The functionality of the gripper was tested on eight objects with various characteristics. The results show that it can adapt the grasp technique and grasping force to the objects’ size and softness. It also shows that adding one more grasp technique made it possible to grasp more objects, compared to a different gripper with a single grasp technique which were used as a foundation for this thesis.

  • 50.
    Reddy Vemula, Bhanoday
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Ramteen, Marcus
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Inbyggda system. ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Fagerström, Björn
    ABB, Västerås, Sweden.
    Human-robot impact model: For safety assessment of collaborative robot design2017Ingår i: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE 5th International Symposium on Robotics and Intelligent Sensors, IRIS 2017, 2017, s. 236-243Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research, a novel impact simulation model based on compliant contact force (CCF) modelling approach is presented. This model can simulate the physical impact between non-homogeneous and layered elastic bodies representing the robot and human body parts. The proposed CCF model is intended to be used by the robot designers to execute safety evaluation tasks during the design and development of collaborative robot systems. The main theoretical contribution from this CCF impact model is related to the formulations, which can account for the contact behavior due to the non-homogeneous nature of the impacting bodies. The relevance of the proposed impact simulation is evaluated based on a comparative analysis with other available relevant models from the literature as well as with Finite element based simulation model. Finally, the influence of various robot design parameters on the impact severity is analyzed for different impact scenarios by adopting the proposed CCF model.

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