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  • 1.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, p. 77-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015In: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, p. 41-47Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, p. 194-207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016In: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping study2017In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 49-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, p. 16-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Proposing Combined Approaches to Remove ECG Artifacts from Surface EMG Signals2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromyography (EMG) is a tool routinely used for a variety of applications in a very large breadth of disciplines. However, this signal is inevitably contaminated by various artifacts originated from different sources. Electrical activity of heart muscles, electrocardiogram (ECG), is one of sources which affects the EMG signals due to the proximity of the collection sites to the heart and makes its analysis non-reliable. Different methods have been proposed to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals; however, in spite of numerous attempts to eliminate or reduce this artifact, the problem of accurate and effective de-noising of EMG still remains a challenge. In this study common methods such as high pass filter (HPF), gating method, spike clipping, hybrid technique, template subtraction, independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet transform, wavelet-ICA, artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive noise canceller (ANC) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are used to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals and their accuracy and effectiveness is investigated. HPF, gating method and spike clipping are fast; however they remove useful information from EMG signals. Hybrid technique and ANC are time consuming. Template subtraction requires predetermined QRS pattern. Using wavelet transform some artifacts remain in the original signal and part of the desired signal is removed. ICA requires multi-channel signals. Wavelet-ICA approach does not require multi-channel signals; however, it is user-dependent. ANN and ANFIS have good performance, but it is possible to improve their results by combining them with other techniques. For some applications of EMG signals such as rehabilitation, motion control and motion prediction, the quality of EMG signals is very important. Furthermore, the artifact removal methods need to be online and automatic. Hence, efficient methods such as ANN-wavelet, adaptive subtraction and automated wavelet-ICA are proposed to effectively eliminate ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals. To compare the results of the investigated methods and the proposed methods in this study, clean EMG signals from biceps and deltoid muscles and ECG artifacts from pectoralis major muscle are recorded from five healthy subjects to create 10 channels of contaminated EMG signals by adding the recorded ECG artifacts to the clean EMG signals. The artifact removal methods are also applied to the 10 channels of real contaminated EMG signals from pectoralis major muscle of the left side. Evaluation criteria such as signal to noise ratio, relative error, correlation coefficient, elapsed time and power spectrum density are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANN-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with a signal to noise ratio, relative error and correlation coefficient of 15.53, 0.01 and 0.98 respectively.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Amirkabir University of technology,Tehran, Iran.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of technology,Tehran, Iran.
    Removing ECG Artifact from the Surface EMG Signal Using Adaptive Subtraction Technique2014In: Biomedical Physics and Engineering, ISSN 2251-7200, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 33-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The electrocardiogram artifact is a major contamination in the electromyogram signals when electromyogram signal is recorded from upper trunk muscles and because of that the contaminated electromyogram is not useful. Objective: Removing electrocardiogram contamination from electromyogram signals. Methods: In this paper, the clean electromyogram signal, electrocardiogram artifact and electrocardiogram signal were recorded from leg muscles, the pectoralis major muscle of the left side and V4, respectively. After the pre-processing, contaminated electromyogram signal is simulated with a combination of clean electromyogram and electrocardiogram artifact. Then, contaminated electromyogram is cleaned using adaptive subtraction method. This method contains some steps; (1) QRS detection, (2) formation of electrocardiogram template by averaging the electrocardiogram complexes, (3) using low pass filter to remove undesirable artifacts, (4) subtraction. Results: Performance of our method is evaluated using qualitative criteria, power spectrum density and coherence and quantitative criteria signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation. The result of signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation is equal to 10.493, 0.04 and %97 respectively. Finally, there is a comparison between proposed method and some existing methods. Conclusion: The result indicates that adaptive subtraction method is somewhat effective to remove electrocardiogram artifact from contaminated electromyogram signal and has an acceptable result.

  • 10.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    A Novel Approach for Removing ECG Interferences from Surface EMG signals Using a Combined ANFIS and Wavelet2015In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 26, p. 52-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the removal of electrocardiogram (ECG) interferences from electromyogram (EMG) signals has been given large consideration. Where the quality of EMG signal is of interest, it is important to remove ECG interferences from EMG signals. In this paper, an efficient method based on a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and wavelet transform is proposed to effectively eliminate ECG interferences from surface EMG signals. The proposed approach is compared with other common methods such as high-pass filter, artificial neural network, adaptive noise canceller, wavelet transform, subtraction method and ANFIS. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANFIS-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with the signal to noise ratio and relative error of 14.97 dB and 0.02 respectively and a significantly higher correlation coefficient (p < 0.05).

  • 11.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, H.
    School of Engineering, Auckland University of TechnologyAuckland, New Zealand .
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluation of wavelet based methods in removing motion artifact from ECG signal2015In: IFMBE Proceedings, 2015, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate recording and precise analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are crucial in the pathophysiological study and clinical treatment. These recordings are often corrupted by different artifacts. The aim of this study is to propose two different methods, wavelet transform based on nonlinear thresholding and a combination method using wavelet and independent component analysis (ICA), to remove motion artifact from ECG signals. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, the developed techniques are applied to the real and simulated ECG data. The results of this evaluation are presented using quantitative and qualitative criteria. The results show that the proposed methods are able to reduce motion artifacts in ECG signals. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the wavelet technique is equal to 13.85. The wavelet-ICA method performed better with SNR of 14.23.

  • 12.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    ECG Artifact Removal from Surface EMG Signal Using an Automated Method Based on Wavelet-ICA2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211, 2015, p. 91-97Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at proposing an efficient method for automated electrocardiography (ECG) artifact removal from surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from upper trunk muscles. Wavelet transform is applied to the simulated data set of corrupted surface EMG signals to create multidimensional signal. Afterward, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate ECG artifact components from the original EMG signal. Components that correspond to the ECG artifact are then identified by an automated detection algorithm and are subsequently removed using a conventional high pass filter. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with wavelet transform, ICA, adaptive filter and empirical mode decomposition-ICA methods. The automated artifact removal method proposed in this study successfully removes the ECG artifacts from EMG signals with a signal to noise ratio value of 9.38 while keeping the distortion of original EMG to a minimum.

  • 13. Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, Waleed A.
    Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Video2008In: Proceedings of The Annual SIGRAD Conference, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Using Empirical Distributions to Characterize Web Client Traffic and to Generate Synthetic Traffic2000In: Conference Record / IEEE Global Telecommunications ConferenceVolume 1, 2000, 2000, p. 428-433Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model a web client using empirical probability distributions for user clicks and transferred data sizes. By using a heuristic threshold value to distinguish user clicks in a packet trace we get a simple method for analyzing large packet traces in order to get information about user OFF times and amount of data transferred due to a user click. We derive the empirical probability distributions from the analysis of the packet trace. The heuristic is not perfect, but we believe it is good enough to produce a useful web client model. We use the empirical model to implement a web client traffic generator. The characteristics of the generated traffic is very close to the original packet trace, including self-similar properties.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2008Other (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hagsand, Olof
    Dynarc AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Marsh, Ian
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    TCP over High Speed Variable Capacity Links: A Simulation Study for Bandwidth Allocation2002In: Protocols for High Speed Networks Workshop, 2002, p. 117-129Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Achuthan, K.
    et al.
    Amrita Center for Cybersecurity Systems and Networks, Kerala, India.
    Ramesh, M. V.
    Amrita Center for International Programs, Kerala, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Raman, R.
    Center for Research in Advanced Technologies for Education, Kerala, India.
    Internationalizing engineering education with phased study programs: India-European experience2015In: Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, no FebruaryConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union's Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N=121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

  • 18.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Di Rocco, Juri
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Iovino, Ludovico
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Semantic-based Model Matching with EMFCompare2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings (CEUR-WS.org), Saint Malo, France: CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1706, p. 40-49Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Langer, Philip
    EclipsSource, Austria.
    Posse, Ernesto
    Zeligsoft, Canada.
    Towards Seamless Hybrid Graphical-Textual Modelling for UML and Profiles2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer, 2017, p. 20-33Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling languages, in particular those described in terms of UML profiles, use graphical notations to maximise human understanding and facilitate communication among stakeholders. Nevertheless, textual notations are preferred for specific purposes, due to the nature of a specific domain, or for personal preference. The mutually exclusive use of graphical or textual modelling is not sufficient for the development of complex systems developed by large heterogeneous teams. We envision a modern modelling framework supporting seamless hybrid graphical and textual modelling. Such a framework would provide several benefits, among which: flexible separation of concerns, multi-view modelling based on multiple notations, convenient text-based editing operations, and text-based model editing outside the modelling environment, and faster modelling activities. In this paper we describe our work towards such a framework for UML and profiles. The uniqueness is that both graphical and textual modelling are done on a common persistent model resource, thus dramatically reducing the need for synchronisation among the two notations.

  • 20.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing for Real-Time Multiprocessors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are widely used in the industry and are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory might be limited in the system. Hence, techniques that can enable an efficient usage of processor bandwidths in such systems are of great importance. Locked-based resource sharing protocols are proposed as a solution to overcome resource limitation by allowing the available resources in the system to be safely shared. In recent years, due to a dramatic enhancement in the functionality of systems, a shift from single-core processors to multi-core processors has become inevitable from an industrial perspective to tackle the raised challenges due to increased system complexity. However, the resource sharing protocols are not fully mature for multi-core processors. The two classical multi-core processor resource sharing protocols, spin-based and suspension-based protocols, although providing mutually exclusive access to resources, can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this thesis we enhance the performance of resource sharing protocols for partitioned scheduling, which is the de-facto scheduling standard for industrial real-time multi-core processor systems such as in AUTOSAR, in terms of timing and memory requirements.

     

    A new scheduling approach uses a resource efficient hybrid approach combining both partitioned and global scheduling where the partitioned scheduling is used to schedule the major number of tasks in the system. In such a scheduling approach applications with critical task sets use partitioned scheduling to achieve higher level of predictability. Then the unused bandwidth on each core that is remained from partitioning is used to schedule less critical task sets using global scheduling to achieve higher system utilization. These scheduling schema however lacks a proper resource sharing protocol since the existing protocols designed for partitioned and global scheduling cannot be directly applied due to the complex hybrid structure of these scheduling frameworks. In this thesis we propose a resource sharing solution for such a complex structure. Further, we provide the blocking bounds incurred to tasks under the proposed protocols and enhance the schedulability analysis, which is an essential requirement for real-time systems, with the provided blocking bounds.

  • 21.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. 0000-0002-1351-9245.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework for multiprocessors2015In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For resource-constrained embedded real-time systems, resource-efficient approaches are very important. Such an approach is presented in this paper, targeting systems where a critical application is partitioned on a multi-core platform and the remaining capacity on each core is provided to a noncritical application using resource reservation techniques. To exploit the potential parallelism of the non-critical application, global scheduling is used for its constituent tasks. Previously, we enabled intra-application resource sharing for such a framework, i.e. each application has its own dedicated set of resources. In this paper, we enable inter-application resource sharing, in particular between the critical application and the non-critical application. This effectively enables resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework on multiprocessors. For resource sharing, we use a spin-based synchronization protocol. We derive blocking bounds and extend existing schedulability analysis for such a system.

  • 22.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Semi-partitioning under a Blocking-Aware Task Allocation2016In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling is a resource efficient scheduling approach compared to the conventional multiprocessor scheduling approaches in terms of system utilization and migration overhead. Semi-partitioned scheduling can better utilize processor bandwidth compared to the partitioned scheduling while introducing less overhead compared to the global scheduling. Various techniques have been proposed to schedule tasks in a semi-partitioned environment, however, they have used blockingagnostic allocation mechanisms in presence of resource sharing protocols. Since, the allocation mechanism can highly affect the system schedulability, in this paper we provide a blocking-aware allocation mechanism for semi-partitioned scheduling framework under a suspension-based resource sharing protocol. We have applied new heuristics for sorting the tasks in the algorithm that shows improvements upon system schedulability. Finally, we present our preliminary results.

  • 23.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Intra-component Resource Sharing on a Virtual Multiprocessor Platform2016In: ACM SIGBED Review: Special Issue on 8th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems, 2016, p. 31-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software development facilitates the development process of large and complex software systems. By the advent of multiprocessors, the independently developed components can be integrated on a multi-core platform to achieve an efficient use of system hardware and a decrease in system power consumption and costs. In this paper, we consider a virtual multiprocessor platform where each component can be dynamically allocated to any set of processors of the platform with a maximum concurrency level. Global-EDF is used for intra-component scheduling. The existing analysis for such systems have assumed that tasks are independent. In this paper, we enable intra-component resource sharing for this platform. We investigate using a spin-based resource sharing protocol with the accompanying analysis that extends the existing analysis for independent tasks. We briefly illustrate and evaluate our initial results with an example.

  • 24.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. 0000-0001-6132-7945.
    Resource Sharing among Prioritized Real-Time Applications on Multiprocessors2015In: ACM SIGBED Review - Special Issue on the 6th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems Homepage archiveVolume 12 Issue 1, 2015, p. 46-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new protocol for handling resource sharing among prioritized real-time applications composed on a multiprocessor platform. We propose an optimal priority assignment algorithm which assigns unique priorities to the applications based on information in their interfaces. We have performed experimental evaluations to compare the proposed protocol (called MSOS-Priority) to the current state of the art locking protocols under multiprocessor partitioned scheduling, i.e., MPCP, MSRP, FMLP, MSOS, and OMLP. The valuations show that MSOS-Priority mostly performs significantly better than alternative approaches.

  • 25.
    Afshar, Sara Zargari
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    J. Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An optimal spin-lock priority assignment algorithm for real-time multi-core systems2017In: The 23th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications RTCSA'17, 2017, article id 8046310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Support for exclusive access to shared (global) resources is instrumental in the context of embedded real-time multi-core systems, and mechanisms for achieving such access must be deterministic and efficient. There exist two traditional approaches for multiprocessors when a task requests a global resource that is locked by a task on a remote core: a spin-based approach, i.e. non-preemptive busy waiting for the resource to become available, and a suspension-based approach, i.e. the task relinquishes the processor. A suspension-based approach can be viewed as a spin-based approach where the lowest priority on a core is used during spinning, similar to a non-preemptive spin-based approach where the highest priority on a core is used. By taking such a view, we previously provided a general model for spinning, where any arbitrary priority can be used for spinning, i.e. from the lowest to the highest priority on a core. Targeting partitioned fixed-priority preemptive scheduled multiprocessors and spin-based approaches that use a fixed priority for spinning per core for all tasks, we aim at increasing the schedulability of multiprocessor systems by using the spin-lock priority per core as parameter. In this paper, we present (i) a generalization of the traditional worst-case response-time analysis for non-preemptive spin-based approaches addressing an arbitrary but fixed spin-lock priority per core, (ii) an optimal spin-lock priority assignment (OSPA) algorithm per core, i.e. an algorithm that will find a fixed spin-lock priority per core that will make the system schedulable, whenever such an assignment exists and, (iii) comparative evaluations of the OSPA algorithm with the spin-based and suspension-based approaches where OSPA showed up to 38% improvement compared to both approaches.

  • 26.
    Afsharmazayejani, R.
    et al.
    Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
    Yazdanpanah, F.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Rezaei, A.
    Northwestern University, Evanston, United States.
    Alaei, M.
    Vali-e-Asr University, Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Daneshtalab, Masoud
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    HoneyWiN: Novel honeycomb-based wireless NoC architecture in many-core era2018In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349, Vol. 10824 LNCS, p. 304-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although NoC-based systems with many cores are commercially available, their multi-hop nature has become a bottleneck on scaling performance and energy consumption parameters. Alternatively, hybrid wireless NoC provides a postern by exploiting single-hop express links for long-distance communications. Also, there is a common wisdom that grid-like mesh is the most stable topology in conventional designs. That is why almost all of the emerging architectures had been relying on this topology as well. In this paper, first we challenge the efficiency of the grid-like mesh in emerging systems. Then, we propose HoneyWiN, a hybrid reconfigurable wireless NoC architecture that relies on the honeycomb topology. The simulation results show that on average HoneyWiN saves 17% of energy consumption while increases the network throughput by 10% compared to its wireless mesh counterpart. 

  • 27.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Alone, Snehal
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Glocksien, Kerstin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Torkar, Richard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Software Test Process Improvement Approaches: A Systematic Literature Review and an Industrial Case Study2016In: Journal of Systems and Software JSS, ISSN 0164-1212, Vol. 111, p. 1-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software test process improvement (STPI) approaches are frameworks that guide software development organizations to improve their software testing process. We have identified existing STPI approaches and their characteristics (such as completeness of development, availability of information and assessment instruments, and domain limitations of the approaches) using a systematic literature review (SLR). Furthermore, two selected approaches (TPI NEXT and TMMi) are evaluated with respect to their content and assessment results in industry. As a result of this study, we have identified 18 STPI approaches and their characteristics. A detailed comparison of the content of TPI NEXT and TMMi is done. We found that many of the STPI approaches do not provide sufficient information or the approaches do not include assessment instruments. This makes it difficult to apply many approaches in industry. Greater similarities were found between TPI NEXT and TMMi and fewer differences. We conclude that numerous STPI approaches are available but not all are generally applicable for industry. One major difference between available approaches is their model representation. Even though the applied approaches generally show strong similarities, differences in the assessment results arise due to their different model representations.

  • 28.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bruneliere, Hugo
    AtlanMod Team, Inria, France.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Sadovykh, Andrey
    Softeam, France.
    Mazzini, Silvia
    Intecs, Italy.
    Cariou, Eric
    Univ. de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour, Pau, France.
    Truscan, Dragos
    Åbo Akademi Univ., Turku, Finland.
    Cabot, Jordi
    Jordi Cabot ICREA, Barcelona, Spain.
    Field, Daniel
    ATOS, Madrid, Spain.
    Pomante, Luigi
    Univ. of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy.
    Smrz, Pavel
    Brno Univ. of Technol., Brno, Czech Republic.
    The MegaM@Rt2 ECSEL Project: MegaModelling at Runtime — Scalable Model-Based Framework for Continuous Development and Runtime Validation of Complex Systems2017In: The 2017 Euromicro Conference on Digital System Design DSD'17, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major challenge for the European electronic industry is to enhance productivity while reducing costs and ensuring quality in development, integration and maintenance. Model-Driven Engineering (MDE) principles and techniques have already shown promising capabilities but still need to scale to support real-world scenarios implied by the full deployment and use of complex electronic components and systems. Moreover, maintaining efficient traceability, integration and communication between two fundamental system life-time phases (design time and runtime) is another challenge facing scalability of MDE. This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "MegaModelling at runtime -- Scalable model-based framework for continuous development and runtime validation of complex systems" (MegaM@Rt2), whose aim is to address the above mentioned challenges facing MDE. Driven by both large and small industrial enterprises, with the support of research partners and technology providers, MegaM@Rt2 aims to deliver a framework of tools and methods for: 1) system engineering/design & continuous development, 2) related runtime analysis and 3) global model & traceability management, respectively. The diverse industrial use cases (covering domains such as aeronautics, railway, construction and telecommunications) will integrate and apply such a framework that shall demonstrate the validation of the MegaM@Rt2 solution.

  • 29.
    Afzal, Wasif
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Bahria University, Islamabad, Pakistan .
    Torkar, Richard
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards benchmarking feature subset selection methods for software fault prediction2016In: Computational Intelligence and Quantitative Software Engineering / [ed] Witold Pedrycz, Giancarlo Succi and Alberto Sillitti, Springer-Verlag , 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the general acceptance that software engineering datasets often contain noisy, irrele- vant or redundant variables, very few benchmark studies of feature subset selection (FSS) methods on real-life data from software projects have been conducted. This paper provides an empirical comparison of state-of-the-art FSS methods: information gain attribute ranking (IG); Relief (RLF); principal com- ponent analysis (PCA); correlation-based feature selection (CFS); consistency-based subset evaluation (CNS); wrapper subset evaluation (WRP); and an evolutionary computation method, genetic program- ming (GP), on five fault prediction datasets from the PROMISE data repository. For all the datasets, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve—the AUC value averaged over 10-fold cross- validation runs—was calculated for each FSS method-dataset combination before and after FSS. Two diverse learning algorithms, C4.5 and na ??ve Bayes (NB) are used to test the attribute sets given by each FSS method. The results show that although there are no statistically significant differences between the AUC values for the different FSS methods for both C4.5 and NB, a smaller set of FSS methods (IG, RLF, GP) consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy. We conclude that in general, FSS is beneficial as it helps improve classification accuracy of NB and C4.5. There is no single best FSS method for all datasets but IG, RLF and GP consistently select fewer attributes without degrading classification accuracy within statistically significant boundaries.

  • 30.
    Aghaeinezhadfirouzja, S.
    et al.
    Department of Electronics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Liu, H.
    Department of Electronics Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
    Balador, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. RISE SICS Västerås, Sweden.
    Practical 3-D beam pattern based channel modeling for multi-polarized massive MIMO systems2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 1186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a practical non-stationary three-dimensional (3-D) channel models for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems, considering beam patterns for different antenna elements, is proposed. The beam patterns using dipole antenna elements with different phase excitation toward the different direction of travels (DoTs) contributes various correlation weights for rays related towards/from the cluster, thus providing different elevation angle of arrivals (EAoAs) and elevation angle of departures (EAoDs) for each antenna element. These include the movements of the user that makes our channel to be a non-stationary model of clusters at the receiver (RX) on both the time and array axes. In addition, their impacts on 3-D massive MIMO channels are investigated via statistical properties including received spatial correlation. Additionally, the impact of elevation/azimuth angles of arrival on received spatial correlation is discussed. Furthermore, experimental validation of the proposed 3-D channel models on azimuth and elevation angles of the polarized antenna are specifically evaluated and compared through simulations. The proposed 3-D generic models are verified using relevant measurement data.

  • 31.
    Aglianò, Simone
    et al.
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Ashjaei, Seyed Mohammad Hossein
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lo Bello, Lucia
    University of Catania, Catania, Italy.
    Resource Management and Control in Virtualized SDN Networks2018In: CSI International Symposium on Real-Time and Embedded Systems and Technologies REST'18, 2018, p. 47-53Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software defined networking and network virtual-ization are widely considered promising techniques for reducing the complexity of network management in many contexts that require high Quality of Service (QoS) and the support for heterogeneous architectures. In this paper we address a network architecture, here called a virtualized SDN network, that combines the benefits of SDN and virtualization. To cope with the demand for efficiently sharing a platform among several services, here a resource management mechanism to reserve and control network resources among various services in the virtualized SDN networks is proposed. The mechanism is implemented on an SDN controller and a set of experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  • 32.
    Ahlberg, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekstrand, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ekström, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Spampinato, Giacomo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Asplund, Lars
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    GIMME2 - An embedded system for stereo vision and processing of megapixel images with FPGA-acceleration2015In: 2015 International Conference on ReConFigurable Computing and FPGAs, ReConFig 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents GIMME2, an embedded stereovision system, designed to be compact, power efficient, cost effective, and high performing in the area of image processing. GIMME2 features two 10 megapixel image sensors and a Xilinx Zynq, which combines FPGA-fabric with a dual-core ARM CPU on a single chip. This enables GIMME2 to process video-rate megapixel image streams at real-time, exploiting the benefits of heterogeneous processing.

  • 33.
    Ahlén, Richard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Grönholm, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    En analys av ljudlatens i Windows 10 på tillgängliga enheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is written during a project done by two students at Mälardalen University during the course DVA331. The purpose of this project was to determine if it was possible to reduce the latency on devices with Windows 10 to what is possible on an iOS device. The reason behind this research is that Windows 10 has come with an API that supports low latency sounds. This study was made on an iPhone 4S, iPhone 6, Nokia Lumia 720 and a Nokia Lumia 920 with a contact microphone that was put on the device. The latency was measured 50 times per version of an application implemented for both operating systems. The latency could be measured between the point where the surface is touched and and the point where sound is audible, using the microphone and the audio processing software Audacity. The readings proved that iOS is still a lot faster than Windows 10 and that Windows 10 is way above the accepted audio processing limit. Further research showed that the Windows 10 reading results were caused by the Lumia devices long input latency. User tests were made on 10 individuals with the response that the latency on the Windows 10 devices was a lot longer than the iOS devices. The conclusion was that the Lumia devices used in this study were not suitable for responsive sound applications but that Windows 10 devices with lower input latency that are better suited and that new readings should be done to determine if this is the case.

  • 34.
    Ahmadzadeh, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundberg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Multivariate process parameter change identification by neural network2013In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 69, no 9-12, p. 2261-2268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whenever there is an out-of-control signal in process parameter control charts, maintenance engineers try to diagnose the cause near the time of the signal which does not always lead to prompt identification of the source(s) of the out-of-control condition, and this in some cases yields to extremely high monetary loses for the manufacturer owner. This paper applies multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (MEWMA) control charts and neural networks to make the signal identification more effective. The simulation of this procedure shows that this new control chart can be very effective in detecting the actual change point for all process dimension and all shift magnitudes considered. This methodology can be used in manufacturing and process industries to predict change points and expedite the search for failure causing parameters, resulting in improved quality at reduced overall cost. This research shows development of MEWMA by usage of neural network for identifying the step change-point and the variable responsible for the change in the process mean vector.

  • 35.
    Ahmed, B. S.
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Sahib, M. A.
    Software and Informatics Engineering Department, Engineering College, Salahaddin University - Erbil, Iraq.
    Gambardella, L. M.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi Sull'Intelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Manno-Lugano, Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zamli, K. Z.
    IBM Centre of Excellence, Faculty of Computer Systems and Software Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang Lebuhraya Tun Razak, Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia.
    Optimum design of PIλDμ controller for an automatic voltage regulator system using combinatorial test design2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e0166150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial test design is a plan of test that aims to reduce the amount of test cases systematically by choosing a subset of the test cases based on the combination of input variables. The subset covers all possible combinations of a given strength and hence tries to match the effectiveness of the exhaustive set. This mechanism of reduction has been used successfully in software testing research with t-way testing (where t indicates the interaction strength of combinations). Potentially, other systems may exhibit many similarities with this approach. Hence, it could form an emerging application in different areas of research due to its usefulness. To this end, more recently it has been applied in a few research areas successfully. In this paper, we explore the applicability of combinatorial test design technique for Fractional Order (FO), Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) parameter design controller, named as FOPID, for an automatic voltage regulator (AVR) system. Throughout the paper, we justify this new application theoretically and practically through simulations. In addition, we report on first experiments indicating its practical use in this field. We design different algorithms and adapted other strategies to cover all the combinations with an optimum and effective test set. Our findings indicate that combinatorial test design can find the combinations that lead to optimum design. Besides this, we also found that by increasing the strength of combination, we can approach to the optimum design in a way that with only 4-way combinatorial set, we can get the effectiveness of an exhaustive test set. This significantly reduced the number of tests needed and thus leads to an approach that optimizes design of parameters quickly. © 2016 Ahmed et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

  • 36.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Gambardella, Luca
    Istituto Dalle Molle di Studi sullIntelligenza Artificiale (IDSIA), Switzerland.
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia.
    Handling Constraints in Combinatorial Interaction Testing in the Presence of Multi Objective Particle Swarm and Multithreading2017In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 86, no 01, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combinatorial strategies have received a lot of attention lately as a result of their diverse applications in areas of research, particularly in software engineering. In its simple form, a combinatorial strategy can reduce several input parameters (configurations) of a system into a small set of these parameters based on their interaction (combination). However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially highly configurable systems. To implement this feature within a strategy, many difficulties arise for construction. While there are many combinatorial interaction testing strategies nowadays, few of them support constraints. This paper presents a new strategy, called Octopus to construct a combinatorial interaction test suites with the presence of constraints. The design and algorithms are provided in the paper in detail. The strategy is inspired by the behaviour of octopus to search for the optimal solution using multi-threading mechanism. To overcome the multi judgement criteria for an optimal solution, the multi-objective particle swarm optimisation is used. The strategy and its algorithms are evaluated extensively using different benchmarks and comparisons. The evaluation results showed the efficiency of each algorithm in the strategy. The benchmarking results also showed that Octopus can generate test suites efficiently as compared to state-of-the-art strategies.

  • 37.
    Ahmed, Bestoun
    et al.
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Zamli, Kamal
    University Malaysia Pahang, Gambang, Malaysia..
    Afzal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bures, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University, Czech Republic.
    Constrained Interaction Testing: A Systematic Literature Study2017In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. PP, no 99Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data is extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation & application and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this study also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains such as software product lines, fault detection & characterization, test selection, security and GUI testing. The study ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges and future work in the area.

  • 38.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    An Intelligent Healthcare Service to Monitor Vital Signs in Daily Life – A Case Study on Health-IoT2017In: International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications, ISSN 2248-9622, E-ISSN 2248-9622, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 43-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vital signs monitoring for elderly in daily life environment is a promising concept that efficiently can provide medical services to people at home. However, make the system self-served and functioning as personalized provision makes the challenge even larger. This paper presents a case study on a Health-IoT system where an intelligent healthcare service is developed to monitor vital signs in daily life. Here, a generic Health-IoT framework with a Clinical Decision Support System (CDSS) is presented. The generic framework is mainly focused on the supporting sensors, communication media, secure and safe data communication, cloud-based storage, and remote accesses of the data. The CDSS is used to provide a personalized report on persons’ health condition based on daily basis observation on vital signs. Six participants, from Spain (n=3) and Slovenia (n=3) have been using the proposed healthcare system for eight weeks (e.g. 300+ health measurements) in their home environments to monitor their health. The sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy of the DSS’s classification are achieved as 90%, 97% and 96% respectively while k=2 i.e., top 2 most similar retrieved cases are considered. The initial user evaluation result demonstrates the feasibility and performance of the implemented system through the proposed framework.

  • 39.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Banaee, Hadi
    Loutfi, Amy
    Rafael-Palou, Xavier
    Intelligent Healthcare Services to Support Health Monitoring of Elderly2014In: International Conference on IoT Technologies for HealthCare HealthyIoT, Rome, Italy, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposed an approach of intelligent healthcare services to support health monitoring of old people through the project named SAAPHO. Here, definition and architecture of the proposed healthcare services are presented considering six different health parameters such as: 1) physical activity, 2) blood pressure, 3) glucose, 4) medication compliance, 5) pulse monitoring and 6) weight monitoring. The outcome of the proposed services is evaluated in a case study where total 201 subjects from Spain and Slovenia are involved for user requirements analysis considering 1) end users, 2) clinicians, and 3) field study analysis perspectives. The result shows the potentiality and competence of the proposed healthcare services for the users.

  • 40.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Catalina, Carlos Alberto
    ITCL Polígono Industrial Villalonquéjar c/López Bravo, 70. 09001 BURGOS, Spain.
    Limonad, Lior
    Smart Wearable and IoT Solutions, IBM Research, Haifa, Israil.
    Hök, Bertil
    Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.
    Flumeri, Gianluca Di
    Cognitive States in Operative Environment, BrainSigns, Italy.
    Cloud-based Data Analytics on Human Factor Measurement to Improve Safer Transport2018In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, Volume 225, 2018, p. 101-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving safer transport includes individual and collective behavioural aspects and their interaction. A system that can monitor and evaluate the human cognitive and physical capacities based on human factor measurement is often beneficial to improve safety in driving condition. However, analysis and evaluation of human factor measurement i.e. Demographics, Behavioural and Physiological in real-time is challenging. This paper presents a methodology for cloud-based data analysis, categorization and metrics correlation in real-time through a H2020 project called SimuSafe. Initial implementation of this methodology shows a step-by-step approach which can handle huge amount of data with variation and verity in the cloud.

  • 41.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Three Phase Computer Assisted Biofeedback Training System Using Case-Based Reasoning2008In: Proc. 9th European Conference on Case-based Reasoning, 2008, p. 57-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofeedback is a method gaining increased interest and showing good results for a number of physical and psychological problems. Biofeedback training is mostly guided by an experienced clinician and the results largely rely on the clinician's competence. In this paper we propose a three phase computer assisted sensor-based biofeedback decision support system assisting less experienced clinicians, acting as second opinion for experienced clinicians. The three phase CBR framework is deployed to classify a patient, estimate initial parameters and to make recommendations for biofeedback training by retrieving and comparing with previous similar cases in terms of features extracted. The three phases work independently from each other. Moreover, fuzzy techniques are incorporated into our CBR system to better accommodate uncertainty in clinicians reasoning as well as decision analysis. All parts in the proposed framework have been implemented and primarily validated in a prototypical system. The initial result shows how the three phases functioned with CBR technique to assist biofeedback training. Eventually the system enables the clinicians to allow a patient to train himself/herself unsupervised.

  • 42.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    von Schéele, Bo
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity2008In: Case-based Reasoning for Diagnosis of Stress using Enhanced Cosine and Fuzzy Similarity, ISSN 1867-366X, Vol. 1, p. 3-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent analysis of heterogeneous data and information sources for efficient decision support presents an interesting yet challenging task in clinical envi-ronments. This is particularly the case in stress medicine where digital patient re-cords are becoming popular which contain not only lengthy time series measurements but also unstructured textual documents expressed in form of natural languages. This paper develops a hybrid case-based reasoning system for stress di-agnosis which is capable of coping with both numerical signals and textual data at the same time. The total case index consists of two sub-parts corresponding to signal and textual data respectively. For matching of cases on the signal aspect we present a fuzzy similarity matching metric to accommodate and tackle the imprecision and uncertainty in sensor measurements. Preliminary evaluations have revealed that this fuzzy matching algorithm leads to more accurate similarity estimates for improved case ranking and retrieval compared with traditional distance-based matching crite-ria. For evaluation of similarity on the textual dimension we propose an enhanced cosine matching function augmented with related domain knowledge. This is im-plemented by incorporating Wordnet and domain specific ontology into the textual case-based reasoning process for refining weights of terms according to available knowledge encoded therein. Such knowledge-based reasoning for matching of tex-tual cases has empirically shown its merit in improving both precision and recall of retrieved cases with our initial medical databases. Experts in the domain are very positive to our system and they deem that it will be a valuable tool to foster wide-spread experience reuse and transfer in the area of stress diagnosis and treatment.

  • 43.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, ShahinaMälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.Raad, WasimKing Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia.
    Internet of Things Technologies for HealthCare: Third International Conference, HealthyIoT 2016, Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016, Revised Selected Papers2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book constitutes the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Internet of Things (IoT) Technologies for HealthCare, HealthyIoT 2016, held in Västerås, Sweden, October 18-19, 2016. The conference also included the First Workshop on Emerging eHealth through Internet of Things (EHIoT 2016). IoT as a set of existing and emerging technologies, notions and services provides many solutions to delivery of electronic healthcare, patient care, and medical data management. The 31 revised full papers presented along with 9 short papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 43 submissions in total. The papers cover topics such as healthcare support for the elderly, real-time monitoring systems, security, safety and communication, smart homes and smart caring environments, intelligent data processing and predictive algorithms in e-Health, emerging eHealth IoT applications, signal processing and analysis, and smartphones as a healthy thing.

  • 44.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Generic System-level Framework for Self-Serve Health Monitoring System through Internet of Things(IoT)2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Wearable Micro and Nano Technologies for Personalized Health, 2–4 June 2015, Västerås, Sweden, 2015, Vol. 211, p. 305-307Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor data are traveling from sensors to a remote server, data is analysed remotely in a distributed manner, and health status of a user is presented in real-time. This paper presents a generic system-level framework for a self-served health monitoring system through the Internet of Things (IoT) to facilities an efficient sensor data management.

  • 45.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Physical Activity Classification for Elderly Based on Pulse Rate2013In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, vol. 189, 2013, p. 152-157Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is one of the key components for elderly in order to be actively ageing. However, it is difficult to differentiate and identify the body movement and actual physical activity using only accelerometer measurements. Therefore, this paper presents an application of a case-based retrieval classification scheme to classify the physical activity of elderly based on pulse rate measure- ments. Here, a case-based retrieval approach used the features extracted from both time and frequency domain. The evaluation result shows the best accuracy perfor- mance while considering the combination of time and frequency domain features. According to the evaluation result while considering the control measurements, the sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy are achieved as 95%, 96% and 96%, respectively. Considering the test dataset, the system succeeded to identify 13 physical activities out of 16, i.e,. the percentage of the correctness was 81%.

  • 46.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Loutfi, Amy
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Physical Activity Identification using Supervised Machine Learning and based on Pulse Rate2013In: International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications IJACSA, ISSN 2156-5570, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical activity is one of the key components for elderly in order to be actively ageing. Pulse rate is a convenient physiological parameter to identify elderly’s physical activity since it increases with activity and decreases with rest. However, analysis and classification of pulse rate is often difficult due to personal variation during activity. This paper proposed a Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) approach to identify physical activity of elderly based on pulse rate. The proposed CBR approach has been compared with the two popular classification techniques, i.e. Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Neural Network (NN). The comparison has been conducted through an empirical experimental study where three experiments with 192 pulse rate measurement data are used. The experiment result shows that the proposed CBR approach outperforms the other two methods. Finally, the CBR approach identifies physical activity of elderly 84% accurately based on pulse rate.

  • 47.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    A Case-Based Reasoning System for Knowledge and Experience Reuse2007In: Proceedings of the 24th annual workshop of the Swedish Artificial Intelligence Society, 2007, p. 70-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience is one of the most valuable assets technicians and engineer have and may have been collected during many years and both from successful solutions as well as from very costly mistakes. Unfortunately industry rarely uses a systematic approach for experience reuse. This may be caused by the lack of efficient tools facilitating experience distribution and reuse. We propose a case-based approach and tool to facilitate experience reuse more systematically in industry. It is important that such a tool allows the technicians to give the problem case in a flexible way to increase acceptance and use. The proposed tool enables more structured handling of experience and is flexible and can be adapted to different situations and problems. The user is able to input text in a structured way and possibly in combination with other numeric or symbolic features. The system is able to identify and retrieve relevant similar experiences for reuse.

  • 48.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Olsson, Erik
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Funk, Peter
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Xiong, Ning
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Efficient Condition Monitoring and Diagnosis Using a Case-Based Experience Sharing System2007In: The 20th International Congress and Exhibition on Condition Monitoring and Diagnostics Engineering Management, COMADEM 2007, Faro, Portugal, 2007, p. 305-314Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry has to adjust quickly to changes in their surroundings, for example reducing staff during recession and increasing staff when the market demands it. These factors may cause rapid loss of experience, collected during many years, or require experienced staff to spend considerable resources in training new staff, instead of focusing on production. This is recognised as very costly for companies and organisations today and also reduces competitiveness and productivity. Condition Monitoring, diagnostics and selection of efficient preventive or corrective actions is a task that often requires a high degree of expertise. This expertise is often gained through sometimes very expensive mistakes and can take many years to acquire leading to a few skilled experts. When they are not available due to changes in staff or retirements the company often faces serious problems that may be very expensive, e.g. leading to a reduced productivity.

    If some deviation occurs in a machine, a fault report is often written; an engineer makes a diagnosis and may order spare parts to repair the machine. Fault report, spare parts, required time and statistics on performance after repair are often stored in different databases but so far not systematically reused. In this paper we present a Case-Based experience sharing system that enables reuse of experience in a more efficient way compared with what is mostly practiced in industry today. The system uses Case-Based-Reasoning (CBR) and limited Natural Language Processing. An important aspect of the experience management tool is that it is user-friendly and web-based to promote efficient experience sharing. The system should be able to handle both experiences that are only in house as well as sharing experience with other industries when there is no conflicting interest. Such a CBR based tool enables efficient experience gathering, management and reuse in production industries. The tool will facilitate the users with an interactive environment to communicate with each other for sharing their experiences. Depend on the user; the security level of the system will be varied to share knowledge among the collaborating companies.

    The system identifies the most relevant experiences to assess and resolve the current situation. The experience is stored and retrieved as a case in the collaborative space where experience from various companies may have been stored under many years. Reusing experience and avoiding expensive mistakes will increase the participating companies' competitiveness and also transfer valuable experience to their employees. One of the benefits is also the opportunity and facility to identify people with similar tasks and problems at different companies and enable them to share their experience, e.g. if a technician has solved a similar problem recently and is in the near, the most efficient solution may be to call the expert and ask for assistance. In future, one may access this tool through his/her mobile device via wireless or mobile communications using Global Positioning System, GPS, enables the system to suggest experts nearby, willing and able to share the knowledge and quickly assist in resolve the problem.

  • 49.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Rahman, Hamidur
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Begum, Shahina
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Quality Index Analysis on Camera-based R-peak Identification Considering Movements and Light Illumination2018In: 15th International Conference on Wearable, Micro & Nano technologies for Personalized Health pHealth2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a quality index (QI) analysis on R-peak extracted by a camera system considering movements and light illumination. Here, the proposed camera system is compared with a reference system named Shimmer PPG sensor. The study considers five test subjects with a 15 minutes measurement protocol, where the protocol consists of several conditions. The conditions are: normal sittings, head movements i.e., up/down/left/right/forward/backword, with light on/off and with moving flash on/off. A percentage of corrected R-peaks are calculated based on time difference in milliseconds (MS) between the R-peaks extracted both from camera-based and sensor-based systems. A comparison results between normal, movements, and lighting condition is presented as individual and group wise. Furthermore, the comparison is extended considering gender and origin of the subjects. According to the results, more than 90% R-peaks are correctly identified by the camera system with ?200 MS time differences, however, it decreases with while there is no light than when it is on. At the same time, the camera system shows more 95% accuracy for European than Asian men.

  • 50.
    Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Westin, Jerker
    Nyholm, Dag
    Dougherty, Mark
    Groth, Torgny
    A fuzzy rule-based decision support system for Duodopa treatment in Parkinson2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A decision support system (DSS) was implemented based on a fuzzy logic inference system (FIS) to provide assistance in dose alteration of Duodopa infusion in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease, using data from motor state assessments and dosage. Three-tier architecture with an object oriented approach was used. The DSS has a web enabled graphical user interface that presents alerts indicating non optimal dosage and states, new recommendations, namely typical advice with typical dose and statistical measurements. One data set was used for design and tuning of the FIS and another data set was used for evaluating performance compared with actual given dose. Overall goodness-of-fit for the new patients (design data) was 0.65 and for the ongoing patients (evaluation data) 0.98. User evaluation is now ongoing. The system could work as an assistant to clinical staff for Duodopa treatment in advanced Parkinson's disease.

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