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  • 1.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Green Building: Ett företags energieffektiviseringsarbete i ett byggprojekt samt de krav som ställs för att få byggnaden Green Building klassad.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The examination has been performed at Bjerking AB, which is an architectural and engineering company. Bjerking AB has the ambition to be a member of Green Building.

    The Green Building program developed in year 2005 by The European Commission, the program is an environmental system with the aim to improving energy efficiency within the sectors of non-residential buildings. The minimum requirements to participate the program are following: in new-built buildings the calculated energy consumption must be 25 % lower than the requirements in the BBR (Building regulations) and in refurbishment the reduction must be 25 % lower than before the optimization.

    The aim of this study has been to examine and review the company Bjerking AB's energy efficiency work in the project of building the school/kindergarten S:ta Maria Alsike, where the goal is to get this building Green Building classed. A description of requirements to become a member of the Green Building has also accomplished in the thesis.

    The methods performed in this study are literature review, searches on the Internet, studies on the project database for facts/values, calculation of energy consumption and interviews of members of the Green Building. 

    The following issues have been dealt with in the report;

    -          Did the building in the project manage the requirement to achieve an   energy consumption that is 25% lower than the requirements in BBR?

    -          What technical measures/system was selected in the building?

    -          What kind of cooperation was the project based on?

    -          What is required for consultancy companies and real estate owners to become members of the Green Building?

    The study of the project and calculation of estimated energy consumption in the building, give the result 47 kWh/m2, year. This is 60 % lower than the requirements of BBR. The Green Building requirement is that the building's energy consumption should be at least 25% less than the requirements in BBR. The building fulfills this requirement by a significant margin. It can therefore be concluded that the technical solutions carried out in the building are energy efficient. The project consisted of the cooperation shape “partnering ", which can be assumed to be a good form of cooperation in order to achieve an energy efficient building. The consultancy company Bjerking AB and the landlord Knivsta Pastorat has the potential to become members of Green Building, as Green Building Endorser respective Green Building Partner.

    Keywords: energy efficiency, requirements of BBR, technical systems, cooperation, consultancy companies, real estate owners, estimated energy consumption, partnering, Green Building Partner, Green Building Endorser.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Structures in underground facilities: Analysis of a Concrete Column’s Capacity to Withstand Extraordinary Fire Loads2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report present a Master of Science in engineering work carried out at Mälardalen’s University, made this work within the research project METRO. The work is a part of the research project METRO. The focus of the METRO project is on the protection of underground rail mass transport systems e.g. tunnels and subways stations. The aim with this work was to determine if a concrete column placed close to the tracks at a subway station can withstand the effect and temperature of a fire in a burning train comparable to the effects and temperatures that showed at the full scale test carried out within the METRO project. A literature review was made previous to the following case study. The results from this show that the column is negligible affected by the fire.

  • 3.
    Askri, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Analysis of material- & tied-up capital flow in Inbound2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is performed on behalf of Volvo Group Trucks Operations Logistics Services in Eskilstuna, which is also the final part of the Master in Engineering program – Innovation, production and logistics at Mälardalen University.

    Logistics Services central warehouse in Eskilstuna ensures that parts are available all over the world, material is transported to the production facilities, packaging is available and vehicles are distributed to the dealers. The current need is to reduce costs and improve the production process at the Inbound department. The aim of this project has been to analyze the current flow of materials and tied-up capital in the inbound flow and give improvement suggestions on reducing lead times and the tied-up capital, as well as give suggestions on common performance metrics for all the sub departments at Inbound.

    The report is based on theoretical and empirical study, where the theory concerns the topics; logistics, lean philosophy and supply chain management. The empirical study was carried out by data collection through time measurements in the plant and by BEAT-report, observations and discussions with the operators, and interviews with production managers and process developers. The collected data was analyzed and the products in the flow were divided into groups, where the inbound material flow was mapped by the VSM tool. Product groups were analyzed by amount of received material reports, quantity, value and lead time, and the product groups that tied the highest value were defined as well as where in the flow the value was located. For each sub department calculations on production capacity and utilization were performed to analyze the current state and be able to compare the departments with each other. The interviews contributed with knowledge to create a reliable and valid SWOT analysis for each sub department at Inbound, where common factors could be defined concerning deviations, performance metrics and other hidden problems, but also opportunities.

    Finally, in this report the current state in the Inbound department has been analyzed. Products have been categorized into groups and the materials flow mapped. It has been defined where in the flow and how much value that is tied up, and by which product groups. Hidden problems and deviations have been brought up to surface. Improvement suggestions have been given concerning decreasing of lead times and the tied up value, and also suggestions on common performance metrics for all the sub departments have been given.

  • 4.
    Berggren, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Österlund, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hur ansvariga vid vägarbeten ser på sin uppgift kopplat till säkerhet och framkomlighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997, the Swedish parliament adopted a decision on Vision Zero (nollvision) in the road 

    and transport system. Vision Zero means that no one should be killed or seriously injured in 

    traffic accidents in the road transport system (Prop. 2003/04: 160). For the Transport 

    Administration in Sweden (Trafikverket), this means increased demands on security and 

    signage at road work sites around the country. This in turn means increased demands on the 

    contractors that carry out road work for the Transport Administration. The Transport 

    Administration wants a better understanding how entrepreneurs in various operational areas in 

    the Eastern Region perceive their role as responsible for safety and accessibility on roadwork 

    sites and to better understand the problems that can occur when signage is inadequate. In this 

    report, governing documents for the operating entrepreneurs have been studied, in addition, 

    searches of literature in various transport databases have been made. Interviews have been 

    made with the operating entrepreneurs who have had the opportunity to highlight their views 

    on roadwork. The results of the study are a compilation of things the contractors put emphasis 

    on. Among other things, several of them want to separate service equipment 

    (trafikanordningar) from the procurement because it is possible to win offers with a lower bid 

    amount, depending on how signage is made and safety is ensured. Many contractors also call 

    for more clarification from the Transport Administration, and say that it is often unclear what 

    the relevant directives are. Hopefully, this report will help increase the Transport 

    Administration’s understanding of the roadwork performed by contractors and help them 

    towards Vision Zero.  

     

    Keywords 

    vägarbete, trafikanordning, utmärkning, nollvision, trafikanordningsplan, konkurrenssättning, 

    skyltning, framkomlighet 

  • 5.
    Brandt, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Den byggda utemiljön för flerbostadshus: Fallstudie av Mimers områden Timmerkojan, Tujan och Cedern i Västerås2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The outdoor environment of multifamily dwellings should be carefully planned to accommodate the large number of different dwellers, that are to live there through the lifetime of the building. Different groups of residents have different needs and wishes, and all these must be considered. Failure to achieve a working courtyard where all these needs was met would result in low usage of shared outdoor spaces, and discontentment among the residents. This thesis has strived to catalogue the courtyards of three multifamily housing estates in the Swedish city of Västerås. It has also compared the shared features among the three case studies, according to where the single feature was best implemented and why it worked better there. That comparison gave an indication to what could be considered best practice for similar projects. The initial literature study gave good insight on what matters including: children’s play areas, public seating, different age group’s views and wants. Of universal importance was also the significance of feeling secure in the courtyard. One major difficulty was getting the residents to use the public seating in their area. Studies have suggested that the problem is that they feel observed by their neighbours. This could be solved by providing optional seating out of sight, the compromise with this solution became in making sure that these secluded seating areas was not thought of as possible places for hiding miscreants. Another solution was to make use of non-stationary furniture, which introduces the possibility of the furniture being stolen. Lockable storage for the resident’s private outdoor utensils was then a good suggestion.

  • 6.
    Elf, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cederth, Kevin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner: Lathund för brandskyddsdimensionering av stålprofiler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis covers fire protection methods of structural steel and the aim is to develop an information tool designed for inexperienced structural engineers. The information tool covers basic fire protection methods and the general way to produce a fire resistance for structural steel. The layout of this information tool is a simple folder that contains information about the most important steps when producing fire protection for a steel structure.

    The thesis starts with a general overview of the fire protection needed in buildings to fulfill national legislative and regulatory requirements. To get an understanding of how steel components behave during the influence of fire, a brief overview is presented of the material properties of steel. This chapter also contains a review of previous research in the area. Furthermore, some of the most common fire protection materials are introduced and the general way of producing a safe fire protection for steel components is explained. For example, the chapter handles topics such as critical steel temperature, section factor and degree of utilization, which are key factors for designing fire protection for structural steel components.

    To evaluate the information tool, experienced structural engineers have been interviewed with a given interview guide to assist the making of this tool. The results from the interviews provided an insight into the needs for information regarding fire protection for structural engineers.

     

  • 7.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    School of Transportation Engineering, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Fire Research, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10 m long with varying width (0.3 m, 0.45 m and 0.6 m) and height (0.25 m and 0.4 m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100 MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 8.
    Forell, Jonas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Fastigheten Maskinbolaget SWECON: - programbaserade och egna energiberäkningar med ekonomisk kalkyl2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

    In this degree project a comparison between two alternatives of heating and cooling systems has been made, regarding not yet constructed buildings on the property Maskinbolaget Swecon in Uppsala, consisting of an office and a machine room. The al­ter­­­natives of choice have been a district heating installation with a separate refri­ge­ra­ting machine, and two heat pumps with the bedrock as a heat source, the latter equip­ped with a circuit of directly transferred cold water from the bedrock as a cool­ing sys­tem. A number of simulations of the buildings' en­­er­gy consumption [kWh /(m2,år)] have also been performed, and this with a variety of comparisons con­tain­ing of certain chang­es of the construction of the buildings vis-à-vis the original plan­ning data.

        After that a calculation of present value with a perspective of 30 years has been executed, a calculation which shows the most economical alternative and simulation concerning the costs of operation and investment.

        The simulations of the energy consumption have been computed with the pro­gram­mes BV2 and VIP+, and also with a matrix in Excel by the writer's own design. The calculation of present value has been performed in Excel.  

     

                                         ♠    ♠    ♠

     

    The results indicate that the office and the machine hall fulfil the guidelines of U-value from BBR. The office also comply with BBR regarding the energy consump­tion [kWh/(m2,år)]; this, however, is not the case with the machine hall.

        The alternative with the heat pumps is the economically most sound, viewed in the perspective of 30 years. Furthermore, the comparisons of the different simula­tions yield that the largest profit occur when the machine hall is equipped with ent­rance gates that have a lower U-value than the originally planned, and also that the air flow to the mentioned hall is decreased with ten per cent. With these changes, even the machine hall fulfil the requirements of energy consumption from BBR.

        The results from the computations with the matrix in Excel, is in this degree pro­ject consider­ed to be as accurate as those derived from the programmes BV2 and VIP+, on con­di­tion that certain adjustements are made in the equations of the mat­rix.   

  • 9.
    Forslund, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Radonundersökningar i två flerbostadshus i Avesta kommun.2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Radon i flerbostadshus är ämnet för detta examensarbete. Bostadsrättsföreningen Tallmon äger två flerbostadshus i Skogsbo, Avesta. I dessa två flerbostadshus har radonmätningar gjorts under den senaste mätperioden. Dessa mätresultat tillsammans med tidigare kända mätresultat har sammanställts i en tabell. Där går att avläsa att i 18 av totalt 26 uppmätta lägenheter har radonhalten någon gång varit över det gällande riktvärdet för radonhalt i bostäder.

    Det har även gjorts ett mindre antal kontinuerliga korttidsmätningar med hänsyn på radon. Detta dels för att få en bild av hur radonhalten ser ut på sommarhalvåret och dels se hur radonhalten varierar under ett dygn. För att finna den stora källan till radon i luften gjordes även mätningar av ventilationsflödet och gammamätning. Gammamätning visar om det finns blåbetong i något byggmaterial. Resultatet av samtliga korttidsmätningar var att radonhalten varierade under samtliga mätperioder. Vissa lägenheter hade väldigt höga halter av radon när istället andra lägenheter hade lägre radonhalter. Det alla hade gemensamt var att de hade haft fönster öppna under mätperioderna, vilket sänker radonhalten i luften. Lågt luftflöde var en annan gemensam faktor som alla lägenheter hade. Liksom att inomhustemperaturen låg högt. Blåbetong finns i båda fastigheterna och då i ytterväggarna.

    Mätresultaten inom detta examensarbete bekräftar tidigare resultat som innebär att man i många lägenheter har radonhalter över gällande riktvärde 200 Bq/m3. Radonhalterna tenderar inte alls att avta med höjden över mark, vilket antyder att blåbetongen kan vara den huvudsakliga källan i detta fall.

  • 10.
    Gruber, Emelie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Upprätthållande av samhällsviktig funktion vid brand i undermarksanläggning: Byggnadstekniska lösningar för upprättande av brandbeständiga funktionsskyddsrum2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is important that the society is functional in the case of a crisis or war. In these cases, some social functions are more important than others and should be prioritized according to MSB (2014). Management and coordination of social actors are extra important in these situations, and this is where the function of operations rooms becomes important. The purpose of this master thesis is to describe how the function in the operations rooms should be maintained despite fire outside the room in the facility. The thesis includes operations rooms for military, municipalities, county councils, county administrative boards and authorities, as well as emergency rescue services. To ensure that the command function can be maintained, the outer structure is dimensioned for a fire according to ISO 834 for 12 hours. The technical and personal supply is dimensioned to maintain the function for 10 days. As a result of this, the outer wall is dimensioned to 400 millimetres which leads to a zero heating of the room and 260 millimetre wall that maintain 80 percent of the carrying capacity. To maintain the technical support, a diesel engine is designed to meet the energy needs. As a conclusion, this work chart the conditions for a room that offers a shelter from a fire and maintain a management function. These facilities are complex and each underground facility must be dimensioned separately. 

  • 11.
    Hägg, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lunnehed, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Överdäckning: Bygga bort barriärer i form av järnvägen i Västerås stad2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I storstadsområden i Sverige blir det allt vanligare att bygga överdäckningar. Överdäckningar är ett storstadsfenomen och är betydligt vanligare internationellt. I Västerås stad kan det vara aktuellt med en överdäckning i samband med stadsbyggnadsprojektet ”3B”, Bygga Bort Barriärer. Stadsbyggnadsprojektets mål är att utveckla stationsområdet och bygga bort järnvägen, för att kunna länka ihop Västerås centrum med den nya stadsdelen och Mälaren. För att uppfylla detta mål och förbättra stationsområdet kan en överdäckning vara en bra lösning. Detta examensarbete ska utreda om en överdäckning kan genomföras i Västerås och studera de faktorer som påverkar en eventuell överdäckning.

    Examensarbetet begränsades till det utmarkerade spårområdet i ÖP64, stationsområdet i Västerås stad, där överdäckning kan prövas. Fokus lades på risk- och säkerhetsaspekter, miljöaspekter och stads- och landskapsbild. Empiriska studien genomfördes med hjälp av kvalitativa arkiv- och intervjuanalyser baserade på tre fallstudier. Resultatet utmynnade i en fördjupning inom problematiken samt framställandet av en modell.

    Det finns inget tydligt fastställt regelverk som gäller för överdäckning vilket medför att planarbetet blir komplicerat. Tolkning av lagar som gäller för tunnlar och broar görs i nuläget, vilket öppnar för subjektiva bedömningar. I planarbetet är det tydligt att riskhanteringen är den viktigaste faktorn att beakta samt den mest problematiska. Denna styrs av farligt gods och avgör hur komplicerad riskhanteringen blir. Vid farligt gods är det explosiva och brandfarliga ämnen som medför stora skador på överdäckningen som kan leda till kollaps.

    Resultatet av fördjupningen visar att en överdäckning är möjlig och uppfyller de uppsatta mål för stationsområdet, men den samhällsekonomiska nyttan måste bedömas vara värd den ökade investeringen.

    Nyckelord: Överdäckning, bygga bort barriärer, intunnling, riskhantering, buller, farligt gods 

  • 12.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsintitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds universitet.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund.
    Taktik och Metodik vid brand i Undermarksanläggningar (TMU) - Sammanfattningsrapport2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report compiles the results from the TMU-project. The focus is on fire-fighting performance, capability and organization in underground constructions. The emphasis was on large-scale testing with authentic fire conditions and fire-fighting equipment, development of tools for prediction of hazardous conditions and capabilities of  fire-fighting during different conditions, organizational management and tactics, education and development  of recommendations.  The project was divided into different work packages and these are presented in this final summary report. The test fires performed in the project created severe conditions for fire-fighters who moved in smoke for over 180 m before fighting fully developed fires in a range of 18 to 33 MW. The fires consisted of wood pallets placed in a semi-open steel container, simulating a train wagon fire. The walking speed and connection time for hoses and connections were registered and documented by infra-red cameras. The most important results from these tests is that the time taken to approach the fire depends on parameters as type of equipment, preparation, possibilities for use of infra-red (IR) cameras and the capacity of the extinguishing media. The heat radiation from the fire was found to be important to overcome in order to get close enough to fight the fire. Recommendations and tactics for fighting fires in underground constructions are given. 

  • 13.
    Ingelmark, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandspridning i äldre trähusbebyggelse: Brandskyddsinventering av Rademachersmedjorna i centrala Eskilstuna2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is very important to protect buildings against fire. Especially older wooden buildings and areas with a historically important heritage, i.e. areas that cannot be restored to their original condition upon loss. In Eskilstuna one such area is located - Rademachersmedjorna. On behalf of Eskilstuna Kommunfastigheter AB a documentation of Rademachersmedjorna’s constructional fire protection has been conducted in this report in order to have the area's fire protection level documented. The purpose of this study has been, via systematic field studies, to provide an overview of Rademachersmedjorna and document the area’s current fire protection level. Based on this information, a visualization of the area's constructional fire protection and risk zones has been developed to give a simple overview for users, managers and owners. The inventory can be used by Eskilstuna Kommunfastigheter AB for a quick and easy visualization of Rademachersmedjorna’s fire protection level and risk zones. Furthermore, this information could be used as a basis for planning future safety prevention efforts. The documentation over the area is based on the assessment method

    Bedömning av brandskydd i kulturbebyggelse (hereafter referred to as BSV-k) and the parts this method includes. There are a total of 16 buildings at the Rademacher area and only one building achieved an acceptable fire protection level according to BSV-k. There are several zones in the area that pose a higher risk for the occurrence of fire and fire spread. These higher vulnerable fire hazard zones are spread out over Rademachersmedjorna which means that the whole area quickly can get involved in case of fire. In this context it is important to avoid fire what so ever may arise. Removing combustible material in escape routes, in attics and combustible materials nearby the buildings are some fire prevention measures which can be applied. It is also important to note objects such as bins and wooden planks that exist between the buildings being potential fire carriers. In cases where the buildings distance to a nearby located building is very short, the potential fire carriers pose little threat as the fire can spread directly from building to building. To achieve an acceptable level of fire protection for Rademachersmedjorna - according to this study's assessment method - is sufficient in many cases to apply fire prevention.

  • 14.
    Jarrin Peters, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fiberföstärkning av Limträbalkar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glulam is a product that was engineered to make use of timber in a more efficient way. Bychoosing timber of similar quality and discarding natural defects during production, thedevelopment of a stronger cross-section is achieved.Carbon fiber is a relatively new material with a high tension capacity. This feature is used toexamine how the bending capacity of the beams improve by adhering carbon fiber laminateson the lower edge of the beamsThe strength of the material is tested with three experiments: carbon fiber on the bottom of thebeam (a), carbon fiber attached to the lower sides of the beam (b) and carbon fiber in thebeam, covered with a layer of wood (c)

    The results show that the first case, where the carbon fiber is attached to the bottom of thebeam, gave the best result with an increase in capacity of 59 % compared to the nonreinforcedcontrol. The other two cases also show an improvement in capacity, beam-type 3had a capacity increase of 47% and beam-type 4 increased with 25 %Tests were also made with glulam beams reinforced with fiberglass, but these tests were notanalyzed in depth because the purpose was to compare the capacity to carbon fiber. Thisbeam improved its capacity by 40.3%.The tests show that carbon fiber as a reinforcement material for glulam is a good choice whenthere is a requirement for stronger cross-sections in both new production and renovation ofold buildings. However there are some disadvantages to carbon fiber, for example costs andincreased demands on work environment, which makes steel a cheaper option.

  • 15.
    Javor, V.
    et al.
    University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Niš, Serbia.
    Javor, D.
    University of Niš, Faculty of Electronic Engineering, Niš, Serbia.
    Lundengård, Karl
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Rancic, Milica
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Silvestrov, Sergei
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Modelling of measured lightning discharge currents to tall towers2017In: Conference Proceedings - 2017 17th IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2017 1st IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe, EEEIC / I and CPS Europe 2017, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2017, article id 7977795Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lightning discharge currents and their derivatives have been measured at instrumented tall towers for a few decades already. Results of those measurements are used for lightning research purposes, modelling of lightning discharges and making improvements in lightning protection. Some of the measured lightning currents are represented in this paper by the multi-peaked analytically extended function (MP-AEF). The same function may be used for lightning current derivatives, thus providing their analytical integration. 

  • 16.
    Johansson, Mathias
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jangholt, Michael
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd i bevarandevärda byggnader: Under ombyggnads- och reparationsarbeten2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 17.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Hallin, Anette
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Industrial Economics and Organisation.
    Rethinking dichotomization: A critical perspective on the use of “hard” and “soft” in project management research2014In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 568-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elaborates on the categorization – dichotomization – between “hard” and “soft” in project management research. This categorization is becoming more increasingly used in project management research for example by stating that some projects are “hard”, while other projects are “soft”, that some project skills are “hard”, while other project skills are “soft” etc. The aim is to discuss this dichotomization as an example of hierarchization – a power struggle between opposites – within project management research and literature and acknowledge the effects for project management research and practice of unreflective upholding of this dichotomy. We provide a critical review and discussion of stage-gate models as an example of “hard” project management approaches, and agile methods as an example of “soft” approaches to project management and acknowledge that in project management practice, it seems as if “hard” and “soft” approaches are most often combined. Hence, this dichotomy seems to be upheld by the research community while practitioners show a more holistic perspective to project management.

  • 18.
    Kumm, Mia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Karlstad Universitet.
    Fire and Rescue Operations during Construction of Tunnels2010In: Proceedings from the Fourth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, Frankfurt am Main, Germany, March 17-19, 2010 / [ed] SP, 2010, p. 383-394Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decades a great deal of research has been performed regarding different fields of fire safety and fire development in existing tunnels. During constructions of tunnels the physical conditions of the establishment as well as the fire load, the possibilities to evacuate and perform a fire and rescue operation are essentially separated from the conditions in the opened tunnel. During the construction phase, the safety installations prior to the finished state, often is not yet installed or in function. Before the break through, the tunnel can have a “dead end”, which can make both evacuation and fire and rescue operations very difficult. Many different organizations can be involved in the construction work with the tunnel and it is not uncommon that the workers have different nationalities. Both these conditions can, in case of an incident, influence the alarm chain and the quality of the information that reaches the emergency services. The incident commander (IC) in a large fire- and rescue operation has to survey a complex situation, where conventional methods and normal tactical approaches can be difficult to use. This paper discusses the fire- and rescue services possibilities to perform a fire and rescue operation during the different phases of the construction. Limitations, based on information from real fires and full-scale tests are analyzed and discussed. Both technical and organizational solutions for self-rescue or as support for the fire- and rescue services are valued and discussed.

  • 19.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Fan, Ghuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    P Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

  • 20.
    Litz, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Erlingson, Jesper
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Att effektivisera ett förvaltarbolag2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 21.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Heat demand profiles of buildings' energy conservation measures and their impact on renewable and resource efficient district heating systems2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased energy performance of the building stock of European Union is seen as an important measure towards mitigating climate change, increasing resource utilisation efficiency and energy supply security. Whether to improve the supply-side, the demand-side or both is an open issue. This conflict is even more apparent in countries such as Sweden with a high penetration of district heating (DH). Many Swedish DH systems have high share of secondary energy resources such as forest industry residuals, waste material incineration and waste heat; and resource efficient cogeneration of electricity in combined heat and power (CHP) plants. When implementing an energy conservation measure (ECM) in a DH connected building stock, it will affect the operation of the whole DH system. If there are CHP plants and the cogeneration of electricity decreases due to an ECM, and this electricity is valued higher than the fuel savings, the consequences of the ECM would be negative. 

    These complex relationships are investigated by conducting a case study on the Eskilstuna DH system, a renewable energy supply system with relatively high share of cogenerated electricity. Heat demand profiles of ECMs are determined by building energy simulation, using recently deep energy retrofitted multifamily buildings of the “Million Programme”-era in Eskilstuna as model basis. How implementing ECMs impact on the DH system’s heat and electricity production under different electricity revenue scenarios has been computed and evaluated in terms of resource efficiency and CO2 emissions. 

    The results show that different ECMs in the buildings impact differently on the DH system. Measures such as improved insulation level of the building’s envelope, that decrease the heat demand’s dependence to outdoor temperature, increase the amount of cogenerated electricity. While measures such as thermal solar panels, which save heat during summer, affects the absolute amount of cogenerated electricity negatively. Revenues from cogenerated electricity influence the amount of cost-effectively produced electricity much more than the impact from ECMs. Environmental benefits of the ECMs, measured in CO2 emissions and primary energy consumption, are quite small in DH systems that have high share of forest residual fuels and electricity cogeneration. The consequences can even be negative if ECMs lead to increased need of imported electricity that is produced resource inefficiently or/and by fossil fuels. However, all studied ECMs increase the relative amount of cogenerated electricity, the ratio between amount of cogenerated electricity and the heat load. This implied that all ECMs increase the overall efficiency of the Eskilstuna DH system.

  • 22.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Weather data for building simulation: New actual weather files for North Europe combining observed weather and modeled solar radiation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic building simulation is increasingly necessary for accurately quantifying potential energy savings measures in retrofit projects, to compliant with new stricter directives from EU implanted into member states legislations and building codes. For good result the simulation model need to be accurately calibrated. This requires actual weather data, representative for the climate surrounding the given building, in order to calibrate against actual energy bills of the same period of time.

    The main objective of this degree project is to combine observed weather (temperature, humidity, wind etc.) data with modeled solar radiation data, utilizing the SMHI STRÅNG model system; and transform these data into AMY (Actual Meteorological Year) files to be used with building simulation software. This procedure gives actual weather datasets that will cover most of the urban and semi urban area in Northern Europe while still keeping the accuracy of observed weather data. A tool called Real-Time Weather Converter was developed to handle data retrieval & merging, filling of missing data points and to create the final AMY-file.

    Modeled solar radiation data from STRÅNG had only been validated against a Swedish solar radiation network; validation was now made by the author with wider geographic coverage. Validation results show that STRÅNG model system performs well for Sweden but less so outside of Sweden. There exist some areas outside of Sweden (mainly Central Europe) with reasonable good result for some periods but the result is not as consistent in the long run as for Sweden.

    The missing data fill scheme developed for the Real-Time Weather Converter does perform better than interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) of about 9 to 48 hours. For gaps between 2 and 5 days the fill scheme will still give slightly better result than linear interpolation. Akima Spline interpolation performs better than linear interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) in the interval 2 to about 8 hours.

    Temperature uncertainty was studied using data from the period 1981-2010 for selected sites. The result expressed as SD (Standard Deviation) for the uncertainty in yearly mean temperature is about 1˚C for the Nordic countries. On a monthly basis the variation in mean temperature is much stronger (for Nordic countries it ranges from 3.5 to 4.7 ˚C for winter months), while summer months have less variation (with SD in the range of 1.3 to 1.9 ˚C). The same pattern is visible in sites at more southern latitudes but with much lower variation, and still lower for sites near coast areas. E.g. the cost-near Camborne, UK, has a SD of 0.7 to 1.7 ˚C on monthly basis and yearly SD of 0.5 ˚C.

    Mean direct irradiance SD for studied sites ranges from 5 to 19 W/m2 on yearly basis, while on monthly basis the SD ranges from 40 to 60 W/m2 for summer months. However, the sample base was small and of inconsistent time periods and the numbers can only be seen as indicative.

    The commonly used IWEC (International Weather for Energy Calculations) files direct radiation parameter was found to have a very strong negative bias of about 20 to 40 % for Northern Europe.  These files should be used with care, especially if solar radiation has a significant impact of on the building being modeled. Note that there exist also a newer set of files called IWEC2 that can be purchased from ASHRAE, these files seems not to be systematically biased for North Europe but haven’t been studied in this paper.

    The STRÅNG model system does catch the trend, also outside of Sweden, and is thus a very useful source of solar radiation data for model calibration.

  • 23.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Vylund, Lotta
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Ingason, Haukur
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Palm, Anders
    Storstockholms Brandförsvar, Sweden.
    Palmkvist, Krister
    Södra Älvsborgs Räddningstjänstförbund, Sweden.
    Kumm, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds Universitet, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    SP Fire Research, Sweden.
    Rekommendationer för räddningsinsatser i undermarksanläggningar2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report contains recommendations for firefighting in underground facilities. This implies results from a research project and the recommendations are based on case studies, interviews, experiments and discussion with different fire departments. The recommendations are structured in accordance to the time period of the actual incident occurrence or the time period during which some specific measures are taken. These periods are project period, construction phase and finally when the facility is in operation. The recommendations are based on the work in the TMU project (Tactics and methodologies for firefighting in underground facilities), results from other research projects and experience from real fire and rescue operations.  

  • 24.
    Neumann, Dorothea
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BRANDSKYDDAT TRÄ: Jämförelse mellan obehandlat, brandskyddsmålat och brandskyddsimpregnerat trä2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental issues and the housing shortage is an ongoing debate among politicians.

    Wood is a building material that Sweden has plenty of and it is a material that, according to

    research, does not contribute to as much carbon dioxide emissions during production,

    compared to other construction materials such as concrete and steel. Therefore the demand

    for timber, in both facade claddings and external wall constructions, is increasing. In light of

    this, the purpose with this degree project is to study different fire protection methods for

    wood and compare it to untreated wood. Collecting the facts and information for this degree

    project at Mälardalens University, is done through literature studies, surveys, and two

    experiments conducted on two selected fire retardants. The experiments were conducted to

    test untreated, fire protection impregnated and wood with fire proof paint. One of the

    experiments tested the load-carrying capacity of the beams after being charred with a gas

    burner. The other experiment investigated the surface layer and measured the fire spread

    rate and both experiments tested the fire resistance. The experiments that were conducted

    concluded that out of the three different methods for facades and beams, fire protection

    impregnation was the best choice in all five chosen categories: load-carrying capacity, fire

    resistance, surfaces, environmental impact and health safety for workers.

  • 25.
    Rydberg, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hållbara projekteringsverktyg: Från byggnadsinformationsmodell till simulering – en utvärdering av Revit och Virtual Environment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of building modeling and energy simulations in the design process  of  a  building.  The  take-off  point  is  the  notion  of  energy  simulations  being needed early and throughout the building design process, and that the lack of energy simulations may be explained by the fact that they are time consuming and therefore often too expensive. A greater interoperability between software tools used by relevant disciplines,  such  as  the  architect  and  the  energy  specialist,  would  create  smoother workflows, which would reduce this cost and open up for more frequent and iterative energy  simulation  processes.  The  study  is  an  assessment  of  the  modeling  tool  Revit and  the  simulation  tool  Virtual  Environment  and  whether  they  can  create  smoother workflows, and make leeway for a more frequent use of energy simulations throughout the  design  process.  It  also  investigates  the  limitations  of  what  can  be  examined  by simulations in Virtual Environment. This will hopefully help clarify the future role of energy  simulations  in  design  processes.  The  method  is  a  trial  by  error  approach  of testing the two software tools by building and simulating a model. The results of these tests  show  that  the  workflow  is  not  optimal  (and  therefore  time  consuming)  for frequent  and  iterative simulations  throughout the  design  process,  but  it  also  reveals some  great  possibilities  of  what  can  be  performed  with  these  two  powerful  tools  at hand.  Further  development  with  regards  on  platform  independency  of  the  building information  model,  including  seamless  exporting  and  importing,  seems  necessary  to strengthen the future role of energy simulations.

  • 26.
    Solmaz, Emrah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kartläggning av orsaker till skillnad mellan beräknad och uppmätt energianvändning i byggnader.: Identifiering av prioriterade arbetsområden inom energisimulering och energiuppföljning.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of high energy use in buildings, the rules for energy conservation has, since 2006, become stricter in Sweden. Today, it must be verified that buildings meet the requirements of specific energy consumption (energy consumption per square meter heated floor area), with a calculation of the energy performance in a simulation program and by measuring the energy performance when the building is done. This in addition to the requirement that the average coefficient of thermal transmittance and the installed electrical power, for electrically heated buildings, must be calculated at the design stage. It is, however, often noted that the result of the calculations and measurements differ from each other, and that the measured values ​​often are higher than those calculated. In collaboration with NCC and Mälardalens University, an investigation was made in which the calculated and measured values ​​of energy were examined for a number of apartment buildings, schools and sports halls, to identify causes of difference, and to identify priority areas of work within, above all , energy simulation and energy follow-ups. It turned out that the difference is largely influenced by the type of the building, as it differed between apartment buildings, schools and sports halls. In addition, the amount of window area turned out to have impact on the results, as it allows for more airing, which is a factor that is very difficult to anticipate for the simulations. The windows ability to let in sunlight is another factor that is hard to anticipate. Furthermore, it was discovered that the standard values for the assumed energy consumption for domestic hot water is often too high. In some cases the assumed heated floor area and the assumed outdoor climate data differed between calculations and measurements. It also happens that heat losses from culvert pipes to the ground is not taken into account when calculations are done. As for priority areas of work, judging by the results of this work, better behavior related input data and standard values ​​for, above all, energy consumption for hot water needs to be developed. There has to be more diligence when ensuring that there are same conditions for calculations and measurements, and this could mean that those who perform the calculation may need to be assigned more responsibility over the measuring work. In addition, the follow-up work must be envisaged in the long term, which means that the number of registers should be sufficient to distinguish the different parameters, that consumes energy, apart to make it possible to learn from the over-/underestimation, and base future input and standard values ​​on it. This may mean that the simulation-/measure-work should not be limited only to comply with applicable laws, but it should be ensured that follow-up work can be done in such a way that it helps to improve the future work of simulations and measurements of energy use in buildings.

  • 27.
    Stargård, Susanna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hassan, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    The Success Factors of PSS Development: A Transformation of Traditional Manufacturing Companies2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competition and increasing customers‘ demands makes traditional manufacturing companies consider new ways of differentiate themselves. One way of doing this is to develop product service system (PSS) solutions. PSS solutions are a total offering, where the customer purchases the use of a solution instead of a physical product. This bachelor thesis within the School of Innovation Design and Engineering at Mälardalen University aims to determine the success factor of PSS development at ICT and AM, which are two traditional Swedish manufacturing companies. To do this, the main challenges of transforming ICT and AM into PSS providers will be identified. The thesis also aims to determine if there is a need for change of performance measurements and key performance indicators (KPIs) to enable this transformation. A theoretical review is presented to help the readers in the understanding of the thesis areas. Interviews at ICT and AM were made to get a view of the situations at the companies considering PSS development. The information gathered at the interviews stated the major challenges of transforming both companies into PSS developers. With the theoretical framework and the stated challenges, an analysis was made to determine the success factors of PSS development.The identified success factors of PSS development were Senior management clarification of strategic intent, Cultural change management, Teamwork culture, Internal communication mechanisms, External communication mechanism, Customer relationship, Motivating breakthrough ideas, Project core competency, Cross-functional collaboration, Cross-functional development, Allocation of resources, Training and education, Knowledge management, Customer satisfaction data, Risk management, Product positioning, Portfolio of product opportunities, Product functional content, Knowledge of market potential, Product service processes, Product environment, Development process, Responsibilities of team members, Concurrent development, Internal task coordination, Organizational readiness for sales, Internal marketing and External marketing.Based on the theoretical framework and interviews a statement was made; it is crucial to change the performance measurement and KPIs if implementing PSS, to support collaboration between departments and contribute to the overall success for the companies.

  • 28.
    Stefansson, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lrubai, Lateef
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ljudnivån på bostadsgårdar: Förbättring av den akustiska miljön för fem olika bostadsgårdar i Västerås2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the soundscapes of five different urban courtyards in Västerås, Sweden and presents suggestions on how to improve them. Due to the increasing urbanization there is now an increased need for housing in cities, this leads to buildings that are close to both other buildings, roads and noise emitting activities. On the grounds of that there is now a higher amount of effort required to make urban courtyards a somewhat quiet and tranquil space. The need for such a courtyard is due to the negative health effects connected to a bad soundscape. Noise pollution can lead to both hearing loss and cardio-vascular diseases. The study was done by first conducting a research of the scientific literature about the subject and then making measurements and observations at the courtyards. The soundscapes of the studied courtyards ranged from annoying to pleasing and comfortable. The sound levels measured from 46 to 57 dBA, this difference of 11 dBA is perceived as about twice as loud by the human ear. To solve the issue with noise pollution we suggest a variety of solutions to the different courtyards. These mainly include noise barriers, green walls and roof, vegetation and sound masking techniques. The main conclusions are that even the best performing courtyard could be acoustically enhanced and that solutions that employ vegetation both reduce the sound level and introduce natural sounds that are pleasing to most humans. 

  • 29.
    Södergren, Gabriella
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ATT FÖRHINDRA OCH BEGRÄNSA HOTELLBRÄNDER: Erfarenhetsåterföring från hotellbrand i Sverige och England2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Hotels are considered a risky environment because guests are not expected to be awake and are expected to have poor local knowledge. Although hotels doesn’t have acceptable fire protection according to the only previously known study in this area. This is a problem because every four to five days there is a hotel fire. The hotels would be able to reach an acceptable fire safety by pursuing a systematic fire protection and take certain construction actions. Aim: Identifying details that need to be introduced in hotels daily work with fire protection based on the Swedish law and case studies. Method: A literature review and two case studies of hotel fires. Results: The hotel in Sweden followed the Swedish legislation in force in 2009 and had a good organizational fire protection. The hotel mainly needed to improve was the structural fire protection, adapted for disabled people, control of the acoustics in the evacuation alarm and had more smoke detectors. The hotel in England didn’t follow the law in force in England in 2007 and was nearly entirely lacking fire protection. They needed primarily improve the structural fire protection, adapted for disabled people, upgrade their alarm, had several smoke detectors and had a systematic fire protection. Conclusion: Swedish legislation still needs to be clear up because there is still room for interpretation of the laws as they are functional requirements. It is good that the Swedish legislation has adapted to fires that already has occurred in Sweden, but what could be done better today is motivate hotels to get involved in their fire protection. A committed management in hotels means better systematic fire protections and more money spend on the fire protection. One way to motivate hotel managements is to further inform about the consequences of a fire and to encourage hotels to certify themselves. But is not enough to only have a good systematic fire protection, the technical fire protection also needs to upgrade. It should be introduce higher demands that the hotels should be more handicap-friendly and update their fire alarms, because it saves lives and lower the material damage.

  • 30.
    Södergren, Gabriella
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lundin, Isabelle
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    UTRYMNINGSSÄKERHET I STATLIGA BYGGNADSMINNEN: För personer med funktionsnedsättning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Historical buildings in Sweden with the highest value of cultural heritage are administrated by the state and are protected by the directive SFS 2013:588. Also there are laws which demands that all public buildings which are administrated by the government should be accessible for everyone, with or without disabilities. This law also demands that in case of fire all visitors should be able to evacuate safely, including people with disabilities. This may be problematic to achieve without damaging the cultural value. Aim: The aim of this work is therefore to investigate a safe way for people with disabilities to evacuate in case of fire in buildings with high cultural value in Sweden, which are administrated by the state, with focus on the technical solutions. The aim is also to investigate improvement measures for the studied buildings and the laws in Sweden regarding the subject. Method: This work in bases on a literature study and a case study. The purpose of the literature study was to identify the previous studies and background information which was needed to find solutions to the problem. The case study were constructed to see how technical solutions are incorporated in actual buildings, but also to see how the evacuation can improve. Results: The work shows that all buildings in the case study has a sufficient evacuation plan for people with disabilities, but could be improved especially for people with visual disabilities without destroying the cultural heritage. Conclusion: One conclusion is that the focus often lies on technical solutions to make it possible for people with mobility impairments to evacuate, but the needs of people with visual disabilities are often overlooked. Therefore the laws regarding the subject should clarified that all people with disabilities also should have the same possibility to evacuate safety. Another conclusion is that it is possible to implement technical solutions in historical buildings without significantly destroying the cultural value. However, more research is required to develop new and improved solutions for these type of buildings. 

  • 31.
    Söderholm, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Modernt brukande av kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader: Byggnadstekniska och ekonomiska aspekter som påverkar integration av kulturhistoriskt värdefulla byggnader vid restaurering och ombyggnationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work is analyzing aspects of how culturally significant buildings can be used for modern day purposes and how commercial property owners can achieve economical sustainability while working with these types of buildings. Focus is put on how current laws and regulations are handled at a macro level and how these, in turn, affect the work at an individual level. An extensive literature study has been carried out, as well as interviews with people whom in different ways work with these types of buildings. Culturally significant buildings hold a variety of values, for example historical and architectural, which in relation with current laws must be preserved. Knowledge must be passed to the property owner about how to best preserve values in a building even when changes are being made to it. When a building receives its values and its classification property owners can be part of the process to make sure the restrictions do not affect the future plan of the building. As such, these legislations are in one way helping commercial property owners preserve the valuable aspects of a building, but on the other hand putting restrictions on what type of structural procedures can be done and in turn making it not cost effective to use these types of buildings for modern day purposes. Economical sustainability in culturally significant buildings can be achieved mainly on two different levels, macro and individual. At a macro level work is carried out to achieve economical sustainability as a whole, for example in a city or a country, which UNESCO world heritage cities have proven through various projects worldwide.  At an individual level commercial property owners are able to make a profit of people’s willingness to pay high market value for culturally significant buildings, though at a profit of minimum 10%. Studies have shown that the market value of a building increases if it consists of culturally significant values, compared to buildings that are not classified as culturally significant. 

  • 32.
    Udd, Staffan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Carling, Linda
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Filppu, Ola
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Behzadnia, Shiva
    Department of Public Technology.
    Öhman, Hanna
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Stade, Christian
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Möten i stadsrummet: Fyra fallstudier om plats och rum i Eskilstuna2007Report (Other scientific)
  • 33.
    Ullström, Stefan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Gångavstånd till utrymningsvägar: En studie om gångstånden till utrymningsvägar och dess dimensioneringsmöjligheter med hjälp av förenklad dimensionering2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The title of this degree project after  three years long education of construction engineering is “Distances to evacuation routes” with the subtitle “A study of walking distances to escape routes and its design possibilities using simplified dimensioning”. The idea for the project came from the company Fire AB in Västerås. They are oriented in fire protection dimensioning. When specifying the fire protection for a building you can choose from two different methods, simplified dimensioning or analytical dimensioning. The simplified dimensioning is an easier way of designing the fire protection, you just follow the rules in BBR given by the swedish national board of housing, bulding and planning. Analytical dimensioning is a more complicated method which places higher demands on the user. In some cases analytical dimensioning is a demand. There has been a problem with the simplified method when you dimension the distance to an emergency exit. The maximum distance to an escape route is given in BBR 19/20 and can’t be exceeded at any time. If you have a distance of 31 meters and the acceptable distance is 30 m you would have to solve it with analytical dimensioning, but if you have a normal ceiling height this is very difficult because the calculation values are very high compared to the values used in simplified dimensioning. The only way to get that extra meter accepted is to install some kind of fire alarm which increases the cost of the building. Before BBR 19/20 you could do a report with a risk analysis of that extra meter. That extra meter is often a corner in a room and doesn’t affect the evacuation. When you calculate that extra meter it will affect the evacuation time considerably but in reality it doesn’t make any major difference. It’s not reasonable to install a fire alarm that increases the cost of the building with an extra hundred thousand SEK. The question that will be answered is: How has the maximum walking distance to escape routes changed over time in the different regulations? The requirements for walking distances to escape routes being used today, how where these created and have they been tested in any way? How do they do in Norway, Finland and New Zealand when they decide the maximum distance to an escape route? What do the calculations say? Would a longer distance to an escape route or a higher ceiling height be better for the people that evacuate?

    There are differences in the maximum distance to an escape route between the countries that has been compared in this essay. In some cases has Norway and Finland has a longer distance than Sweden but overall they are very simlilar. New Zeeland is the country with the longest walking distance in all scenarios. In some cases New Zeeland has the double amount of meters than Sweeden to an escape route. The capter about walking distances to an escape route in the swedish ordinance “Boverkets byggregler” has looked almost the same since 1975. It is time for that chapter to be revised after todays building techniques and materials. 

    Keywords: distance, evacuations, routes, fire, dimensioning, housing, building and planning.

  • 34.
    Westerlund, Anton
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Verifiering av beräknad energiprestanda: En jämförelse mellan simulerad och uppmätt energianvändning för byggnaden Drottningparken2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 35.
    Yamabo, Deo Gratias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Förbättring av Egenvärmehus: En fallstudie av ett flerbostadshus, Kv. Fyrtornet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency has become a very topical issue that has been discussed throughout the European Union for preventing negative environmental impacts that have been associated with the consumption of energy. In the residential sector have mainly municipalities set strict requirements for the reduction of energy consumption while the renewable energy has been asked. Different concepts of low-energy buildings have been developed to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance in existing buildings such as in new ones.

    This thesis has aimed to minimize the energy cost of a large building which has had low energy consumption features originally. Energy reviews has been initiated in order to be able for showing how the house electricity could be carried out even more efficiently.

    The work was initiated through a literature study to clearly increase the reliability on the energy subject. Different concepts of low-energy buildings have been treated in connection with its specifications, afterward those have been compared with the obtained results. An analysis of the building’s energy use has been carried out as well as economic evaluation has been considered in order to the viability of the energy efficiency measures that have been proposed.

    Energy demand for the studied building has been valued at 48, 7 kWh/m2 annually in its original form. The obtained value has been lower than the required energy which has been promoted in Building Regulations, BBR 18. After the improvement of building has been performed, by using a package of measures, the building has been upgraded to a passive house level and the energy demand has become 21, 5 kWh/m2 annually. A reasonably large amount of energy has been reduced in connection with the improvement package as well as the whole profitability has proven to be economic sustainable. By integrating solar energy systems in the building, its result has shown a biggest benefit for saving energy.

  • 36.
    Zakirov, Artur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Zakirov, Timur
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fire risk assessment of a single exit metro station: Evacuation, fire and rescue perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work aims to evaluate the risks at the single exit metro station Zinkensdamm with regard to evacuation and possibilities for fire and rescue operation. The work also includes a comparison of the same station having two exits. The results from the newly-conducted METRO-project were used as the starting point for the evaluation. The report is based on a comprehensive literature review on single exit underground stations and their potential hazards. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the time available for evacuation with the time at which critical conditions occur in case of fire. The results show that for the chosen fire scenario a successful evacuation cannot always be guaranteed. Based on the results, different measures are suggested to improve the fire safety inside the station, such as further improving the train cars' furnishings and installing a sprinkler system in the track area or inside the train cars.

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