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  • 1.
    Bigdeli Azad, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Khatir, Morvarid
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energieffektivitet och kvalitet på inomhusluft i radon förorenade bostadshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To build a sustainable future should we first understand that; every aspect of our daily lives can affect the environment. It’s important that we take responsibility for understanding how we impact the environment and change our actions accordingly. The worlds total energy consumption equivalent to 80 million MWh / year. This corresponds to about 220 million MWh / day.Energy consumption is one of the main reasons for increased greenhouse gases when the reduction of this consumption has a great demand worldwide.In order to prevent the energy that consumed the buildings must be energy efficient but there is a conflict between radon ventilation and energy conservation in a building, given that ventilation can consume as much energy (currently 29-59% of energy-efficient houses use), especially in a cold climate as in Norway. This project can provide a solution to such conflicts.

  • 2.
    Iwan, Abdulrahman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energy efficient buildings in a hot and dry climate.: Improvment of traditional houses in Kurdistan region.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Vadiee, Amir
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Achieving a trade‐off construction solution using BIM, an optimization algorithm, and a multi‐criteria decision‐making method2019In: Buildings, ISSN 2075-5309, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1-14, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Energy Performance of Building Directive obligated all European countries to reduce the energy requirements of buildings while simultaneously improving indoor environment quality. Any such improvements not only enhance the health of the occupants and their productivity, but also provide further economic benefits at the national level. Accomplishing this task requires a method that allows building professionals to resolve conflicts between visual and thermal comfort, energy demands, and life-cycle costs. To overcome these conflicts, this study exploits the incorporation of building information modelling (BIM), the design of experiments as an optimization algorithm, and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) into a multi-criteria decision-making method. Any such incorporation can (i) create constructive communication between building professionals, such as architects, engineers, and energy experts; (ii) allow the analysis of the performance of multiple construction solutions with respect to visual and thermal comfort, energy demand, and life-cycle costs; and (iii) help to select a trade-off solution, thereby making a suitable decision. Three types of energy-efficient windows, and five types of ground floors, roofs, and external wall constructions were considered as optimization variables. The incorporation of several methods allowed the analysis of the performance of 375 construction solutions based on a combination of optimization variables, and helped to select a trade-off solution. The results showed the strength of incorporation for analyzing big-data through the intelligent use of BIM and a simulation in the field of the built environment, energy, and costs. However, when applying AHP, the results are strongly contingent on pairwise comparisons.

  • 4.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Weather data for building simulation: New actual weather files for North Europe combining observed weather and modeled solar radiation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic building simulation is increasingly necessary for accurately quantifying potential energy savings measures in retrofit projects, to compliant with new stricter directives from EU implanted into member states legislations and building codes. For good result the simulation model need to be accurately calibrated. This requires actual weather data, representative for the climate surrounding the given building, in order to calibrate against actual energy bills of the same period of time.

    The main objective of this degree project is to combine observed weather (temperature, humidity, wind etc.) data with modeled solar radiation data, utilizing the SMHI STRÅNG model system; and transform these data into AMY (Actual Meteorological Year) files to be used with building simulation software. This procedure gives actual weather datasets that will cover most of the urban and semi urban area in Northern Europe while still keeping the accuracy of observed weather data. A tool called Real-Time Weather Converter was developed to handle data retrieval & merging, filling of missing data points and to create the final AMY-file.

    Modeled solar radiation data from STRÅNG had only been validated against a Swedish solar radiation network; validation was now made by the author with wider geographic coverage. Validation results show that STRÅNG model system performs well for Sweden but less so outside of Sweden. There exist some areas outside of Sweden (mainly Central Europe) with reasonable good result for some periods but the result is not as consistent in the long run as for Sweden.

    The missing data fill scheme developed for the Real-Time Weather Converter does perform better than interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) of about 9 to 48 hours. For gaps between 2 and 5 days the fill scheme will still give slightly better result than linear interpolation. Akima Spline interpolation performs better than linear interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) in the interval 2 to about 8 hours.

    Temperature uncertainty was studied using data from the period 1981-2010 for selected sites. The result expressed as SD (Standard Deviation) for the uncertainty in yearly mean temperature is about 1˚C for the Nordic countries. On a monthly basis the variation in mean temperature is much stronger (for Nordic countries it ranges from 3.5 to 4.7 ˚C for winter months), while summer months have less variation (with SD in the range of 1.3 to 1.9 ˚C). The same pattern is visible in sites at more southern latitudes but with much lower variation, and still lower for sites near coast areas. E.g. the cost-near Camborne, UK, has a SD of 0.7 to 1.7 ˚C on monthly basis and yearly SD of 0.5 ˚C.

    Mean direct irradiance SD for studied sites ranges from 5 to 19 W/m2 on yearly basis, while on monthly basis the SD ranges from 40 to 60 W/m2 for summer months. However, the sample base was small and of inconsistent time periods and the numbers can only be seen as indicative.

    The commonly used IWEC (International Weather for Energy Calculations) files direct radiation parameter was found to have a very strong negative bias of about 20 to 40 % for Northern Europe.  These files should be used with care, especially if solar radiation has a significant impact of on the building being modeled. Note that there exist also a newer set of files called IWEC2 that can be purchased from ASHRAE, these files seems not to be systematically biased for North Europe but haven’t been studied in this paper.

    The STRÅNG model system does catch the trend, also outside of Sweden, and is thus a very useful source of solar radiation data for model calibration.

  • 5.
    Pinto Dias dos Santos, Hewan Nayoli
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) i praktiken: En studie av BIM i praktiken hos Peab Bygg Öst 12018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was written during the autumn term 2014 in cooperation with Peab region Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm. The writing aims to investigate how they work with Building Information Modeling, BIM, in practice and increase understanding in how you can use the 3D technology in the professional working life.

    In order to define the thesis it has been written about three stages in the construction process: offer- and costing stage (construction bidding), projecting (preconstruction phase) and production (construction execution). Besides that the thesis also includes how BIM is used for visualization of the project and a report containing an investment of 3D printer has also been fulfilled. Additionally, the thesis also contains a description of an internal project that the writer has performed in the company. The internal project aims to develop the offer- and costing stage with BIM.

    The writing is based on studies on the subject and visits to some of Bygg Öst 1 ongoing projects. Results from the interview studies indicate that Peab Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm is working with BIM for example collision handlings, preparation for big parts in the production, different types of visualizations and more. In short, the technology is used for ensuring the occasions in the construction process to improve the efficiency.

    The comparing of the literature and the interview study led to an understanding of the field of the subject and how wide it is. BIM is a broad topic and this 3D technology can be applied in work methods in different ways. The technique does not provide ready-made solutions or strategies to implement in a company, it has been learned that the implementation comes with some challenges.

    Because the technique is broad it may be beneficial that there are specific goals about what should be achieved in the result of the implementation of BIM in the construction process in order to ensure what achievements obtained with the help of the technology.

  • 6.
    Rydberg, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hållbara projekteringsverktyg: Från byggnadsinformationsmodell till simulering – en utvärdering av Revit och Virtual Environment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of building modeling and energy simulations in the design process  of  a  building.  The  take-off  point  is  the  notion  of  energy  simulations  being needed early and throughout the building design process, and that the lack of energy simulations may be explained by the fact that they are time consuming and therefore often too expensive. A greater interoperability between software tools used by relevant disciplines,  such  as  the  architect  and  the  energy  specialist,  would  create  smoother workflows, which would reduce this cost and open up for more frequent and iterative energy  simulation  processes.  The  study  is  an  assessment  of  the  modeling  tool  Revit and  the  simulation  tool  Virtual  Environment  and  whether  they  can  create  smoother workflows, and make leeway for a more frequent use of energy simulations throughout the  design  process.  It  also  investigates  the  limitations  of  what  can  be  examined  by simulations in Virtual Environment. This will hopefully help clarify the future role of energy  simulations  in  design  processes.  The  method  is  a  trial  by  error  approach  of testing the two software tools by building and simulating a model. The results of these tests  show  that  the  workflow  is  not  optimal  (and  therefore  time  consuming)  for frequent  and  iterative simulations  throughout the  design  process,  but  it  also  reveals some  great  possibilities  of  what  can  be  performed  with  these  two  powerful  tools  at hand.  Further  development  with  regards  on  platform  independency  of  the  building information  model,  including  seamless  exporting  and  importing,  seems  necessary  to strengthen the future role of energy simulations.

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