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  • 1.
    Ahmed, Abdi Shakur
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Abdullahi, Hanad
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hantering av rivningsavfall vid större renoveringsprojekt: NCC, Projekt Kv. Linsen och Kv. Lövet. Renovering av hyresrätter i Falkenberg2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to study the management of demolition waste in construction production in a major renovation project while proposing different improvement possibilities. Method: In this study the chosen method was literature study and a case study that was compared to a reference object. Furthermore, in the case study an interview was arranged with the site manager and a survey was conducted with a portion of the workers that were involved in this project. Results: The results show how NCC is intended to work efficiently and calculatedly when preparing a project. Furthermore, the results show the factors that have affected the project both directly and indirectly. In addition, some suggestions for improvement to achieve a smaller amount of waste are proposed. Conclusions: The conclusion is that NCC follows their guidelines for how to achieve sustainable demolition. In this project, they came in late, which meant that they did not fully succeed in planning well for the project. However, regarding the spontaneous measures that needed to be carried out, they received an acceptable amount of waste.

  • 2.
    Backman, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Shakhnasarjan, Hajk
    Willberg, Charlie
    Klimatpåverkan av kontorsbyggnaden Juvelen: En undersökning om koldioxidutsläpp för kontorsbyggnaden Juvelen med LCA som verktyg2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish government set a climate goal until the year 2045, to not produce any greenhouse gases until 2045. This study is based on the problems surrounding the climate impact from the construction and real estate sector in Sweden. The construction company Skanska has made a major contribution with the recently new project Juvelen, which today is Sweden's most sustainable building. The demand for constructing buildings with lesser environmental impacts is increasing and constructions as Juvelen may be an important factor to achieve climate goals. Purpose: This study was done to determine the carbon dioxide emissions during the construction phase of Juvelen, which includes the production phase and transports to the construction site, as well as the operational phase. Method: This study is based on a literature study, case study, and a reference object. During the case study, interviews were conducted with various people who have participated in the production of Juvelen. The carbon dioxide calculations consisted of EPD reports obtained from Strängbetong and VSAB. The carbon dioxide calculations for the operational phase were performed through different scenarios with three different scenarios types of energy. Results: The result for Juvelen's carbon dioxide emissions during the construction phase, based on the quantitative data that had obtained from Strängbetong and VSAB, was approximately 3,568 tonnes of CO2e. Renewable High had an emission of 96,472.61 kg CO2e during the 50-year analysis period. Renewable Medium received a sum of 2,519,339.7 kg CO2e and Renewable Low 11,961,913.29 kg CO2e. The 100-year analysis period for the operational phase showed the double value of the 50-year analysis period. Based on the current study and an interview with Ambjörn Gille, it appears that Skanska is making efforts to achieve climate goals by 2045. Conclusions: The conclusion that the work came to was that to achieve the climate goal of net-zero emissions, its necessary that the entire construction and real estate sector needs to adapt, apply new and innovative technology. The differences that emerged from the comparison of the production, operating phase for Juvelen were the choice of material, construction process, and method for construction of Juvelen and the choice of energy scenario.

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  • 3.
    Bigdeli Azad, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Khatir, Morvarid
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energieffektivitet och kvalitet på inomhusluft i radon förorenade bostadshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To build a sustainable future should we first understand that; every aspect of our daily lives can affect the environment. It’s important that we take responsibility for understanding how we impact the environment and change our actions accordingly. The worlds total energy consumption equivalent to 80 million MWh / year. This corresponds to about 220 million MWh / day.Energy consumption is one of the main reasons for increased greenhouse gases when the reduction of this consumption has a great demand worldwide.In order to prevent the energy that consumed the buildings must be energy efficient but there is a conflict between radon ventilation and energy conservation in a building, given that ventilation can consume as much energy (currently 29-59% of energy-efficient houses use), especially in a cold climate as in Norway. This project can provide a solution to such conflicts.

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    Examenarbete
  • 4.
    Iwan, Abdulrahman
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energy efficient buildings in a hot and dry climate.: Improvment of traditional houses in Kurdistan region.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Energy efficient buildings in Kurdistan
  • 5.
    Jalilzadehazhari, Elaheh
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Växjö, Sweden.
    Vadiee, Amir
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Johansson, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Achieving a trade‐off construction solution using BIM, an optimization algorithm, and a multi‐criteria decision‐making method2019In: Buildings, E-ISSN 2075-5309, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 1-14, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Energy Performance of Building Directive obligated all European countries to reduce the energy requirements of buildings while simultaneously improving indoor environment quality. Any such improvements not only enhance the health of the occupants and their productivity, but also provide further economic benefits at the national level. Accomplishing this task requires a method that allows building professionals to resolve conflicts between visual and thermal comfort, energy demands, and life-cycle costs. To overcome these conflicts, this study exploits the incorporation of building information modelling (BIM), the design of experiments as an optimization algorithm, and the analytical hierarchy process (AHP) into a multi-criteria decision-making method. Any such incorporation can (i) create constructive communication between building professionals, such as architects, engineers, and energy experts; (ii) allow the analysis of the performance of multiple construction solutions with respect to visual and thermal comfort, energy demand, and life-cycle costs; and (iii) help to select a trade-off solution, thereby making a suitable decision. Three types of energy-efficient windows, and five types of ground floors, roofs, and external wall constructions were considered as optimization variables. The incorporation of several methods allowed the analysis of the performance of 375 construction solutions based on a combination of optimization variables, and helped to select a trade-off solution. The results showed the strength of incorporation for analyzing big-data through the intelligent use of BIM and a simulation in the field of the built environment, energy, and costs. However, when applying AHP, the results are strongly contingent on pairwise comparisons.

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  • 6.
    Kawamoto Enarsson, Alfred
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mathisen, Thoni
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Vornanen, Jani
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Klimatneutrala städers verklighet och utmaningar: En analys av klimatarbetet inom bygg- och anläggningssektorn för 23 svenska kommuner anslutna till Viable Cities och dess verksamma aktörer2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the work was to map how the 23 cities that have signed the climate contract with the Viable Cities innovation program are working with the climate transition, but also to gain insight into the companies' climate work in the construction sector. Method: The method for developing the basis for the work has been in the form of a literature study where previous work on the subject has been reviewed but also various data collections where information has been obtained from organizations and authorities, interviews with companies active in the industry and review of cities' climate roadmaps for the construction sector in the 23 connected cities within Viable Cities. Results: The report shows variations in cities progressiveness and their approaches with common measures like adopting fossil-free machinery, promoting wooden construction, and using solar panels. Some cities also use green building rating systems for municipal buildings. Less common measures include individual heating measurements, future oriented building planning, and prioritizing low climate impact procurement. In Södermanland county carbon dioxide emissions from new constructions have significantly increased over the past decade reaching a record high of 410 000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 2022 compared to 72 000 tons in 2012. The interviews shows that companies aim for green building rating systems and use strategies like optimizing concrete usage and promoting reuse to reduce climate impact. Changing tenants' attitudes toward reused products is crucial, and a more accessible material bank is needed. Reusing technical installations poses challenges due to warranties while recycled materials for interior walls, floors, framework, and facades are more easily used. Contractors and clients implement various energy efficiency measures but face obstacles like higher costs, limited availability of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs), and uncertainty regarding climate friendly materials. Companies seek improved legislation, incentives, and clearer requirements for climate smart solutions. Collaboration drives innovation and market solutions. Conclusions: The study shows disparities in cities' efforts to address climate change. Malmö is leading with innovative strategies, exemplified by the LFM30 climate program. Cities need to intensify their efforts, taking independent actions and implementing stricter requirements. Interviews emphasize the need for additional legislation to engage stakeholders and achieve a more climate-neutral construction sector. Guaranteeing reuse remains a challenge that requires further examination. Companies also seek clear guidelines in the climate declaration to facilitate sustainable production.

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  • 7.
    Lehtonen, Joakim
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energikartläggning av förskola: Underlag för energieffektiviseringsåtgärder av byggnaden Metreven samt fördjupning avseende potential för uppfyllande av Boverkets krav gällande nära- nollenergibyggnad2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish residential sector consumes almost 39 % of Sweden’s final energy consumption. The European Union framework ”Clean Energy for all Europeans package” strives to promote a 32,5 % reduction as a result of energy efficiency measures. The Swedish legislation BBR regulates rules regarding new buildings, extensions and reconstruction of existing buildings. Excerpt 9 regards how energy is being used and determines the demands e.g. for a buildings primary energy use to be classified as a near zero energy building (NZEB). The energy use of a building, located in Västerås, Sweden, is being decided. Various energy efficiency packages are applied to a model in the simulation software IDA ICE. The results are compared with each other deciding the potential benefits of the energy efficiency measures. A substantial decrease of the energy consumption is detected, especially for the energy efficiency packages containing a geothermal heat pump (66 – 78 %). A life cycle cost analysis shows that the package containing a ventilation heat recovery system (FTX) combined with a geothermal heat pump is the optimal solution through an economical point a view. The solution yields a profit after 14 years. The analysis shows that all geothermal solutions, except a system consisting of a geothermal heat pump, FTX, energy efficient windows, rooftop insulation and a photovoltaic system, yields a profit during a 30-year investment period. None of the packages containing a district heat exchanger yield a profit. The simulation results show that by implementing any of the geothermal heat pump packages, the demands for classifying the building according to an NZE building are fulfilled. Regarding the district heating packages, only the package containing all the energy efficiency measures (energy efficient windows, rooftop insulation and PV) meets the demands to be classified as an NZE building. Regarding the environmental impact due to implementing the energy efficiency measures, the results show a reduced impact from applying the geothermal heat pump packages is equivalent to the energy consumption reductions. The results show that by implementing a district heating system, more than one additional energy efficiency measure must be applied to avoid an increased environmental impact. This thesis shows that implementing energy efficiency measures can decrease energy consumption and yield an economical profit to the existing building stock.

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  • 8.
    Lundström, Lukas
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Weather data for building simulation: New actual weather files for North Europe combining observed weather and modeled solar radiation2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic building simulation is increasingly necessary for accurately quantifying potential energy savings measures in retrofit projects, to compliant with new stricter directives from EU implanted into member states legislations and building codes. For good result the simulation model need to be accurately calibrated. This requires actual weather data, representative for the climate surrounding the given building, in order to calibrate against actual energy bills of the same period of time.

    The main objective of this degree project is to combine observed weather (temperature, humidity, wind etc.) data with modeled solar radiation data, utilizing the SMHI STRÅNG model system; and transform these data into AMY (Actual Meteorological Year) files to be used with building simulation software. This procedure gives actual weather datasets that will cover most of the urban and semi urban area in Northern Europe while still keeping the accuracy of observed weather data. A tool called Real-Time Weather Converter was developed to handle data retrieval & merging, filling of missing data points and to create the final AMY-file.

    Modeled solar radiation data from STRÅNG had only been validated against a Swedish solar radiation network; validation was now made by the author with wider geographic coverage. Validation results show that STRÅNG model system performs well for Sweden but less so outside of Sweden. There exist some areas outside of Sweden (mainly Central Europe) with reasonable good result for some periods but the result is not as consistent in the long run as for Sweden.

    The missing data fill scheme developed for the Real-Time Weather Converter does perform better than interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) of about 9 to 48 hours. For gaps between 2 and 5 days the fill scheme will still give slightly better result than linear interpolation. Akima Spline interpolation performs better than linear interpolation for data gaps (outdoor temperature) in the interval 2 to about 8 hours.

    Temperature uncertainty was studied using data from the period 1981-2010 for selected sites. The result expressed as SD (Standard Deviation) for the uncertainty in yearly mean temperature is about 1˚C for the Nordic countries. On a monthly basis the variation in mean temperature is much stronger (for Nordic countries it ranges from 3.5 to 4.7 ˚C for winter months), while summer months have less variation (with SD in the range of 1.3 to 1.9 ˚C). The same pattern is visible in sites at more southern latitudes but with much lower variation, and still lower for sites near coast areas. E.g. the cost-near Camborne, UK, has a SD of 0.7 to 1.7 ˚C on monthly basis and yearly SD of 0.5 ˚C.

    Mean direct irradiance SD for studied sites ranges from 5 to 19 W/m2 on yearly basis, while on monthly basis the SD ranges from 40 to 60 W/m2 for summer months. However, the sample base was small and of inconsistent time periods and the numbers can only be seen as indicative.

    The commonly used IWEC (International Weather for Energy Calculations) files direct radiation parameter was found to have a very strong negative bias of about 20 to 40 % for Northern Europe.  These files should be used with care, especially if solar radiation has a significant impact of on the building being modeled. Note that there exist also a newer set of files called IWEC2 that can be purchased from ASHRAE, these files seems not to be systematically biased for North Europe but haven’t been studied in this paper.

    The STRÅNG model system does catch the trend, also outside of Sweden, and is thus a very useful source of solar radiation data for model calibration.

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  • 9.
    Pinto Dias dos Santos, Hewan Nayoli
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) i praktiken: En studie av BIM i praktiken hos Peab Bygg Öst 12018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was written during the autumn term 2014 in cooperation with Peab region Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm. The writing aims to investigate how they work with Building Information Modeling, BIM, in practice and increase understanding in how you can use the 3D technology in the professional working life.

    In order to define the thesis it has been written about three stages in the construction process: offer- and costing stage (construction bidding), projecting (preconstruction phase) and production (construction execution). Besides that the thesis also includes how BIM is used for visualization of the project and a report containing an investment of 3D printer has also been fulfilled. Additionally, the thesis also contains a description of an internal project that the writer has performed in the company. The internal project aims to develop the offer- and costing stage with BIM.

    The writing is based on studies on the subject and visits to some of Bygg Öst 1 ongoing projects. Results from the interview studies indicate that Peab Bygg Öst 1 in Stockholm is working with BIM for example collision handlings, preparation for big parts in the production, different types of visualizations and more. In short, the technology is used for ensuring the occasions in the construction process to improve the efficiency.

    The comparing of the literature and the interview study led to an understanding of the field of the subject and how wide it is. BIM is a broad topic and this 3D technology can be applied in work methods in different ways. The technique does not provide ready-made solutions or strategies to implement in a company, it has been learned that the implementation comes with some challenges.

    Because the technique is broad it may be beneficial that there are specific goals about what should be achieved in the result of the implementation of BIM in the construction process in order to ensure what achievements obtained with the help of the technology.

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    Examensarbete - BIM i praktiken
  • 10.
    Rydberg, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hållbara projekteringsverktyg: Från byggnadsinformationsmodell till simulering – en utvärdering av Revit och Virtual Environment2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of building modeling and energy simulations in the design process  of  a  building.  The  take-off  point  is  the  notion  of  energy  simulations  being needed early and throughout the building design process, and that the lack of energy simulations may be explained by the fact that they are time consuming and therefore often too expensive. A greater interoperability between software tools used by relevant disciplines,  such  as  the  architect  and  the  energy  specialist,  would  create  smoother workflows, which would reduce this cost and open up for more frequent and iterative energy  simulation  processes.  The  study  is  an  assessment  of  the  modeling  tool  Revit and  the  simulation  tool  Virtual  Environment  and  whether  they  can  create  smoother workflows, and make leeway for a more frequent use of energy simulations throughout the  design  process.  It  also  investigates  the  limitations  of  what  can  be  examined  by simulations in Virtual Environment. This will hopefully help clarify the future role of energy  simulations  in  design  processes.  The  method  is  a  trial  by  error  approach  of testing the two software tools by building and simulating a model. The results of these tests  show  that  the  workflow  is  not  optimal  (and  therefore  time  consuming)  for frequent  and  iterative simulations  throughout the  design  process,  but  it  also  reveals some  great  possibilities  of  what  can  be  performed  with  these  two  powerful  tools  at hand.  Further  development  with  regards  on  platform  independency  of  the  building information  model,  including  seamless  exporting  and  importing,  seems  necessary  to strengthen the future role of energy simulations.

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    Hållbara projekteringsverkyg 2012 Henrik Rydberg
  • 11.
    Taher, Abdo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ulger, Benyamin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tillämpning av BIM i ett byggnadsprojekt: Centrum för idrott och kultur i Knivsta2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe how the CIK project was executed. Furthermore, it is investigated how the CIK project could have been designed with BIM as a working method and what changes it would entail for the project. Method: This study has consisted of a literature study of BIM and a case study of the CIK project. The case study included an object description as well as documents and interviews were analyzed. In addition, remodeling and observations of the CIK project were performed with BIM tools. Results: The results initially show how the traditional working methods were implemented in the CIK project. The initial lack of requirements created ambiguities. The architects used traditional sketching methods for the design. Calculation and scheduling were handled separately from the 3D model. The 3D models in the CIK project were used for visualizations and coordination. However, the contracted documents for various deliveries were traditional 2D drawings. The architects produced over 300 drawings and over 100 different doors that were presented on different drawings. At the end of the production, selected PDF-documents were re-stamped in consultation with the customers for the administration. Furthermore, the results show how the CIK project with a BIM application could have been carried out. Initially, a BIM manual is created by a BIM strategist to specify the requirements. During design, parametric and generative design are used to find different solutions to meet the requirements. The calculation and schedule must be linked to the BIM model. All information management takes place in cloud services such as BIMeye. Through StreamBIM, the production then retrieves all the necessary information from the BIM model. Additional detailed drawings should be linked to the objects in StreamBIM. During production, the BIM model is updated before the delivery to the customers. Conclusions: The conclusions that can be drawn from this study are that the information management is an important aspect to implement during the construction process. For the CIK project, BIM would mean a completely new way of managing and centralizing the information by linking data to the objects in the model. The point of BIM projects is to constantly turn to the model or database, which is linked to the model to retrieve the necessary information. The result is therefore a release from the information islands and duplication of work that is formed in a traditional design.

  • 12.
    Waltari, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Alhajjaj, Saif
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    TJÄRASFALT I GAMLA VÄGAR: En undersökning av miljöinventering inom konsultföretaget ÅF2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tar asphalt containing harmful pollutants has been in our roads for a long time before its harmfulness was discovered in the 1970s. Prior to 1973 in Sweden, tar asphalt was a common repair material when repairing roads. A lot of the documentation of where repairs have been made prior to 1973 have disappeared over time. This means that if a road that existed before 1973 is to be rebuilt, the road must be environmentally invented for the presence of tar asphalt. The purpose of this degree project is to examine the methods that the consultant company ÅF uses today to identify tar asphalt in projects. To identify these methods a literature study has been made, analysis of past projects of ÅF and interviews with personnel of the company. An important problem that was identified is related to the field tests that are quite uncertain and can only identify quite high levels of pollutants in the asphalt. Further improvements for how to solve it would be implementing lab analysis of all samples on road projects where the margin for error is smaller. For all smaller or medium sized projects, a more cost-efficient method using mainly field tests as they use today appear the best solution.

  • 13.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China .
    Chen, Min
    Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for NSLSCS, School of Mathematical Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yang, Yue
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China .
    Zhong, Teng
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Zhu, Rui
    Department of Land Surveying and Geo-Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.
    Zhang, Fan
    Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong.
    Qian, Zhen
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Lü, Guonian
    Key Laboratory of Virtual Geographic Environment (Ministry of Education of PRC), Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, 210023, China; State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base of Geographical Environment Evolution, Nanjing, 210023, China; Jiangsu Center for Collaborative Innovation in Geographical Information Resource Development and Application, Nanjing, 210023, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, 10044, Sweden.
    Quantifying the photovoltaic potential of highways in China2022In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 324, article id 119600Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Installing photovoltaic (PV) modules on highways is considered a promising way to support carbon neutrality in China. However, collecting the area of the highway, and precisely assessing the shadow area of the highway under complex terrain remain challenges. That severely hinders the assessment of highway PV potential. To address these challenges, a spatiotemporal model is developed in this study to estimate the annual solar PV potential on highways over the whole Chinese territory. First, the areas of different highway segments are calculated based on highway network and highway toll stations. Second, hourly shadow area on highways created by nearby terrain is estimated based on a digital elevation model (DEM). When calculating the highway PV potential, the solar irradiation received in these shadow areas is regarded as zero. Finally, the PV potential of all lanes and emergency lanes was estimated at the prefecture-level city scale using surface radiation data and radiation assessment models. Based on the highway data with a total mileage of 143,684 km at the end of 2020, the results show that the annual PV potential is 3,932 TW and that the corresponding installed capacity is 700.85 GW, which can generate clean electricity at a rate of up to 629.06 TWh. The annual PV potential of highways in the southeast is greater than that in the northwest owing to the higher highway density in the southeast. This study provides a reference basis for highway PV construction planning and suitably assessment in each region of China for PV highway development.

  • 14.
    Zwahlen, Jonathan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Witt, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Framtidens VVS-konsult: En utvecklad användning av BIM inom VVS-branschen genom en adaptering av Knowledge Management2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of the need for the construction industry to become more and more efficient, this sets new requirements for an increased digitalization of the construction industry as a whole. As consultants are considered a crucial role in the early stages of construction projects, this requires a deeper understanding of the role of consultants in the early stages of construction projects and their further development. Previous studies indicate that increased knowledge and skills can be seen as barriers to further development, mainly in the industry but also in most organizations. This study aims to investigate the barriers that are considered to exist in the Swedish construction industry for increased use of building information modeling (BIM), by highlighting the barriers' links to the HVAC consultant's work and the implementation of knowledge management (KM). This has resulted in the questions 1) What are the barriers to a developed use of BIM in the HVAC industry? and 2) How can KM enable a developed use of BIM in the HVAC industry? The study's theoretical and empirical data collection has consisted of a systematic literature study and semi-structured interviews with plumbing consultants, a supplier, an industry organization and a plumbing expert. The barriers that inhibit a developed use of BIM and adaptation of KM are knowledge and skills, political commitment, unified view of BIM, client's attitude towards BIM, absorptive capacity (ACAP) and culture. The HVAC contractor needs to adapt KM and improve its ACAP in order to increase the level of knowledge within the organization and maintain competitiveness in the market. Adaptation of KM at the HVAC contractor also contributes to an increased level of knowledge in the construction industry as ACAP enables internal and external knowledge sharing. To enable an adaptation of KM, there is a need for a culture that promotes collaboration, trust, learning and the development of BIM in the industry. This requires a cultural change and an active leadership to create common norms, an acceptance of new solutions, a call for development, values that encourage knowledge sharing, a strategy for training, education and mentoring, and a call for daring to try new solutions.

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