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  • 1.
    Alhaj, Jasmin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Darman, Raiman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Improving the Material Flow Through Just-In-Time2024Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Date: 2nd June 2024 

    Level: Master thesis in Product and Process Development, advanced level, 30 credits

    Institution: School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Mälardalen University

    Author: Raiman Darman, 25th April 2000, Jasmin Alhaj, 12th Mars 1998

    Title: Improving the Material Flow through Just-in-time

    Tutor: Ola Wassenius & Oliver Söderlund, ABB Robotics, Mats Ahlskog, Mälardalen University 

    Keywords: Material flow,  Just-in-time, Lean production, Warehouse management system

    Purpose: The purpose of this master thesis is to explore how Just-in-time principles can be applied to improve the internal material flow and to identify necessary functionalities in the warehouse management system to support Just-in-time.

    Research questions: 

    Q1: How can the material flow in production systems be improved by implementing Just-In-time?

    Q2: What type of functionality is needed in the warehouse management system to support Just-in-time?

    Method: This study employs qualitative research and an abductive approach to achieve its objectives. Data collection is categorized into secondary research, involving a review of existing literature, and primary research, which includes a case study conducted through interviews and observations. Both semi-structured and unstructured interviews were employed with the case company and the benchmarking organization. The use of benchmarking allows for the comparison of organizational practices, challenges, and outcomes, aiding in identifying areas for improvement and gaining insights into effective strategies.

    Conclusion: Addressing the first research question, the material flow can be improved by transitioning to a pull-based system and implementing concepts such as supermarkets and point-of-use storage. Furthermore, integrating automated systems for tracking cart availability and establishing clear protocols for standardized work procedures are crucial. Real-time communication and coordination between departments, facilitated by advanced solutions like real-time visibility screens, are also ways of improving the material flow.  Addressing the second research question, it's critical to integrate the internal WMS with the SAP ERP software, address communication gaps, provide comprehensive user training and support, streamline task sequencing, and conduct regular system updates and maintenance.

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    Improving the Material Flow Through Just-In-Time
  • 2.
    Ansari, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Freiberg, Emanuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Supporting Strategic Decisions for Operational Changes through the use of Discrete Event Simulation: A Case Study in Production Scheduling at AstraZeneca2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, market competitiveness exerts more pressure on process industries to increase their number of products, reduce order sizes and shorten delivery lead time. This causes an expansion of order enquiries from customers, which leads to an insufficient use of scheduling and planning systems to meet these changes. This force process industries to adopt other tools, such as Discrete Event Simulation for supporting their strategic decisions to align with these operational changes.

     

    The objective of this thesis is to understand how Discrete Event Simulation supports strategic decisions prior to the implementation of operational changes in process industries. Therefore, a case study in the pharmaceutical industry was conducted at AstraZeneca, Södertälje. Discrete Event Simulation was used as a tool to support the strategic decision of implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. Simultaneously, a theoretical review was carried out to investigate types of strategic decisions which can be supported by Discrete Event Simulation use in process industries. Then, contributions and challenges of Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting strategic decisions for operational changes were clarified. 

     

    The empirical results indicate the importance of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting deliverability as a competitive priority to AstraZeneca, followed by flexibility and cost as second and third competitive priorities. The analysis also identified the contribution of Discrete Event Simulation in supporting long-term decisions in the company by providing analytical solutions in different scenarios, dynamic visualization and increased knowledge about the simulated operational change. Additionally, two main challenges in the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decision are identified. First, Discrete Event Simulation was not suitable for supporting all kinds of competitive priorities such as quality, environment and innovation. Second, the direction of the communication between the Discrete Event Simulation use and the strategic decisions differs.   

     

    A framework is developed to facilitate the use of Discrete Event Simulation for supporting strategic decisions prior to implementing the Product Wheel technique as an operational change. This framework provides a guideline to identify the range of contributions from Discrete Event Simulation use for supporting different types of competitive priorities prior to the implementation of the Product Wheel method. Generally, Discrete Event Simulation could be a useful tool for supporting deliverability, cost and flexibility by implementing the Product Wheel technique, while it has a limited capability when dealing with other strategic decisions such as quality, innovation and environment.

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  • 3.
    Awidesian, Johannes
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Persson, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Förbättringsarbete med bistånd av DMAIC-metoden: Ett pilotprojekt med utgångspunkt i kvalitetssäkring på Södergrens Br. Metallindustri2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete avser ett pilotprojekt utfört mellan månaderna januari och maj, 2015 på det karakteristiska legoföretaget Södergrens Br. Metallindustri AB i Eskilstuna. Pilotprojektets syfte är att redogöra hur Södergrens men framförallt andra karakteristiska legoföretag kan implementera och tillämpa förbättringsmetoden DMAIC, med målsättning att förbättra den allmänna kvalitén och således också nedbringa kvalitetsbristkostnader. För att göra detta genomförbart har man infört ett förbättringsprojekt på ett anpassat studieobjekt. Studieobjektet som utretts avser hanteringen av fixturer, mätdon och mätrum på Södergrens Br. Metallindustri. Datainsamlingen under pilotprojektet har utförts med hjälp av intervjuer, observationer, benchmarking och ett antal kvalitetsverktyg kopplade till DMAIC-metoden.

    Slutresultatet visar att Södergrens Br. Metallindustri och därav även andra legoföretag kan dra nytta av att implementera och tillämpa DMAIC för blivande förbättringsprojekt på företagen. Det som framförts under pilotprojektets gång stämmer överens med teori om implementering av DMAIC och anpassningsbara kvalitetsverktyg. Det som markant påverkar effektiviteten av förbättringsprojektet och således även anses vara mycket viktigt, är att utvald förbättringsgrupp har eller tilldelas rätt kunskap av DMAIC-metoden och allt därom. För att även försäkra att man väljer rätt förbättringsprojekt och få en sammankoppling mellan förbättringsgruppen är det viktigt att tillsammans formulera fram ett projektkontrakt med tillhörande mål och krav.

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    Förbättringsarbete med bistånd av DMAIC-metoden
  • 4.
    Badasjane, Viktorija
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transportation mode decisions and the evaluation of maritime transportation in a Swedish setting: A case study2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Focus of this bachelor thesis is on examining the port located in Köping, thus a holistic view of maritime transportation is adapted in relation to the examined companies in the region and their global trade. The aim of this study is to examine the current situation and the potential to increase transportation of goods by maritime transportation and what criteria are the most important for different industrial/customer segments. The aim is divided into three research questions:

    • RQ1: Which decision criterions are considered in selection of transportation mode?

    • RQ2: What are the advantages and the disadvantages of the different transportation modes?

    • RQ3: When is maritime transportation preferable to road and railway?

    The research approach used in order to answer the aim and research questions were; literature review to gain an understanding of freight transportation in a broad context. To narrow down the area, freight transportation practice in the Swedish setting have been examined. Data collection for the Swedish setting have been collected through reports published by the national authorities. Lastly, data for freight transportation in the region of Western Mälardalen has been collected through a case study.Several criterions were found to be of importance during a transportation mode decision, as well as interrelationships between criterions. The identified criterions were cost, reliability and time, frequency and volume and lastly specific goods need. This was found to be in line with theoretical framework, especially the fact that the mode decision is vastly complex and highly depended upon which industry is making the decision, that is the context. A comparison of the modes was made to specify the benefits and downfalls with each mode for answering research question 2. Furthermore, an important identification is the gap between transportation purchaser and providers view of the reliability criterion. This difference can create a gap making it difficult to attract customers to maritime transportation. It is recommended that a thorough investigation is needed in order to examine what aspect of reliability is achievable and realistic in maritime transportation in general and for Köping´s Port in particular.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Bao, Z.
    et al.
    School of Naval Architecture, Ocean and Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiaotong University, China.
    Li, J.
    School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, China.
    Bai, X.
    Cockrell School of Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, United States.
    Xie, C.
    Urban Mobility Institute, Tongji University, China.
    Chen, Z.
    Division of Engineering and Computer Science, New York University Shanghai, China.
    Xu, M.
    Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China.
    Shang, W. -L
    College of Metropolitan Transportation, Beijing University of Technology, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    An optimal charging scheduling model and algorithm for electric buses2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 332, article id 120512Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrification poses a promising low-carbon or even zero-carbon transportation solution, serving as a strategic approach to reducing carbon emissions and promoting carbon neutrality in the transportation sector. Along the transportation electrification pathway, the goal of carbon neutrality can be further accelerated with an increasing amount of electricity being generated from renewable energies. The past decade observed the rapid development of battery technologies and deployment of electricity infrastructure worldwide, fostering transportation electrification to expand from railways to light and then heavy vehicles on roadways. In China, a massive number of electric buses have been employed and operated in dozens of metropolises. An important daily operations issue with these urban electric buses is how to coordinate their charging activities in a cost-effective manner, considering various physical, financial, institutional, and managerial constraints. This paper addresses a general charging scheduling problem for an electric bus fleet operated across multiple bus lines and charging depots and terminals, aiming at finding an optimal set of charging location and time decisions given the available charging windows. The charging windows for each bus are predetermined in terms of its layovers at depots and terminals and each of them is discretized into a number of charging slots with the same time duration. A mixed linear integer programming model with binary charging slot choice and continuous state-of-charge (SOC) variables is constructed for minimizing the total charging cost of the bus fleet subject to individual electricity consumption rates, electricity charging rates, time-based charging windows, battery SOC bounds, time-of-use (TOU) charging tariffs, and station-specific electricity load capacities. A Lagrangian relaxation framework is employed to decouple the joint charging schedule of a bus fleet into a number of independent single-bus charging schedules, which can be efficiently addressed by a bi-criterion dynamic programming algorithm. A real-world regional electric bus fleet of 122 buses in Shanghai, China is selected for validating the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed charging scheduling model and algorithm. The optimization results numerically reveal the impacts of TOU tariffs, station load capacities, charging infrastructure configurations, and battery capacities on the bus system performance as well as individual recharging behaviors, and justify the superior solution efficiency of our algorithm against a state-of-the-art commercial solver. 

  • 6.
    Bergvall, Ellinor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Effektivisering av information- och kommunikationsflödet i ett distributionscenter genom Lean2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis was conducted in a distribution center that desired to improve its internal communication and information flow. This is a challenge that many large organizations have today, as copious amount of information is communicated daily between different parties within an organization. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to examine the communication and information flow in a distribution center and examine whether it can be more efficient with the help of Lean. The following questions have been formulated based on the stated aim:

    • What are the visual and communication challenges in a distribution center and how can a visual and communicative environment contribute to Lean production?
    • How can organizations overcome the challenges and take advantage of the opportunities that arise when implementing visual communication?

    In order to answer the questions above, a case study and a literature study have been carried out. The case study has been conducted at a national distribution center in Mälardalen in parallel with a literature study which, among other things, concerned the areas of visual communication, implementation and Lean. The literature study was conducted to gain an understanding of the concerned subject on the case company, interviews and observations were carried out to get an insight into the organization and collect data.

    The visual communication contributes to a majority of positive consequences if applied correctly. As a result, the case company can potentially improve the information and communication flow with the help of implementing visual tools, as it can contribute to increasing understanding and that important information reaches more employees.

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  • 7.
    Besinovic, Nikola
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    De Donato, Lorenzo
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Elect Engn & Informat Technolo2y, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Flammini, Francesco
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Goverde, Rob M. P.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Transport & Planning, NL-2600 GA Delft, Netherlands..
    Lin, Zhiyuan
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Liu, Ronghui
    Univ Leeds, Inst Transport Studies, Leeds LS2 9JT, W Yorkshire, England..
    Marrone, Stefano
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Elect Engn & Informat Technolo2y, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Nardone, Roberto
    Univ Naples Parthenope, Dept Engn, I-80143 Naples, Italy..
    Tang, Tianli
    Southeast Univ, Sch Transportat, Jiangsu Prov Collaborat Innovat Ctr Modern Urban, Jiangsu Key Lab Urban ITS, Nanjing 211189, Peoples R China..
    Vittorini, Valeria
    Univ Naples Federico II, Dept Elect Engn & Informat Technolo2y, I-80125 Naples, Italy..
    Artificial Intelligence in Railway Transport: Taxonomy, Regulations, and Applications2022In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 23, no 9, p. 14011-14024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is becoming pervasive in most engineering domains, and railway transport is no exception. However, due to the plethora of different new terms and meanings associated with them, there is a risk that railway practitioners, as several other categories, will get lost in those ambiguities and fuzzy boundaries, and hence fail to catch the real opportunities and potential of machine learning, artificial vision, and big data analytics, just to name a few of the most promising approaches connected to AI. The scope of this paper is to introduce the basic concepts and possible applications of AI to railway academics and practitioners. To that aim, this paper presents a structured taxonomy to guide researchers and practitioners to understand AI techniques, research fields, disciplines, and applications, both in general terms and in close connection with railway applications such as autonomous driving, maintenance, and traffic management. The important aspects of ethics and explainability of AI in railways are also introduced. The connection between AI concepts and railway subdomains has been supported by relevant research addressing existing and planned applications in order to provide some pointers to promising directions.

  • 8.
    Bohlin, Markus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansmann, Ronny
    Zimmermann, Uwe
    Optimization of railway freight shunting2018In: Handbook of Optimization in the Railway Industry / [ed] Borndï¿œrfer, R.; Klug, T.; Lamorgese, L.; Mannino, C.; Reuther, M.; Schlechte, T., Springer , 2018, p. 181-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Corradini, Flavio
    et al.
    Univ Camerino, Sch Sci & Technol, Via Madonna delle Carceri 9, Camerino, MC, Italy..
    De Angelis, Francesco
    Univ Camerino, Sch Sci & Technol, Camerino, MC, Italy..
    Polini, Andrea
    Univ Camerino, Sch Sci & Technol, Camerino, MC, Italy..
    Castagnari, Carlo
    Univ Camerino, Sch Sci & Technol, Camerino, MC, Italy..
    de Berardinis, Jacopo
    Univ Manchester, Sch Comp Sci, Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
    Forcina, Giorgio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Tangramob: An Agent-Based Simulation Framework for Validating Urban Smart Mobility Solutions2020In: Journal of Intelligent Systems, ISSN 0334-1860, E-ISSN 2191-026X, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 1188-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating the effects of introducing a range of smart mobility solutions within an urban area is a crucial concern in urban planning. The lack of a simulator for the assessment of mobility initiatives forces local public authorities and mobility service providers to base their decisions on guidelines derived from common heuristics and best practices. These approaches can help planners in shaping mobility solutions; however, given the high number of variables to consider, the effects are not guaranteed. Therefore, a solution conceived respecting the available guidelines can result in a failure in a different context. In particular, difficult aspects to consider are the interactions between different mobility services available in a given urban area and the acceptance of a given mobility initiative by the inhabitants of the area. In order to fill this gap, we introduce Tangramob, an agent-based simulation framework capable of assessing the impacts of a smart mobility initiative within an urban area of interest. Tangramob simulates how urban traffic is expected to evolve as citizens start experiencing newly offered traveling solutions. This allows decision makers to evaluate the efficacy of their initiatives, taking into account the current urban system. In this paper, we provide an overview of the simulation framework along with its design. To show the potential of Tangramob, three mobility initiatives are simulated and compared in the same scenario. This demonstrates how it is possible to perform comparative experiments so as to align mobility initiatives to the user goals.

  • 10.
    Dag, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Processkartläggning av flöde - ICA Hacksta Västerås2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    sammanfattning
  • 11.
    Daraei, Maryam
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Warehouse Redesign Process: A case study at Enics Sweden AB2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays warehousing became one of the most important and critical part in supply chain systems due to the fact that it consumes a considerable part of logistic cost. Designing phase of warehousing system is the most important part in warehousing since most of the strategic and tactical decisions should be taken in this phase.

    Majority of academic papers are primarily analysis oriented and does not give a systematic method and techniques as a basis for warehouse redesign. So there is a need to develop a structured procedure that can be applied for different type of warehouses.

    Therefore the purpose of this thesis is to develop a process for redesigning production warehouses, and analyzing major problems during redesign steps.

    The thesis is designed as a case study, and a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and data analysis. The methodology focuses around the warehousing process and redesign steps as described in the literature. Results of the thesis develop a seven steps procedure for redesigning of the production warehouse, also different problems and challenges are faced during redesign steps.

    It was tried to choose the best redesigning method which fit with the characteristics of the warehouse, in order to cover the space reduction of the warehouse with the consideration of existing facilities and reducing of cost. In addition, the performance of the current warehouse system was evaluated based on current design of the warehouse in order to avoid repeating of same mistake in redesign process.

    Storage assignment policy as one of the redesign steps was discussed and a framework for storage system of the components were suggested.

    The findings of the thesis to some extent can be applicable to other production warehouses. Further research is suggested for more specific results and new developed redesign methods for all types of warehouses.

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    Warehouse Redesign Process
  • 12.
    Dipa, Fuad
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ektiren, Erkan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Implementing Full Inventory Control in a Production Facility: A Case Study at Scania CV Engine Assembly2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of inventory control has been around since the early 20th century and it’s constantly evolving. The importance of inventory management and supply chain management is clear, and companies are constantly trying to evolve their systems and ways of handling inventory control. By having a proper inventory control system with adequate inventory record audits, a company could potentially have several benefits such as reduced tied-up capital, reduced holding costs, reduced/redistributed work hours, better automation and more.

    Most organisations and companies have some form of inventory control, however not all have full control of their inventory. This includes automatic inventory balance updates, package traceability, automatic replenishment systems and more. To implement these ideas, a company would need to foremost find what factors are currently hindering them from obtaining this and consequently being able to adjust their factors. Since there are several ways to obtain an automatic inventory record update that is adequate, multiple proposals are discussed in this thesis project.

    This thesis project assessed what the necessary steps that a company needs to perform are through a case study at Scania CV Engine and a benchmarking at Scania Production Angers. Through a collection of scientific literature and empirical data, an attempt to identify the factors that determine whether a company can implement full inventory control or not was made. As a supplement to this, this thesis project also looked over what type of consequences an implementation of full inventory control could have in a company, both when it comes to purely systemic consequences as well as economic consequences.

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    fulltext
  • 13.
    Drott, Richard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Produktivitetsförändringar efter outsourcing av utgående leveranser – en fallstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where everything is facing continuous improvements and everything is to be measured companies are needed to use key performance indicators (KPI), to follow up their changes and track what different decisions are impacting. A great deal of these continuous improvements is to be used in the company’s logistic department and for the sake of being able to concentrate on core competencies many firms choose to outsource whole or parts of their processes.

     

    This bachelor thesis describes the process before an outsourcing of the delivery process and how a company’s KPIs changes during the outsourcing. The thesis is based on a case study where data has been collected and analyzed. After the analysis section a discussion on why the KPIs have changed takes place.

     

    The goal of this thesis was to clarify if there is some significant changes in KPIs for the period before and after the outsourcing. The data is presented and compared to each other along with analysis on reasons why the changes has taken place. Found in this thesis is that the KPIs have changed, and in many cases for the better on behalf of the company. Why that change has taken place on the other hand, is hard to finger point, since the company has changed some of its parameters in the data collection.

     

    During the result it’s confirmed that there is variations between the time before and after the outsourcing, and also variations between the two logistic service providers that are contracted. These findings are discussed during the analysis section and some views on the reasons for the variations are presented.

     

    Finally, some conclusions from the work on this thesis is presented and some recommendations for the future work in the company is given.

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    rdt12001
  • 14.
    Finstorp, Edward
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kartläggning och nulägesanalys av materialflöde2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The purpose of the introduction is to provide a description of the background and problem related to logistics in manufacturing companies to develop a deeper understanding in why this subject is important for today’s businesses. The aim for the thesis is to investigate an internal material flow that starts with unloading and ends with point of use, in order to provide suggestions for improvement based on theories on Lean and material handling. Two research questions have been formulated from the purpose, to find problem solving solutions:

    FF1: What wastes occur in the material handling process?

    FF2: How can efficiency increase in the flow of materials?

    Approach and method: A case study has been conducted at a manufacturing company and data has been collected through observations and interviews. A literature study has been conducted through data obtained from scientific articles and books as a foundation to the theoretical framework that has been used to analyze the empirical data from the case study.

    Results: Waste was identified at the case company. The types of waste that was identified was waiting, transportation, excess inventory, unnecessary work and underutilization of employees. Among the reasons for these wastes were complex and inexplicit flows and also non-standardized work.

    Conclusion: A conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that waste in the material handling process contributes to an inefficient flow of materials at the case company. Suggestions for improvements to achieve an increased efficiency in the material flow have been made by the use of analysis of empirical data, flowcharts and spaghetti diagrams.

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    Kartläggning och nulägesanalys av materialflöde
  • 15.
    Fors, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Optimering av interna materialflöden i små och medelstora företag (SME)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Forskningsstudiens syfte är att göra en nulägesstudie av ett små eller medelstort företags (SME) produktionslayout med avseende på de interna materialflödena. För att kunna besvara studiens syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats.

    • Hur ser företagets nuvarande produktionsprocess och layout ut?
    • Vilka förändringar kan göras i layouten för att uppnå ett mer effektivt materialflöde?
    • Hur påverkas materialflödet av den nya layouten?

    Metod och genomförande: En litteraturstudie har genomförts parallellt med en fallstudie för att besvara frågeställningarna. Litteraturstudien bygger på teorier och modeller inom området materialflöden och hur dem bör hanteras och utformas. Även hur en ny layout bör planeras. Fallstudien bygger på en processkartläggning, flödeskartor för produkt- och materialflöden och en relationsmatris där kopplingar mellan alla processaktiviteter undersökts. Datainsamlingen från fallföretaget har sedan analyserats med stöd från litteraturstudien.

    Studiens resultat: Flera problem och risker som påverkar produkt- och materialflöden negativt har kunnat identifieras och ligger till grund för det nya layoutförslaget. För många monteringsplatser på flera avdelningar gör att utrymmesbrist är ett problem i den nuvarande layouten. Lång väg från monteringsstationerna till lagret utgör också ett problem i det dagliga arbetet då det bidrar till ineffektivitet och lågt resursutnyttjande av maskiner och verktyg. En viss problematik finns även i att hantera lagrat material då fyllnadsgraden i lagret är hög. Även en del flaskhalsar förekommer på olika ställen i produktionen. Med bakgrund av litteraturstudien och resultatet från fallstudien har ett förslag på en ny layout föreslagits. Förslaget bygger på rätt utformning av produktionsupplägget, produkternas produktionsvolymer, reducering av slöseri i form av materialhantering och tid, och slutligen hur relationen mellan de olika processtegen förhåller sig.

    Implikationer: Forskningsstudiens syfte har uppnåtts genom att studiens frågeställningar besvarats. Genom att problem och risker i den nuvarande layouten identifierats har en ny layout kunnat föreslås med stöd av litteraturstudien.

    Rekommendationer: Fler verksamheter inom samma tillverkningsområde med liknande problem bör studeras vidare för att öka studiens bredd och vetenskapliga värde.

    Nyckelord: Layout, Planning, Production, Manufacturing systems, Facility, Warehouse, Efficiency och Lean.

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  • 16.
    Frid, Janni
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kartläggning av lagring i ett mindre tillverkande företag2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The introduction describes the background to the problem studied. It gives an insight into logistics, warehousing and Lean. The purpose of this study is to examine a flow of materials where warehousing is central. Based on the results, some improvement areas are presented. Two research questions have been formulated based on the purpose of this study:

     

    Research question 1: What wastes can be identified in the warehousing process?

    Research question 2: What changes in the warehousing process can be made to increase efficiency?

     

    Method: A case study has been performed in a small manufacturing company making medical equipment. Empirical data was collected through interviews and observations. The collection of data for the theoretical framework was collected through books and scientific articles, the theoretical framework acts as a basis for the analysis of collected empirical data. 

     

    Results: A number of wastes were identified in the case company: unnecessary work, unnecessary transport, and unused talent among employees. Other than that, a number of problem areas were found in relation to warehousing.

     

    Conclusions: This report is concluded with some suggestions for improvements the case company can partake in. The most important one is implementing a two-bin system that makes taking components in and out of stock easier and creates a more controlled stock balance.

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  • 17.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Martin
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Joborn, Martin
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE SICS AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards a comprehensive model for track allocation and roll-time scheduling at marshalling yards2017In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 157-170Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, SICS..
    Bohlin, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), SICS, Sweden.
    Aronsson, Martin
    Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS..
    On the uniqueness of operation days and delivery commitment generation for train timetables2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the 2014 finalised timetable for Sweden 314 operation days had a unique set of trains i.e. a unique traffic pattern. Despite this, the finalised timetable generally provides only one conflict resolved train path for each train, and this train path is to be used for all of the train’s operation days. Further, once the yearly timetable has been finalised train paths may not be changed, causing great inflexibility in later planning stages. Rather than finalizing entire train paths only certain characteristics of a train path, called delivery commitments, could be finalised. This allows for more flexibility in later planning stages. Delivery commitments could e.g. be arrival and departure times at important locations or the total running time, depending on the needs of the operator. In this paper we present a method for generating delivery commitments based on analyzing a yearlong timetable, called the control timetable. The control timetable is constructed using rolling horizon planning and a MIP-model that optimises the train paths for each day individually. Further, different train path characteristics are optimized for different operators. The proposed method was tested in a case study from Sweden. The results show that by constructing one train path for each individual day rather than one for the entire year the resulting delivery commitments allow for a more efficient use of infrastructure. The results also show that the proposed method allows for different train path characteristics to be optimised for different operators.

  • 19.
    Haddad, Gabriel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Elkass Youssef, Keriakus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Omdirigering Av Trafik: Utveckling samt hantering av ett trafikledningssystem2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bilar har en fortsatt tillväxt världen över där trafikinfrastruktur och trafikledning parallellt blir ett svårt område att hantera och reglera där en fortsatt tillväxt resulterar i olika slags trafikproblem för privatpersoner och verksamheter. Vidare påverkar byggnationer framkomlighet i trafiken där trafikstockningar uppstår vilket har en negativ påverkan på miljön. Därav har studiens syfte utgått ifrån att utreda huruvida ett trafikledningssystem kan komma att förbättra trafikflödet kring en byggnation i en specifik kommun. Vidare har en beskrivning kring hur företag kan förbereda sig inför en sådan implementation inkluderats i studiens syfte för att uppnå maximal effekt kring utvecklandet av trafikledningssystem. Därav har följande frågeställningar formulerats:

    F1: Vilka beståndsdelar bör ingå i ett digitalt TLS? F2: Hur kan trafikflöden förbättras genom digitala TLS? F3: Vilka förberedelser krävs inom en organisation för att implementera ett digitalt TLS?

    För att utreda dessa frågor har skribenterna valt att genomföra en fallstudie för att få ett brett och holistiskt perspektiv kring detta område. Då forskning om implementerandet av ett trafikledningssystem kring byggnationer har visat sig vara ett outforskat område var valet att genomföra en fallstudie det mest lämpliga. Vidare nyttjades även en abduktiv ansats för att få en omfattande bild kring ämnet som studerades. Därmed har en litteraturinsamling initierats för att inkludera utforskad fakta kring trafikledningssystem och implementerandet av en sådan förändring. För att styrka samt komplettera litteraturinsamlingen valde skribenterna att genomföra ett antal semistrukturerade intervjuer med aktörer som har erfarenhet och kunskap kring utveckling samt implementering av trafikledningssystem. Vidare intervjuades även aktörer från det företag studien arbetar med för att få kunskap och skapa en bild kring huruvida de är redo att ta emot en sådan lösning eller inte. Efter samtliga intervjuer fick skribenterna ta del av ytterligare information kring det ämne studien behandlar vilket resulterade i vidare sökningar bland sökmotorer och databaser för information.

    Sammanfattningsvis kom skribenterna fram till att ett digitalt TLS bör innehålla någon form av datainsamlingsmetod vilket i detta fall var antingen data från Google eller mikrovågssensorer beroende på huruvida trafikläget i fallkommunen ser ut. Vidare inkluderas det i studien en algoritm och ett datorkort som har till uppgift att bearbeta den insamlade trafikdata och, i de fall där en omdirigering av trafik krävs, generera vidare data till digitala meddelandeskyltar för att formulera nya eventuella trafiksituationer till trafikanterna. De resulterade algoritmer syftade till att beräkna tidsåtgången för ett antal rutter för att kunna identifiera och dirigera trafiken till den snabbaste rutten. Slutligen har denna studie konkluderat att ett trafikledningssystem inte bör implementeras eller utvecklas utan prioriterandet av en förändringsledning och ett formande av en datadriven kultur.Nyckelord: Trängsel, Arbetszon, Rusningstid, Trafik, Trafikledningssystem, Trafikljus, Sensorer, Dynamiska meddelandeskyltar, Förändringsledning, Datadrivet beslutsfattande, Genomförande av förändring.

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  • 20.
    Horn, Anton
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Per, Merwing
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Slöseri inom kommunala verksamheter2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Slöseri inom kommunala verksamheter
  • 21.
    Högdahl, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Sweden.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH, Sweden.
    A Combined Simulation-Optimization Approach for Minimizing Travel Time and Delays in Railway Timetables2019In: Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, ISSN 0191-2615, Vol. 126, p. 192-212Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Högdahl, Johan
    et al.
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH.
    Fröidh, Oskar
    KTH.
    Combining optimization and simulation to improve railway timetable robustness2017In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Hök, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Trygg, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    INCREASE CONTROL IN PACKAGING HANDLING PROCESSES: ADDING VISIBILITY AND CONTROL THROUGH CLEARER RESPONSIBILITIES AND CATEGORIZATION OF PACKAGING2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of returnable packaging have given rise to the trend of packaging logistics.The operation of returnable packaging is challenging for global companies due to thecomplexity in the process and information flows. Companies invest in returnable packagingsystems in order to ensure quality throughout the supply chain. Despite the large investments inan returnable packaging fleet, it is often poorly controlled, leading to vast tied-up capital andshrinkage.This thesis proposes how the visibility and control of the system is affected by thecategorization of packaging and the allocation of responsibilities throughout the packaginghandling process. Theoretical and empirical studies were carried out, the theoretical part helpeddefine the problem. A case study were performed at Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden.Results of this study shows that categorization of packaging is not sufficient to attain a suitablelevel of control in an packaging handling process. Although it could be used as a supporting orgoverning documents for standardization in the process. Findings showed that theresponsibilities in the process should be centralized in as large extent as possible. Although ifthe current process is lacking visibility and control, the benefits of centralized control may belost.

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    INCREASE CONTROL IN PACKAGING HANDLING PROCESSES
  • 24.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    et al.
    KTH, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    KTH, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Sipilä, Hans
    KTH, Sweden.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Microscopic and macroscopic simulation of early freight train departures2022In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 21, article id 100295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden and other countries it is not an uncommon practice that freight trains depart more or less on-demand instead of strictly following a pre-planned timetable. However, the systematic effects of freight trains departing late or (in particular) early has long been a contested issue. Although some microscopic simulation tools currently have the capability to evaluate the effect of freight trains departing before schedule, it has yet not been established how macroscopic simulation tools, capable of fast simulation of nation-wide networks, can manage such tasks. This paper uses a case study on a line between two large freight yards in Sweden to investigate how the results of microscopic and macroscopic simulation, represented by two modern simulation tools, differ when it comes to this particular problem. The main findings are that both the microscopic and the macroscopic tools replicated the empirical punctuality fairly well. Furthermore, allowing early departures of freight trains increased overall freight train punctuality while the passenger train punctuality decreased slightly, as determined by both tools. The results are encouraging, but further studies are needed to determine if macroscopic simulation is on-par with microscopic simulation.

  • 25.
    Kostela, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarnas forskningsråd.
    Bjerre, Bo
    Trafikverket.
    Primary prevention of drink driving by the large-scale use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 4, p. 1294-1299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcolocks are commercial breath test devices that prevent a motor vehicle from starting when a driver's blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is elevated. This report is an evaluation of the experiences and BAC data from the first use of alcolocks in commercial vehicles as a primary prevention strategy. In most applications, the alcolock is imposed only after an impaired driving conviction. This study, implemented in Sweden, estimates drink driving on a large scale in a variety of commercial vehicles.

    Officials from 118 companies were interviewed representing 3689 alcolock-equipped vehicles used by 9614 professional drivers, an 80% compliance rate. In a contrast group of 230 transport businesses without alcolocks the interview compliance rate was 57%. Survey results probed motivation for and experience with alcolocks. Analysis of BAC test patterns showed alcohol consumption among employees through prevalence estimates of drink-driving attempts at the rate of BAC ≥ the legal limit 0.020%.

    Before alcolock installation, 64% of the employers suspected alcohol problems among their employees and their motive for installing alcolocks (cost averaged 1700 €/vehicle) was to improve the transport quality. Several companies had technical problems with the alcolocks; but 98% recommended that other companies install alcolocks.

    Among 600, heavy vehicles, 0.19% of all starts were prevented by elevated BAC; most during weekends and mornings. Daytime Saturday and Sunday mornings 0.72% of the drivers had elevated BAC.

    Conclusions

    The prevalence of drink driving among professional drivers is probably similar to that among drivers in general. Alcolocks would improve the safety margin and reduce public risk. Provided that the entire fleet of trucks, buses, and taxis in Sweden had installed alcolocks that would correspond to about half a million drink driving trips being prevented every year.

  • 26.
    Lin, H.
    et al.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China; Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, United States.
    Bian, C.
    Nankai University, Tianjin, China.
    Wang, Y.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Shandong University, Jinan, China; Hubei University of Arts and Science, Xiangyang City, Hubei Province, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wallin, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Optimal planning of intra-city public charging stations2022In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 238, article id 121948Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intra-city Public Charging Stations (PCSs) play a crucial role in promoting the mass deployment of Electric Vehicles (EVs). To motivate the investment on PCSs, this work proposes a novel framework to find the optimal location and size of PCSs, which can maximize the benefit of the investment. The impacts of charging behaviors and urban land uses on the income of PCSs are taken into account. An agent-based trip chain model is used to represent the travel and charging patterns of EV owners. A cell-based geographic partition method based on Geographic Information System is employed to reflect the influence of land use on the dynamic and stochastic nature of EV charging behaviors. Based on the distributed charging demand, the optimal location and size of PCSs are determined by mixed-integer linear programming. Västerås, a Swedish city, is used as a case study to demonstrate the model's effectiveness. It is found that the charging demand served by a PCS is critical to its profitability, which is greatly affected by the charging behavior of drivers, the location and the service range of PCS. Moreover, charging price is another significant factor impacting profitability, and consequently the competitiveness of slow and fast PCSs. 

  • 27.
    Lin, H.
    et al.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Fu, K.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Wang, Y.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Sun, Q.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Hu, Y.
    UCL, Dept Civil Environm & Geomat Engn, London, England.
    Sun, B.
    Department of Civil, Environmental & Geomatic Engineering, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Wennersten, R.
    Institute of Thermal Science and Technology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.
    Characteristics of electric vehicle charging demand at multiple types of location - Application of an agent-based trip chain model2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 188, article id 116122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper developed an agent-based trip chain model (ABTCM) to study the distribution of electric vehicles (EVs) charging demand and its dynamic characteristics, including flexibility and uncertainty, at different types of location. Key parameters affecting charging demand include charging strategies, i.e. uncontrolled charging (UC) and off-peak charging (OPC), and EV supply equipment, including three levels of charging equipment. The results indicate that the distributions of charging demand are similar as the travel patterns, featured by traffic flow at each location. A discrete peak effect was found in revealing the relation between traffic flow and charging demand, and it results in the smallest equivalent daily charging demand and peak load at public locations. EV charging and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) flexibility were examined by instantaneous adjustable power and accumulative adjustable amount of electricity. The EVs at home locations have the largest charging and V2G flexibility under the UC strategy, except for a period of regular working time. The V2G flexibility at work and public locations is generally larger than charging flexibility. Due to the fast charging application, the uncertainties of charging demand at public locations are the highest in all locations. In addition, the OPC strategy mitigates the uncertainty of charging demand. 

  • 28.
    Löfberg, Jezper
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Politecnico DI Milano.
    Ling-Vannerus, Oscar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transportation planning from asphalt manufacturing to paving: A case study in the asphalt sector2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to map and evaluate the current transportation flow for transportation of asphalt at a Swedish construction company in the asphalt pavement sector. The mapping and evaluation target the transportation methods together with the information and material flow. With the support of the theoretical framework, this thesis further proposes and investigates a more efficient asphalt transportation process whilst offering suggestions of how digital aids could assist in higher efficiency of the process from manufacturing to paving. Because the purpose and scope of this thesis are of predictive nature, the corresponding research purpose was chosen, which is answered by utilizing an abductive research approach and case study as research design. The empirical findings are of high importance to guide the problem formulation and to set the phenomenon in a practical example. The choice of a qualitative research strategy was made, which is further motivated by the observation and interview-based data collection. Furthermore, the Casual Loop Diagram together with the qualitative analysis has shown that information sharing is a vital part of transportation planning which concerning the current information flow at the case company makes it difficult to attain a successful transportation structure. This thesis has proposed a new information flow assigning an additional role undertaking the position as a central coordinator that is accountable for transportation planning during project day. With this change of flow, the company can utilize the benefits of transportation planning methods such as route planning and consolidated transportation. Consequently, with a central coordinator that has a complete overview of the transportation during the project day, it would increase the visibility and contribute to increased transportation efficiency.

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  • 29.
    Malm, Jean
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lisper, Björn
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Skoog, Jonas
    Mälardalen University.
    Static Flow Analysis of the Action Language for Foundational UML2018In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), IEEE , 2018, p. 161-168Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major advantages of Model-Driven Engineering is the possibility to early assess crucial system properties, in order to identify issues that are easier and cheaper to solve at design level than at code level. An example of such a property is the timing behaviour of a real-time application, where an early indication that the timing constraints might not be met can help avoiding costly re-designs late in the development process. In this paper we provide a model-driven round-trip transformation chain for (i) applying a flow analysis to executable models described in terms of the Action Language for Foundational UML (Alf), and (ii) back-propagating analysis results to Alf models for further investigation. Alf models are transformed into the input format for an analysis tool that identifies flow facts, i. e., information about loop bounds and infeasible paths in the model. Flow facts can be used, for instance, when estimating the worst-case execution time for the analysed model. We evaluated the approach through a set of benchmark models of various size and complexity.

  • 30.
    Minbashi, N.
    et al.
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH.
    Kordnejad, B.
    KTH.
    A departure delay estimation model for freight trains2020In: Proceedings of TRA2020, the 8th Transport Research Arena 2020: Rethinking transport – towards clean and inclusive mobility / [ed] Toni Lusikka, 2020, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31. Minbashi, N.
    et al.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Kordnejad, N.
    A delay prediction model for freight trains in swedish yards2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering.
    Bohlin, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, Transportplanering.
    Analysis of railyard congestion and departure delay relationship: a case study from swedish railways2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a macroscopic model framework for departure delay prediction from railyards. The railyard is a large area comprising three sub-yards (arrival, classification, departure). In fact, timely operation at railyard is dependent on coordinated operations in these sub-yards. More importantly, punctual functioning of railyards is crucial for increasing competitiveness of rail freight services throughout the network. Despite previous models, we considered railyard congestion at the arrival yard, time availability of each wagon at the classification yard, and time availability of locomotive at the departure yard. The core part of this paper analyzes the effect of congestion at arrival yard on departure delays. Punctuality data from two Swedish railyards for a seven-year period is used. The congestion is defined as the number of arriving trains three hours before each departure. The results showed that the highest number of delayed departures occur at congestion levels of 4-10, while correlation coefficient is around zero. Analysing the whole dataset reveals that these congestion levels are common for all departures not just the delayed ones. Therefore, we conclude that as three sub-yards are interrelated, a comprehensive definition of congestion at railyard level is required. An elaborate definition of congestion can make it a proper predictor for further delay prediction models.

  • 33.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Lund Univ, Div Transport & Rd, POB 118, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    The Application of Tree-Based Algorithms on Classifying Shunting Yard Departure Status2021In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2021, article id 3538462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shunting yards are one of the main areas impacting the reliability of rail freight networks, and delayed departures from shunting yards can further also affect the punctuality of mixed-traffic networks. Methods for automatic detection of departures, which are likely to be delayed, can therefore contribute towards increasing the reliability and punctuality of both freight and passenger services. In this paper, we compare the performance of tree-based methods (decision trees and random forests), which have been highly successful in a wide range of generic applications, in classifying the status of (delayed, early, and on-time) departing trains from shunting yards, focusing on the delayed departures as the minority class. We use a total number of 6,243 train connections (representing over 21,000 individual wagon connections) for a one-month period from the Hallsberg yard in Sweden, which is the largest shunting yard in Scandinavia. Considering our dataset, our results show a slight difference between the application of decision trees and random forests in detecting delayed departures as the minority class. To remedy this, enhanced sampling for minority classes is applied by the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) to improve detecting and assigning delayed departures. Applying SMOTE improved the sensitivity, precision, and F-measure of delayed departures by 20% for decision trees and by 30% for random forests. Overall, random forests show a relative better performance in detecting all three departure classes before and after applying SMOTE. Although the preliminary results presented in this paper are encouraging, future studies are needed to investigate the computational performance of tree-based algorithms using larger datasets and considering additional predictors.

  • 34.
    Minbashi, Niloofar
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Division of Transport and Roads, Department of Technology and Society, Lund University.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    KTH, Transportplanering, Sweden.
    Statistical analysis of departure deviations from shunting yards: case study from swedish railways2021In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departure deviations from shunting yards impact the reliability of rail freight services and the punctuality of a railway network. Therefore, the statistical analysis of these deviations are necessary for improving the operation of trains in mixed-traffic networks. In our paper, we conduct a detailed statistical analysis of departure deviations considering individual shunting yards characteristics. We use a large freight train delay dataset comprising 250,000 departures over seven years for the two largest shunting yards in Sweden, comparable to other medium-sized shunting yards in Europe. To find the probability distribution of departure deviations, we compare four distribution functions including the exponential, the log-normal, the gamma, and the Weibull according to the maximum likelihood estimates and results of the Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test. In our experiments, we show that the log-normal distribution fits best for delayed departures across both shunting yards, and for early departures at one of them, whereas the gamma distribution fits best for early departures at the other yard. For the temporal delay distribution, we find that fluctuations in the network usage impact the percentage of delayed departures across hours and weekdays, but not across months or years. In addition, we find that freight trains are mostly delayed in the winter.  In the case of hourly delayed departures, we demonstrate that a shunting yard involved with domestic traffic showed a negative correlation between delayed departures and the network usage, whereas an international shunting yard did not, which indicates individuality in shunting yard operations impact shunting yard-network interactions. Our findings mainly contribute to better understanding of departure deviations from shunting yards, thus enhancing the operations and capacity utilization of shunting yards. Moreover, delay distributions can be beneficial in handling delays in traffic management models as well as enhancing the outputs of freight train simulation models

  • 35.
    Nilsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sayfoor, Abd-Allah
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Researching multimodal aids in teleoperated quay cranes2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The transition from on-site crane operation to teleoperation in cargo port operations has introduced several challenges, including the loss of sensory information. This study aimed to address this issue by restoring operators' sensory input using multimodal aids, specifically haptic and auditory modalities. The haptic modality involved force feedback, while the auditory modality consisted of two separate sounds that played faster and louder depending on how well the crane handle was lined up with the truck or drop-off spot on the boat. The study compared the use of force feedback and auditorial modalities in isolation from each other, as well as in combination with each other, and found significant differences in task performance and user experience. The findings indicated that the force feedback in combination with auditorial cues as one multi-modality platform helped operators to work more quickly and with better accuracy; however, this was at the expense of an increased number of moderate and severe collisions. Additionally, force feedback was perceived as the most enjoyable and intuitive modality to use. Other modalities were either deemed irritating, challenging to use, or did not aid in terms of completion times, collision avoidance, or stacking accuracy. This study provides valuable insights into the effectiveness of multimodal aids in enhancing teleoperated cargo port crane operations.

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  • 36.
    Nordfeldt, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Konsolidering av infrakter2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been created on the behalf of ICA Sverige AB, which is a market leading retail company. The result of this thesis will be used by ICA in future freight procurement processes. The purpose is to review ICA’s current logistical flow from their suppliers in Belgium and Holland to their warehouses in Helsingborg, Västerås and Borlänge. The objective is then divided into the following two questions:

     

    • Which goods from which suppliers can be transported together with regard to region, amount of pallets per year and weight of the goods?
    • What frequency of delivery to the respective warehouses does this result in?

     

    In order to answer these questions a literature study and a case study have been carried out. The literature study has referred to the field of logistical systems with regard to environment and costs as well as different consolidation strategies. The case study has been performed at ICA Sverige AB in order to find combinations of suppliers that fulfil the requirements of the questions posed.

     

    The result was a Microsoft Office Excel spreadsheet with formulas and logics that can be used to calculate which goods from which suppliers in Belgium and Holland should be transported together considering restrictions in weight and number of pallets. The result also shows which frequency of deliveries this would mean to the different warehouses in Helsingborg, Västerås and Borlänge. All in all, this results in the fact that the company can achieve a large potential cost saving by optimizing their way of transportation and at the same time reducing their need of transports on lorries within Sweden. By reducing the need of lorry transports within Sweden, a reduction of the environmental impact through less emissions and noise is also achieved. 

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  • 37.
    Ottosson, Elsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Oweini, Rania
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Developing a closed-loop supply chain to eliminate Single Use Plastic products: Implementing Circular Economy practices driven by EU commission directives2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Single use plastic products (SUPs) are a primary cause of plastic pollution causing significant environmental harm. These products have little to no value after use and are challenging to recycle cost efficiently. In a bid to combat this issue and foster circular economy, the European Union has declared a series of directives to gradually phase out SUPs as a strategy to eliminate these disposables from the market. This approach allows the market time to discover alternative solutions to replace SUPs, promoting the adoption of reusable products. To make a sustainable system of reusable products feasible and profitable, the key lies in devising a business model designed for a circular strategy of repeated use of goods. One effective approach involves establishing a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) which entails the entire life cycle of a product, from sourcing raw materials, through manufacturing, utilisation, collection, reverse logistics and recycling. The purpose of this study was to develop a CLSC system for reusable plastic products between a plastic producing small or medium sized enterprise (SME) and an incumbent firm customer to attain a smooth transition from linear to circular economy. Employing an inductive approach, this case study considered the EU-directives as observational data, the change of business model as the result, and a general recommendation as the rule. The research method encompassed conducted interviews, mathematical prototyping, product design, and life cycle analysis, using various tools and methods in the process. Two case companies were involved: one large incumbent firm and one plastic producing SME. The aim was to design a circular business model (CBM) to capture the value of the collaboration between these two companies. After an analysation of the current situation, the main obstacles to a successful transition were identified. A comprehensive solution was developed, including a network of partners for the CLSC, a reusable product design, and the necessary implementation calculations. The finalised business model was anchored in the principles of the CLSC, the product design specifications and the calculations that determined the system’s viability. Implementation of the CBM would yield economic advantages for both stakeholders, as well as an improved green image factor and advancement in circular economy. Furthermore, this transition would cultivate valuable and lasting business relationships for both companies. These case findings harmonise with established theories which emphasise the significance of business models that are dependent on collaboration and long-term strategic planning. Lastly, they also underscore that value is created in product utilisation and not ownership. 

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  • 38.
    Qiu, Rui
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. China Univ Petr, Natl Engn Lab Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Lab Urban Oil & Gas Distribut Technol, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Liao, Qi
    China Univ Petr, Natl Engn Lab Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Lab Urban Oil & Gas Distribut Technol, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Tu, Renfu
    China Univ Petr, Natl Engn Lab Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Lab Urban Oil & Gas Distribut Technol, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Jiao, Yingqi
    China Univ Petr, Natl Engn Lab Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Lab Urban Oil & Gas Distribut Technol, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Yang, An
    China Oil & Gas Pipeline Network Corp, Mkt Dept, Dongtucheng Rd 5, Beijing 100013, Peoples R China..
    Guo, Zhichao
    Sinopec Engn Inc, 21, Anhui North Lian Garden, Chaoyang Dist, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Yongtu
    China Univ Petr, Natl Engn Lab Pipeline Safety, Beijing Key Lab Urban Oil & Gas Distribut Technol, Fuxue Rd 18, Beijing 102249, Peoples R China..
    Pipeline pricing and logistics planning in the refined product supply chain based on fair profit distribution2023In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 175, article id 108840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pipeline is an economical, safe and environmentally friendly way to deliver refined products, but the un-coordinated decisions of the pipeline carrier and the oil shipper can lead to low pipeline turnover and high cross -regional logistics costs. This paper intends to remedy this problem through pipeline pricing and logistics plan-ning. First, a framework is designed to coordinate the operational decisions of the pipeline carrier and the oil shipper. Then, a bi-level programming model is customized to characterize the decentralized decision-making process of both stakeholders, including pipeline pricing and logistics planning. The upper-level model maxi-mizes the transportation revenue of the pipeline carrier, and the lower-level model minimizes the logistics cost of the oil shipper. The model constraints supply and demand capacity, transportation capacity, transportation network structure and mass balance. Next, to realize the coordination of both stakeholders, a negotiation mechanism based on fair profit distribution is customized. Ultimately, the method is tested on a large-scale logistics system of refined products in China. The results reveal that: (1) the pipeline turnover is increased by 127 million ton-kilometers, (2) the economic benefits of both stakeholders are maximized with an increase of 13 million CNY, (3) a fairer profit distribution is provided compared with the centralized decision-making. It is proved that the proposed method has a satisfactory coordination effect on the pricing of the pipeline carrier and the logistics planning of the oil shipper.

  • 39.
    Richardson, Matt X.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Landerdahl Stridsberg, Sara
    Mälardalen University.
    Wamala Andersson, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.
    Evidence-related requirements in Swedish public sector procurement of health and welfare technologies – a systematic review2022In: BMC Health Services Research, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health and welfare technologies (HWT) are becoming increasingly employed in the Nordic countries, and in Sweden in particular. The amount of HWT public procurement is likely increasing at a similar rate, but requirements for evidence for effectiveness placed on bidders during this process may be lacking. Method: This study investigated the use of evidence as a requirement in public sector tendering process of HWT, and how it affected bidder attributes and procurement outcomes. A novel type of systematic review and content analysis of requests for tenders for HWT announced prior to June 2021 was therefore conducted in Swedish public procurement databases. Result: Ninety requests for tenders for 11 types of HWT met the inclusion criteria for review, accounting for potential contracts worth 246 to 296 million EUR. Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness were used in 16 requests for tenders, accounting for 183 million EUR in potential contracts. Eight of the requests referred to an established independent standard to confirm such evidence, such as CE standard of conformity, MDR and/or MDD. This prevalence appears to cut across all types of procuring organisations and all types of HWT. The use of any evidence criteria, or lack thereof, does not appear to affect the outcomes of the tendering process. Conclusion: Criteria requiring evidence for effectiveness are used in less than a fifth of all public procurements of health- and welfare technologies in Sweden, and less than 10% refer to some form of independent standard as confirmation of such evidence. The procurement process therefore risks creating a legacy of sub-optimal technologies in health- and social care services. More prevalent and specific requirements for evidence and its continual generation in the procurement process are highly recommended. Recommendations for decision makers, procurement managers, and developers are provided.

  • 40.
    Sandberg, E.
    et al.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Oghazi, P.
    Sodertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden; Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Chirumalla, Koteshwar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Patel, P. C.
    Villanova University, Management and Operations Department.
    Interactive research framework in logistics and supply chain management: Bridging the academic research and practitioner gap2022In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 178, article id 121563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Logistics and supply chain management (SCM) practice has grown in scope and complexity in recent years. A challenge for research in logistics and SCM is to create value for both academics and practitioners. The purpose of this paper is to introduce interactive research (IR) into the domain of logistics and SCM research and to describe the lessons learned from the implementation of this research approach. Compared to traditional empirical research methods, IR takes place in a context where inferences are co-produced in collaboration with practitioners. Taking an academic–practitioner lens, we draw on the IR framework to develop a deeper understanding of academic and practitioner exchanges in the increasingly complex and multidimensional domain of logistics and supply chain research. In addition to introducing the IR approach, based on four collaborative research projects, we outline and provide potential solutions to challenges arising from IR. Introducing IR to logistics and SCM research could enrich the understanding of collaborative research approaches and could act as a catalyst to its wider adoption in future research. 

  • 41.
    Sjöstrand, Niklas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Mona-Liza
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lean spare parts delivery chain2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractWhen a product has been sold to a customer a new market arises for the company to earn profit from and to differentiate itself within. According to Bartwal, et al. (2010) the after sales market generally does not provide great revenues but good profits of the total revenue. In order to gain competiveness and live up to customer’s expectations a company needs to be efficient (Atkinson, 2004). He continuous that this can be accomplished if companies implement Lean. Lean is different tools and philosophies that are used to improve the productivity within a company and also to eliminate wastes.This thesis will answer what Lean philosophies should companies first start to implement and why, to become more efficient.This research was conducted at a manufacturing company of industrial equipment, competing on a global market.To succeed in the aftermarket companies have to: deliver the right part, in the right amount, to the right place, in the right time and to the right price. Implementing a production system like Lean the authors think can give a company the edge to win the aftermarket. In the case company where the research was conducted management had decided to implement Lean. By that they could be considered to be engaged and long-term thinking. This is one of the crucial factors to succeeding in implementing Lean (Achanga et al. 2006). The next step would be to start the cultural change of the rest of the company. The best way to do this is to find where applying a Lean philosophy would make a quick improvement. That improvement will show the co-workers what can be achieved with Lean and raise the motivation to participate in the cultural change. The five steps outlined in Womack and Jones (2003) is a good way to follow when implementing Lean. The first of these five steps is according to Womack and Jones (2003) to find out what the customer values. An additional step are to standardize processes, this would set a starting point for future improvements. If improvement work is done without a starting point it is impossible to know if a change made was for the better. Implementing a new culture and/or production system takes long time and companies have to have the courage to invest both time and money. Time for co-workers to be educated, time to work with the implementation and money for acquiring the right competence. With that and by being persistent the authors believe there is a good chance for success.To the company, which was studied in this thesis, our recommendation is to start by mapping and standardizing their processes to improve the flow. Extended cooperation with suppliers and distributors will give the company better visibility of the supply chain. When good visibility and suppliers delivering on time is reached the company can lower their safety stocks in their central distribution center. The authors believe that by implementing Lean the case study company will get a long-term investment which will pay off in a more effective working company and they will be more competitive in their line of business.

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  • 42.
    Sohrabpour, Vahid
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Operat Management, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Social Sci, SE-14189 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Toorajipour, Reza
    Malardalen Univ, Sch Innovat Design & Engn, Box 325, S-63105 Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Nazarpour, Ali
    Maynooth Univ, Sch Business, Maynooth, Kildare, Ireland..
    Export sales forecasting using artificial intelligence2021In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 163, article id 120480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sales forecasting is important in production and supply chain management. It affects firms' planning, strategy, marketing, logistics, warehousing and resource management. While traditional time series forecasting methods prevail in research and practice, they have several limitations. Causal forecasting methods are capable of predicting future sales behavior based on relationships between variables and not just past behavior and trends. This research proposes a framework for modeling and forecasting export sales using Genetic Programming, which is an artificial intelligence technique derived from the model of biological evolution. Analyzing an empirical case of an export company, an export sales forecasting model is suggested. Moreover, a sales forecast for a period of six weeks is conducted, the output of which is compared with the real sales data. Finally, a variable sensitivity analysis is presented for the causal forecasting model.

  • 43.
    Sun, Siying
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Inventory Management in Reverse Logistics in FAW Co., Ltd2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recycling and remanufacturing returned goods are economically beneficial for companies since the cost of obtaining used parts is lower in many cases and selling price is close to that of a new product. This leads to decreased costs and thereby increased profits for the company. In addition, there are also great environmental benefits by keeping the structural integrity of a part; the energy used for disassembly and refurbishing is much lower than the energy required for raw material extraction and machining. Encompassing the returned goods makes the supply chain to closed loop supply chain, which is different from the traditional supply chain due to reverse logistics. A reverse flow of material is however usually more complex than a forward flow of parts and components from suppliers. This means that inventory management becomes critical and needs to be viewed from a new perspective.

    The purpose of the report is to study FAW Co., Ltd’s inventory situation in reverse logistics. The report analysed the inventory management in the company, specifically focusing on one product as the instance Motor Engine LFTS-2000since it is in the maturity stage of product life cycle. Two scenarios were designed to consider how different parameters affect inventory levels in reverse logistics.

    The report analysed how different parameters affect the inventory levels and minimum cost. With the increasing returned goods are processed, inventory levels and minimum cost will decrease correspondingly. 

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  • 44.
    Tokody, Daniel
    et al.
    Obuda University, Hungary.
    Flammini, Francesco
    University of Maryland University College (UMUC) Europe, Italy.
    The intelligent railway system theory: The European railway research perspectiveand the development of the European digital railway strategy2017In: International Transportation, ISSN 0020-9511, Vol. 69, no 1, p. 38-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Toorajipour, Reza
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Sohrabpour, Vahid
    Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, Denmark;SAVEGGY AB, Ideon Innovation, Ideon Science Park, Lund, Sweden.
    Nazarpour, Ali
    School of Business, Maynooth University, Maynooth, Co. Kildare, Ireland.
    Oghazi, Pejvak
    School of Social Sciences, Sodertorn University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fischl, Maria
    Siemens Gas and Power GmbH & Co. KG, Siemens Energy, Berlin, Germany.
    Artificial intelligence in supply chain management: A systematic literature review2021In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978, Vol. 122, p. 502-517Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to identify the contributions of artificial intelligence (AI) to supply chain management (SCM) through a systematic review of the existing literature. To address the current scientific gap of AI in SCM, this study aimed to determine the current and potential AI techniques that can enhance both the study and practice of SCM. Gaps in the literature that need to be addressed through scientific research were also identified. More specifically, the following four aspects were covered: (1) the most prevalent AI techniques in SCM; (2) the potential AI techniques for employment in SCM; (3) the current AI-improved SCM subfields; and (4) the subfields that have high potential to be enhanced by AI. A specific set of inclusion and exclusion criteria are used to identify and examine papers from four SCM fields: logistics, marketing, supply chain and production. This paper provides insights through systematic analysis and synthesis. 

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    AI in SCM-Reza Toorajipour
  • 46.
    Tu, R.
    et al.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Jiao, Y.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Qiu, Rui
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Liao, Q.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Xu, N.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Du, J.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Liang, Y.
    Beijing Key Laboratory of Urban Oil and Gas Distribution Technology, China University of Petroleum-Beijing, Fuxue Road No.18, Changping District, Beijing, 102249, China.
    Energy saving and consumption reduction in the transportation of petroleum products: A pipeline pricing optimization perspective2023In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 342, article id 121135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pipeline transportation is a low-energy and economical mode of transporting petroleum products in the downstream supply chain, however, there is almost no theoretical research on its pricing strategies. The unreasonable pricing strategy has resulted in low utilization of multi-product pipeline capacity as well as high energy consumption of petroleum products transportation. Therefore, this paper aims to improve pipeline turnover and promote the low-carbon transportation market from the perspective of pipeline pricing optimization. We propose an integrated framework for multi-product pipelines that couples pricing strategy and logistics optimization model. This framework simulates the pricing behavior of the pipeline carrier and the corresponding logistics planning behavior of the oil shipper. We apply the framwork to 10 pipeline pricing schemes for two regions in China with different logistics structures, and analyze the economic and environmental benefits of the new strategy. The results show that the well-performing scheme can increase pipeline carriers' revenue by 11.41 million CNY per month, significantly improve the competitive advantage of long-distance pipelines, and reduce energy consumption by 272 tce. Based on these findings, we provide recommendations for policymakers at four levels. In conclusion, the new pricing strategy will help reverse the disadvantageous situation of the pipeline in the competitive market and promote energy conservation in the petroleum products logistics industry. 

  • 47.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH.
    Simulation-based Timetable Evaluation with Focus on Passengers2017In: Proc. of the 7th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH, Transportplanering, ekonomi och teknik.
    The Use of Railway Simulation as an Input to Economic Assessment2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacity is an important factor for assessing a railway. Capacity limitations restrict the possibilities to adjust the service supply to the market demand and can lead to disturban­ces that affect the travellers negatively. For this reason, it is important that the available capacity and the effects of using it are estimated and assessed when benefits are analysed. However, estimations often focus on either socio-economic or capacity aspects only.

    In this paper, a method for evaluating timetable alternatives using time equivalents by combining economic assessment and capacity analysis is developed. Parameters describing each alternative´s characteristics and their effect are stepwise added to an existing model. Both real and simulated delay statistics for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic are used to first determine relevant input parameters and calibrate the model, and later compare different alternatives. The results show that the choice of input parameters for the delays and the way how to include them in the model affected the result to a large extent. That highlights the importance of making adequate classifications of data and choosing the right parameters. Simulation is suitable for estimating the effect of changes on reliability which is an important input in an estimation model combining capacity and socio-economic aspects.

  • 49.
    Warg, Jennifer
    et al.
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH.
    The Use of Railway Simulation as an Input to Economic Assessment of Timetables2016In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of capacity for highly-used railways is an important and challenging task. This paper describes a method for evaluation of timetables based on capacity and economic assessment. Common methods from both fields are combined. For developing and analysing purposes, the model is first tested with historical delay data for express trains on a double-track line with dense, mixed traffic in Sweden. An assessment aiming to compare the departures is made by combining common weights for different variables. Differences in the results based on the model structure are discussed. In the second step, microscopic simulation is used to reveal delay characteristics of timetable alternatives that are then compared and discussed in a similar way to step 1.

    The presented method using simulation makes it possible to reveal and evaluate characteristics that are important for both timetable planning and economic analysis, for example evaluation of strategies. Timetable and delay times are important input variables that affect the travellers' choice. Using simulation and other methods from capacity planning gives the opportunity to find characteristics for analysing alternatives and improve economic evaluation, at the same time as the use of economic parameters provides more possibilities to make a relevant capacity analysis.

  • 50.
    Weik, Norman
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Science, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Warg, Jennifer
    KTH.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    KTH.
    Bohlin, Markus
    KTH.
    Niessen, Nils
    Institute of Transport Science, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany.
    Extending UIC 406-based capacity analysis: New approaches for railway nodes and network effects2020In: Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management, ISSN 2210-9706, E-ISSN 2210-9714, Vol. 15, article id 100199Article in journal (Refereed)
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