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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arbetsmiljöarbetet på SverigesBostadsrättsCentrum: Vad ändringarna i arbetsmiljölagen innebär2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This diploma work was performed because the company Sveriges BostadsrättsCentrum, with the abbreviation SBC, had a need to gain insight into how changes in the Work Environment Act and related regulations which took effect January 1, 2009 affecting their work with the work environment. The changes mean that the client may hand over his work environment responsibilities to a contractor and that he has to select so-called building work environment co-ordinators. At SBC they are working as representatives for tenant-owner's association when a construction is about to be carried out. The purpose was to ascertain how changes may affect the work at SBC. The diploma work intends to educate the staff at SBC how work with the work environment would look like if they met the regulatory requirements. The main issue that the diploma work deals with is whether SBC has the responsibility to select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting before the contractor takes over responsibility for the work environment. Questions were answered by information from the Work Environment Act, AFS 1999:3 and other material from the Work Environment Authority. Two interviews with staff at the Work Environment Authority were also held. One of the conclusions drawn from the diploma work is that it’s the client who will select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting. That should be done as soon as the planning and projecting has begun. The planning and projecting usually begins before the main contractor takes over responsibility for the work environment as the employee. It is not clear that SBC will take on the client’s responsibility to select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting in the early planning, before the contractor takes on responsibility and there are several ways to do this.

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  • 2.
    Akhlaqi, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hybrida stomsystem för Flervåningshus: Sammansättning av trä och betong i stomsystem ur stabilitet och koldioxidutsläpp2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ninety percent of all single-family houses and smaller residential buildings in Sweden are built with timber frames. Though, this figure is different for higher buildings, about twenty percent in timber frames and eighty percent in concrete and steel. However, the knowledge and experience about tall timber houses is limited today and it needs to be developed over the time, both technically and architecturally. Purpose: The wood has a lower E-module than concrete and steel, which cause an additional problem in high-rise buildings of more than eight floors, stability. The measures for this problem can be costly and reduce the living space of the building due to large dimensions of the wooden structure. This project work is based on the challenges that exist around the construction of tall wooden buildings and tries to present a beneficial hybrid solution for the construction of tall houses in wood and concrete. Method: The study object is a multi-story building on ten floors where wood is used in combination with concrete for the frame system. The vertical loads such as self-weight, payload and snow load are carried by the wooden frame. On the other hand, concrete has the task of taking care of the horizontal forces caused by wind loads. The frame system is dimensioned according to the Eurocodes and standard dimensions to ensure the load-bearing capacity of the building. Results: The result reports that two concrete cores in the hybrid building absorb all horizontal forces and loads down to the foundation. These cores can also be used as stair/elevator shafts and will not affect the building's living area. A timber-concrete composite with a thickness of 300 mm, replaced the wooden composite which normally reaches a thickness of 400 to 500 mm. This means a height gain of one to two meters. The columns will get smaller dimensions because of the cores and give more living space. The concrete utilization in that hybrid building decreases by 57 percent, which is a large saving from an environmental perspective. In addition, life cycle analysis, LCA shows that carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e are 43 percent less in the hybrid framework. Conclusion: The hybrid multi-stories houses of concrete and wood can be a useful alternative for increasing construction of wooden houses. A concrete core in the middle of building helps the construction to become more stable and the swaying due to wind loads be minimized. Furthermore, the columns can have smaller dimensions, which increases the living space in the building. The timber-concrete composite gives the building more weight and solves the step sound problem that arises due to low E-module on the wooden flooring. Additionally, the height of the building decreases, which in turn leads to buildings being able to have more stories and more living space. Moreover, through hybrid solutions in buildings, the environmental benefits of wood can be utilized to build environmentally friendly buildings. The ten-stories hybrid framework in this study, saves 43 percent CO2e compared to the corresponding framework in concrete. 

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    Hybrida stomsystem
  • 3.
    Alamerison, Seif
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energibalansen för ett nytt flerbostadshus i Mellansverige: Beräkningar intervjuer och analys av energikraven i Boverkets Byggregler2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

     

     

     

    This degree project comprises 30 credits, i.e. 20 weeks of work. The work mainly deals with the energy balance for a multi-family house in Västerås and the requirements for energy conservation in the Swedish building code, BBR. Calculations of the energy balance are supplemented by a number of interviews.

     

    Energy conservation in general has become more important in recent years and the subject is in line with increased public awareness. This importance and attention is explained by environmental problems in general and global warming in particular, but also by rising energy prices. The Swedish authority Boverket has gradually changed the regulatory framework in order to improve the energy efficiency for new buildings. Boverket issues the Swedish building code BBR which includes energy requirements for buildings. The new BBR 16 was published after only about 6 month after the previous version BBR 15.

     

    This degree project includes a commission from the company Abetong AB to compare the previous BBR 15 against the new BBR 16 and find any changes, and compile these changes as clear as possible. The work also includes answers to some specific questions from the same company. One question is whether existing multi-family houses from the company would meet the new energy requirements of BBR 16. The energy balance of these houses is studied specifically when an exhaust air heat pump or a ventilation heat exchanger is used in order to save energy. To make this work particularly interesting, the window area was changed to see how this would affect the energy use in the buildings.

     

    To answer these questions, the energy simulation program VIP+ was used for calculations. These computer calculations have also been supplemented by hand calculations as a control measure. All results from the different calculations are put together and analyzed in this report.

     

    The overall conclusion from the calculation results is that the existing multi-family houses perform well with the present technology, and that they meet the new energy requirements in BBR 16. This means that no further measures in order to save energy in the houses are necessary in order to meet the newest requirements.

     

     

     

    Västerås 2010-05-24

    Seif Alamerison

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  • 4.
    Alatalo, Amalia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Sundin Cruickshank, Lucas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    HÖGHUS MED STABILISERANDE SCHAKT I KL-TRÄ: Dimensionera kopplingsbalk i KL-trä mot horisontallaster2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the world changing to a more sustainable society, the construction industry also wants to do its part and thereby build more carbon neutral. An alternative to the production of sustainable buildings is to relinquish from steel and concrete to focus on wooden building structure. This leads to major challenges for constructors both in terms of fire and the fact that wood has a low density compared to the previously mentioned materials. Purpose: The report will examine the problem of building tall buildings with a stabilizing body of cross-laminated timber (CLT) with focus on the coupling beam. Method: The work is based on a literature study done with credible electronic sources and industry facts, a number of manual calculations and results from the program FEM design. Result: The result was, as expected that the coupling beam failed to resist the loads from 22 storeys, but unexpectedly it could resist the loads from 13 storeys. Conclusions: The conclusion is that there are ways to have a satisfying section on 22 storeys by steel reinforcement or change the strength of the timber lamina. The section on the coupling beam from the report manage to hold for 13 storeys with the chosen parameters.

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  • 5.
    Al-Habaibeh, Amin
    et al.
    Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Hawas, Allan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Hamadeh, Lama
    Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Medjdoub, Benachir
    Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Marsh, Julian
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Sen, Arijit
    Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.
    Enhancing the sustainability and energy conservation in heritage buildings:: The case of Nottingham Playhouse2022In: Frontiers of Architectural Research, ISSN 2095-2635, E-ISSN 2095-2643, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 142-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is a growing interest in developing energy efficient buildings since it is estimated that buildings account for about 40% of the total primary energy consumption in the world. In relation to existing buildings, energy efficiency retrofits have become an important opportunity to upgrade the energy performance of commercial, public and residential buildings that may reduce the energy consumption, demand and cost. In this paper we cover the energy efficiency deep retrofit process that has been carried out for Nottingham Playhouse theatre building for the aim of enhancing its environmental performance and analysing the energy efficiency gained after implementing certain proposed modifications. It is a nationally protected historic building, listed as Grade II∗ on The National Heritage List for England (NHLE). The building has had insulation enhancement, doors modifications, solar energy installations, energy-saving lights, in addition to improved heating and air conditioning system. The paper presents a novel methodology; and its results indicate significant improvements in the building's energy performance which is demonstrated using infrared thermographic images and data logger sensors where significant energy savings to the building's thermal performance are obtained. The energy saving measures have been completed while maintaining the heritage building's general appearance and architectural features, which have received a Commendation Certificate from The Nottingham Civic Society for this achievement.

  • 6.
    Aljawaheri, Moustafa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kako, Hawar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Projekteringsprocessens utveckling: En studie om projekteringsprocessens utveckling de senaste 30 åren och eventuella effektiviseringsmöjligheter2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract 

    Purpose: The purpose of the degree project is to examine how the development within the planning process has been over the past thirty years and also to highlight challenges and the shortcomings that arose in the last 30 years. Through streamlining, minimizing costs and specifying the design leads to further development and simplicity in the planning process. Method: The method in the degree project began with a literature study where a theoretical frame of reference regarding the planning process is presented to expand the knowledge of the subject. Subsequently, a qualitative study was conducted in the form of interviews with experienced individuals in the construction industry. With the literature studies and interviews as a basis, practical application was also carried out in the form of a model study where the functionality of different software was considered. Results: The results of the study present a summation of the interviews conducted. Digital development has facilitated with calculation programs or drawings that are simpler than before, and easier to edit with the help of digitization, but it has also resulted in poor communication, poorer connection and less collaboration because of this digital development. Furthermore, these problems have led to several errors in the projects. Another important problem that is noticed in the work is to cut off the projects in smaller moments that always create confusion and shortcomings. The stage shifts in the projects damage two major factors which are time and cost. After a summer of the interviews conducted, the data collected from the literature study were analyzed and linked. The analysis led to a proposal for improvement which is presented in the results of the work. Conclusions: Regarding the results of the study conducted in this degree project, plenty of conclusions are drawn on how the planning process have developed over the past 30 years, such as where in the planning process there are shortcomings, what development opportunities there are and what their potential consequences are.

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    Projekteringsprocessens utveckling
  • 7.
    Alshamali, Mouaid
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hassan, Mohammed
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ENERGIEFFEKTIVISERING FÖR ÄLDRE SMÅHUS: Energibesparing och lönsamhet för olika åtgärder i ett äldre småhus från 1976 i Avesta kommun2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the profitability of various energy efficient measures and at the same time examine the energy savings for an old house from the 1970s.  Method: The methodology of this work is based on field measurements, observations, and document analysis. The calculations that were performed were monthly calculations performed in Excell. The data were then collected and analysed and provided the house's energy balance. The profitability of different measurements was then determined according to its payback period. Results: The house's estimated energy use for heating is about 22.1 MWh / year. With rock source heat pump, approximately 70% energy saving was achieved. With FTX-system, an energy saving of about 23% was achieved, while the replacement of windows & doors and additional insulation of exterior walls and attic achieved the same energy saving of approximately 14%. Economic analysis showed that installation of a ground source heat pump can be the most profitable alternative, according to the payback period and long-term analysis, which is an analysis over 40 years ahead. The results also showed that energy prices have a significant effect on the profitability, where doubled energy prices almost halved the payback period and at the same time tripled the economic profit after 40 years calculated with the prerequisites in the current study. Conclusions: For the current house, the replacement of windows & doors is recommended instead of the additional insulation because in associating with the replacement of windows & doors, the air leakage due to leaks can almost be halved, which would benefit a possible installation of FTX systems in the future. After doubling energy prices, some measures have given a return of more than 70%. Therefore, based on the data presented in this work, it is recommended to, in addition to the payback period, also make a long-term analysis to have a more stable basis when deciding what measures should be taken to reduce the purchased energy. This is because when comparing different energy saving investments, it is almost impossible to justify when considering only the payback period. It is also recommended that in an older one family houses with similar prerequisites, the bedrock heat pump should be installed first if there is no need for renovation. This is to maximize the energy savings and thus the financial gain.

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  • 8.
    Al-sumasum, Rawia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Faías Ponce, Lara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ÅTERANVÄNDBARA PARKERINGSHUS: En studie om att utveckla konceptet TempoDeck2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s situation new methods are constantly evolving in the construction industry where the sustainability of a construction is of utmost importance. Prefabricated concrete is a type material that is highly durable in terms of long life without producing damaging effects. As a result, the material has been used increasingly in the manufacture of construction. Construction industry is continuously developing, which means new ways to construct buildings. Within construction, usage of prefabricated concrete is a method that has become increasingly successful. With this method, the construction period is shortened considerably and the construction process will be more beneficial for the environment and the various safety aspects. This master thesis was written in cooperation with AB Strängbetong, is one of the largest companies in Sweden that uses prefabricated elements. The company has a concept called TempoDeck and is currently building a parking garage in Ullared, with the life with a life expectancy of 50 years, that is life class L50. The objective of the study was to check whether the construction work fulfilled the requirements of the standards. In addition, the purpose was also to investigate the possibility of a different type of facade design by reducing the height of the joists and beams. The thesis includes a literature review, a case study, an archive analysis as well as calculations with the Norwegian program E – bjelke. A guidance from AB Strängbetong has also been used. The results showed that the existing structure fulfilled the life class L50 according to the requirements. In addition, the results showed that it was aesthetically possible to modify the car park, to make it more appealing. However, it would be more profitable to keep the design as it is to the future constructions. 

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  • 9.
    Al-Wandi, Karar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Processen för bygglov: De sökande småhusägarnas perspektiv och fuktproblem i Stockholms Stad2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify problems and shortcomings in the process of building permits from the perspective of small house owners in Stockholm. The purpose of this study is also to present future improvements. Methods: The method for this study contains both literature study and a case study. The case study consisted of a digital survey and interviews with small house owners and with the municipality´s building permit department. The digital survey consisted of questions about previous experiences of the building permit process to then investigate where there are shortcomings and weaknesses. Results: The results gave a wider perspective of how the small house owners experience the building permit process and how the municipality works through challenges and improves the process. The digital survey showed that several were dissatisfied with the processing time and experienced it as a long period. The respondents also experienced it as a difficulty when it comes to submitting correct documents requested by the municipality and that there are high building permit fees. A concrete improvement measure is that Stockholm municipality clarifies the building permit process steps regarding processing times and other weaknesses that arise on the website. Conclusions: The conclusion of this work is that Stockholm municipality updates the website, so that applicants with less knowledge and experience regarding building permits can get a better idea and possibly follow the schedule and budget they planned for the project. To avoid damage caused by damp during the project, it is possible to undergo a so-called moisture safety design. Stockholm municipality can introduce more employees within the building permit department to be prepared for periods where there is high pressure in building permit matters.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Green Building: Ett företags energieffektiviseringsarbete i ett byggprojekt samt de krav som ställs för att få byggnaden Green Building klassad.2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The examination has been performed at Bjerking AB, which is an architectural and engineering company. Bjerking AB has the ambition to be a member of Green Building.

    The Green Building program developed in year 2005 by The European Commission, the program is an environmental system with the aim to improving energy efficiency within the sectors of non-residential buildings. The minimum requirements to participate the program are following: in new-built buildings the calculated energy consumption must be 25 % lower than the requirements in the BBR (Building regulations) and in refurbishment the reduction must be 25 % lower than before the optimization.

    The aim of this study has been to examine and review the company Bjerking AB's energy efficiency work in the project of building the school/kindergarten S:ta Maria Alsike, where the goal is to get this building Green Building classed. A description of requirements to become a member of the Green Building has also accomplished in the thesis.

    The methods performed in this study are literature review, searches on the Internet, studies on the project database for facts/values, calculation of energy consumption and interviews of members of the Green Building. 

    The following issues have been dealt with in the report;

    -          Did the building in the project manage the requirement to achieve an   energy consumption that is 25% lower than the requirements in BBR?

    -          What technical measures/system was selected in the building?

    -          What kind of cooperation was the project based on?

    -          What is required for consultancy companies and real estate owners to become members of the Green Building?

    The study of the project and calculation of estimated energy consumption in the building, give the result 47 kWh/m2, year. This is 60 % lower than the requirements of BBR. The Green Building requirement is that the building's energy consumption should be at least 25% less than the requirements in BBR. The building fulfills this requirement by a significant margin. It can therefore be concluded that the technical solutions carried out in the building are energy efficient. The project consisted of the cooperation shape “partnering ", which can be assumed to be a good form of cooperation in order to achieve an energy efficient building. The consultancy company Bjerking AB and the landlord Knivsta Pastorat has the potential to become members of Green Building, as Green Building Endorser respective Green Building Partner.

    Keywords: energy efficiency, requirements of BBR, technical systems, cooperation, consultancy companies, real estate owners, estimated energy consumption, partnering, Green Building Partner, Green Building Endorser.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Andersson, Alva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Leppänen, Natalie
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Förbättra allmänhetens engagemang i energibesparingsåtgärder i byggnader: Värmekamerans hjälp till villaägarnas förståelse och upptäckt av energiförluster2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: this degree project investigates the homeowner’s knowledge about their energy use and the impact of using visualisation tools such as thermal imaging to enhance public engagement in energy conservation in building. Additionally, the study try to increase the understanding of how people's behavior affects the energy use in buildings. The method: the presented study is based on 12 participants who own a single-family house in central Sweden. Participation in this study involved responding to two questionnaires and conducting a thermography inspection. A methodology developed to replace a standard thermography inspection with a DIY themography survey. The study identified and filled the gap in the literature, by allowing house owners to carry out the thermographing inspection of their own buildings, free of charge and by themselves. The participants took part of a developed educational material that helps in increasing energy awareness and includes explanations about how to interpret the thermal images and provides suggestions for possible conservation measures. Finally, a data analyse carried out based on questionnairs, thermal images and communications with the house owners. The results: cold bridges are the most common cause of heat loss in the inspected single-family houses. Householders with older buildings who have long term plan to live in their building are willing to implement measures, while participants with newer buildings do not consider it as necessary. The infrared camera has been an effective tool for visualization of heat loss and attract attention. Many participants are surprised over the results. Conclusion: the study confirms that the infrared camera is an effective tool for heat loss visualization and can be used for enhancing public engagement in energy conservation in building. Thanks to this visualization, Swedish homeowners have gained an increased interest in energy-efficient measures such as additional insulation, window replacement and sun protection. The study has increased the general awareness and knowledge regarding energy efficiency in buildings.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Jasmine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mård, Oliver
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fuktproblem i produktionsskedet: Förebyggande åtgärder och åtgärder efter fuktskada2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the problems that occur due to moist in the workplace, as well as the measures that can be taken and which measures are most effective. The study will examine the material storage and how it is being handled in the workplace, exploring what directives the insurance companies have, so the insurance is valid. Lastly the study will compare the different measures based on an economic perspective, time perspective as well as material savings. Method: This study is based on a literature study and a case study. The case study is based on both an interview and a site visit. Information has been gathered from various sources such as books, previously made thesis and various governments websites. The case study for this thesis is conducted at Emausskolan in Västerås. Results: To ensure that the moisture management in the production is good a certified moisture expert is hired. Moisture on materials can be prevented by using just-in-time deliveries and the most optimal solution a weather protection. Directives from the insurance companies regarding moisture management at the workplace and what the entrepreneur is obligated to do after moisture damage has occurred. To minimize moisture and mold growth the workplace should be clean and dry. Self-monitoring and samples were carried out throughout the project to ensure that the work has been performed correctly. Conclusions: The conclusion for this thesis is that challenges for moisture depends on the weather, carelessness, and time pressed schedules. Solutions would be to have a tight climate shell, usage of weather protection and surface treatment on materials. Handling of materials is to a certain degree taken care of in terms of palletized and packaged but not always. 

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  • 13.
    Andersson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Lundberg, Michael
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandpåverkan på samverkanskonstruktion: En utvärdering av betongfylld stålprofil2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A concrete-filled steel column is taking advantage of the interaction between the enclosing steel profile and the concrete core to obtain an increased load capacity. In order to understand the behavior and effects of the interaction between steel and concrete, it is important to first understand the individual material behavior. The main task of the concrete in a composite column is to absorb pressure forces while the steel's main task is to counteract stress and the tensile forces.

    At normal room temperature both steel and concrete interact to carry the current load. Concrete-filled steel column has a great potential according to load capacity. Some of the expected positive effects of the interaction between steel and concrete are:

    • The occurrence of buckling for the steel is delayed and the strength deterioration after the local buckling is moderate, both due to the restraining effect of concrete.
    • Prevents the concrete spalling and strength reduction of concrete core will not be as drastic.
    • Increased compressive strength and deformation capacity, especially for large-diameter cross-section.

    In a fire scenario the column is exposed to a temperature increase. Heat transfer from the combustion gases to the column occurs mainly through radiation and convection heat. The load carrying capacity of the included materials will be reduced as a result of this heat transfer. The size of the reduction depends on how high temperature the materials are exposed to, where a higher temperature leads to a greater reduction. For the concrete-filled steel column, the surrounding steel profile will quickly become very hot while the concrete core obtains a slower rise in temperature. In the initial stage of the fire case the steel expands faster than the concrete, causing the steel to then basically carry the entire load of the column. After some time the steel will be incapable of carrying the load, then instead the concrete core will be the main load carrier. The final collapse of the column occurs only when the concrete core finally will be incapable to carry the load.

    A comparative theoretical study of concrete-filled steel column, concrete- and steel columns under thermal effects was carried out in this work. The calculation method followed the design rules that exist for each material in the Eurocode. Column capacity calculations are made for both normal room temperatures as well as for fire exposure.

    The ISO-standard fire curve was used for analysis and determination of each column cross-section temperature profile at the different time stages 30, 60 and 90 minutes. The mechanical properties were then reduced as a function of the temperature.

    The survey found that the composite and concrete column load capacity exposed to 60 minutes of the ISO-standard fire curve was adequate. Calculations made by hand and with computer showed almost equivalent load capacity by thermal effects and normal temperature.

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    Brandpåverkan på samverkanskonstruktion: En utvärdering av betongfylld stålprofil
  • 14.
    Anund Vogel, Jonas
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Per
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arias, Jaime
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blomkvist, Pär
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifaily buildings2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 109-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates problem areas related to energy efficiency implementation in Swedish multifamily buildings. The paper first presents a generic list of (theoretical) problem areas identified through a literature survey. Using a qualitative approach, the paper also investigates if the problem areas identified in the literature also have an impact on the Swedish building sector. Results from the interview study reveal a strong coherence between problem areas in the literature and those expressed by the interviewees. However, this paper identifies seven novel challenges that cannot be derived from the list of barriers in the literature. Moreover, results reveal that as many as 12 problem areas have their origin in national factors such as agreement structures, incentive schemes, and cost calculation methods.

  • 15.
    Axel, Nilsson
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Emil, Pettersson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    UTFORMNING AV DRAGBAND FÖR OKÄNDA OLYCKSLASTER: En undersökning om praktisk tillämpning av EKS 11 för flerbostadshus i konsekvensklass 2b2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: An investigation about how ties are designed for accidental loads according to Eurocode 1: SS-EN 1991-1-7 and Eurocode 2: SS-EN 1992-1-1, with attention on ESK 11, the Application of the European construction standards by the National Board of Housing. Eurocodes are the European standard for how buildings should be constructed. They are treated to some extent in the EKS, who makes adaption to the rules with consideration to the Swedish environment. And by the National Board of Housing, EKS becomes a norm in Sweden and is applied to construction. Accidental loads can be diminished by a minimum to the largest of Eurocode 1 and 2 with changes of EKS. Purpose: To investigate and clarify how ties for accidental loads are designed and arranged. Method: For the relevancy of this thesis a major focus is to study Eurocode 1 and 2, side by side with EKS 11. These will be compared to real construction drawings provided by Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB and additionally be confirmed with manual calculations for a fictitious building made by the authors. Results: The results present proposals for how different ties under tension should be defined, designed, and placed. Together with an overall solution for designs, and calculations of a fictitious building that meets the same requirements as for the buildings in the study objects. Whether there are any conflicts between regulating documents will also be brought up. Conclusion: In the event of accidental loads ties shall act as a measure to prevent the progressive race caused by an accident, by strengthening the connections between different structural parts. The ties that are studied in this thesis are categorized by either of two definitions, direct ties, and indirect ties. Where direct ties are only used for the purpose to function as a tie for accidental loads, and where indirect ties could be used by already existing reinforcement. The investigation shows that most of the ties that are required for accidental loads can be designed with indirect ties, that not all of them are necessary and that the required dimensions are low.

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  • 16.
    Aziz, Ahmad Jawed
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Dimensionering av grundläggning med hjälp av Eurokod2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Work to develop the Eurocodes started in 1975 by the European Commission adopted a program to eliminate trade barriers within the construction area. The goal was to create common European design standards that would replace the member countries' own rules. Eurocodes will replace The National Board of Housing Building and Planning, National Rail, The National Road Administration and other agencies' calculation rules for the buildings structures. The transition to the use of Eurocodes looks like this:

    • Eurocodes set to Swedish standards  between 2002 – 2007
    • They can be used parallel with national standards 2006 - 2009
    • The total transition is at the end of 2010/2011.

    Right now is going on a lot of work for replacement of the existing standards to Eurocodes.  The transition to the new calculations` standards, many construction companies and consulting firms facing a big changes and competitions. Because of the preparations for the transition, I was commissioned by my examiners to carry out my thesis in the design of foundations by using Eurocodes. The report addresses, the design off foundations according to Eurocode SS - EN1997.

    The purpose of this thesis is to point out the main changes occurring in the design of foundations of the implementation of Eurocode SS - EN1997 and the practical and financial implications that will have on the design and performing. The objective of this thesis is that it should be a basis for design and calculation of foundation.

    The method of work has been to study existing and future conditions for the design of foundations, literature review and Internet searches have been made to gather information about Eurocodes, and collection of materials from my external supervisor has been made.

    Below are a number of questions that will be answered in report:

    • What is the Eurocode SS - EN1997?
    • What are the advantages and disadvantages of Eurocodes?
    • What changes will occur in the design process?
    • What are the practical and economic consequences of Eurocodes for large and small companies?

    Result of this work is that it can be used as a basis for design of foundation. In the capital 5 to 8 have been described the fundamental aspects of the design of foundations. Capital 9 relate to the design of various types of ground structures such as the Spread Foundation, Pile foundation and Retaining structures.

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  • 17.
    Bakkour, Taofik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Khazal, Larsa
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    LCA OCH LCC FÖR FLERBOSTADSHUS: Trä och betong ur ett miljö- och ekonomiperspektiv på uppdrag av Kommunfastigheter i Eskilstuna AB2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The building construction business in Sweden stands for approximately a third of greenhouse gas emissions nationally. Great focus on environmental work and a good attitude towards a climate-smart construction process have today evolved to a genuine discussion about the way that fits in to secure future generations. Wood construction, an old but continuous method are today under a growth process to cater for the need of housing. Wood construction on a high level however has its difficulties environmentally and economically, where high wood construction buildings have possibly been seen as unnecessary especially in higher apartment buildings. But with time and development forward has it been found that concrete has a high carbon dioxide emission value when producing apartment buildings and the thought of using wood instead has been increasing in the business. 

    The municipality of Eskilstuna is planning a new residential area in Norra Årby, where three apartment buildings is planning on being built on a deserted parking lot. The designers of these three apartment buildings are examining the possibility to use wood as a main construction material instead of concrete. As a mission of Kommunfastigheter i Eskilstuna AB explores this study this possibility using LCA and LCC over a period of 50 years on one of these buildings that can be later used for future projects. Out of documents on the designers thought of construction has LCA och LCC been produced in the shape of global warming potential per square meter living space and price per square meter living space. The results of LCA and LCC showed that it is cheaper building the apartment building in wood in comparison to concrete, and that the global warming potential was significantly smaller even though the building is designed to be 9 levels. Wood can therefore be used as a substitute for concrete even though the building is high. To secure the results a sensitivity analysis was produced to see of changing the parameters of the study had an impact on the results. This showed that the most significantly economical parameter was the discount rate of the projects. 

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    Nr6.LarsaKhazal.TaofikBakkour.Examensarbete.BTA205
  • 18.
    Bano, Fadi
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Michael, Steve
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Youssef, Elefro
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BYGGFUKT I BYGGNADER MED STOMME AV KORSLIMMAT TRÄ: Erfarenheter och mätresultat för tre byggnader uppförda med och utan väderskydd2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: the purpose of this study is to examine the moisture ratio under that period with and without weather protection to see if it has an impact on the moisture levels. The purpose is also to identify the profitability of the weather protection and if there are other methods that can be used to replace it.Method: For this study different methods have been used to maintain the results. A literature study and a case study were made to achieve credible results and are the basis for this project. The case study is made on three different projects. One of the projects is a preschool with weather protection and is located in the city of Uppsala. The other two projects are without weather protection and one of them is located in Uppsala which is an apartment building and the other one in Stockholm and is a warehouse. Books, websites, scientific reports, and articles were used in the literature study to obtain important information to help the students to answer the questions.Results: The results show that the price for weather protection depends on which type of weather protection it is, how long time it will be used, and the size of it. Moisture measurements that were taken on the building projects without weather protection didn’t differ much from the project with. Results show there are many methods that can be used instead of weather protection to reduce high moisture levels. The wood pieces of the own experiment showed that after a couple of days they were dehydrated and the moisture ratios were below 15 %.Conclusions: Using weather protection depends on which project it is. It’s difficult to calculate the profit of weather protection during the construction stage. Weather protection has many benefits. The construction time will be decreased and you can install lights that can help the builders to see during the construction. The moisture ratio for the project with weather protection didn’t differ much from the projects without weather protection. According to the own experiment, wood is a very good material when it comes to dehydration of moisture. 

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    Byggfukt i byggnader med KL-trästomme
  • 19.
    Berggren, Filip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Österlund, Robin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hur ansvariga vid vägarbeten ser på sin uppgift kopplat till säkerhet och framkomlighet2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 1997, the Swedish parliament adopted a decision on Vision Zero (nollvision) in the road 

    and transport system. Vision Zero means that no one should be killed or seriously injured in 

    traffic accidents in the road transport system (Prop. 2003/04: 160). For the Transport 

    Administration in Sweden (Trafikverket), this means increased demands on security and 

    signage at road work sites around the country. This in turn means increased demands on the 

    contractors that carry out road work for the Transport Administration. The Transport 

    Administration wants a better understanding how entrepreneurs in various operational areas in 

    the Eastern Region perceive their role as responsible for safety and accessibility on roadwork 

    sites and to better understand the problems that can occur when signage is inadequate. In this 

    report, governing documents for the operating entrepreneurs have been studied, in addition, 

    searches of literature in various transport databases have been made. Interviews have been 

    made with the operating entrepreneurs who have had the opportunity to highlight their views 

    on roadwork. The results of the study are a compilation of things the contractors put emphasis 

    on. Among other things, several of them want to separate service equipment 

    (trafikanordningar) from the procurement because it is possible to win offers with a lower bid 

    amount, depending on how signage is made and safety is ensured. Many contractors also call 

    for more clarification from the Transport Administration, and say that it is often unclear what 

    the relevant directives are. Hopefully, this report will help increase the Transport 

    Administration’s understanding of the roadwork performed by contractors and help them 

    towards Vision Zero.  

     

    Keywords 

    vägarbete, trafikanordning, utmärkning, nollvision, trafikanordningsplan, konkurrenssättning, 

    skyltning, framkomlighet 

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  • 20.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Malmberg, Kenneth
    Inneklimatet på ett kontor: Undersökning av inneklimatet vån. G4 stadshuset samt kontor på Ånghammargatan2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes an investigation of the indoor climate in two different workspaces. Since we a big part of our lives are staying indoors in artificial environments, and more particularly in our workplaces, we think it would be interesting to do this investigation.

     

    The technical solutions for air treatment systems began with simple natural systems without fans and where the thermal rise of the air applied. In modern time is technical air treating systems used to take care of the fresh air supply. This type of units can supply filtered air with the right temperature to the building.

     

    Well-functioning ventilation is essential to bring clean fresh air to the room and effectively remove impurities without sound- or draught problems. The indoor climate is relevant for the output capacity. Ability to work is influenced by a few degrees difference. Even the mental capacity is affected by this. Indoor climate with good comfort create the conditions for effective activities.

     

    People experience current indoor climate in various ways. In a workplace, some find it too warm while others complain that it is too cold. While odors from perfumes and pollutants may be perceived as very disturbing for example, allergies and children, while others are not affected at all.

     

    The office in City Hall is located on the 4th floor of the central Västerås. Surroundings consist of a large city park, a big car park and the city center. The second office is in a big one floored building, about 10 kilometers outside the city, with close links to a heavily busy road and a large parking place.

     

    At the sampling and measurement of the different spaces we used three different instruments. A sound meter, a carbon dioxide meter and a comfort meter which measures, operating temperature, humidity and air velocity. All measurements were made during an hour interval with at least one person in the room. We first measured the noise level and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the room, and after that we started comfort meter and collected the questionnaire responses.

     

     

    The result from all measurements is consistent with the questionnaire responses. In the office space that are perceived as dry, cold or warm we measured almost the same results. The experience of a space feels dry line with reality. When cold outdoor air is heated to around 19 degrees it becomes dry, which is normal for the cold seasons.

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  • 21.
    Berhane, Hiyab
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Energieffektivisering av flerbostadshus från miljonprogrammet: Beräkningsresultat för åtgärder som minskar värmeförlusterna för ett lamellhus från 1969 i Stockholm2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this degree project is to study the energy performance of the apartment building located in Tensta.  This study will propose methods for energy efficiency by calculating the building's need for active heating in its existing condition and then studying and comparing different methods for energy efficiency. Method: To accomplish the purpose of this degree project, a literature study was performed to gather information as well as a case study of the apartment building. In addition to this, relevant calculations were performed to account for the most energy saving measure. Results: The results of this degree project shows that the apartment buildings yearly need for active heating is 193,3 MWh. By changing the current double-glazed windows to new triple-glazed windows the yearly need for active heating decreases by 15%. By installing an HRV-system the yearly need for active heating decreases by 31%. Conclusions: In summary, installing an HRV-system will account for more energy savings compared to changing the current double-glazed windows to new triple-glazed windows. However, this does not mean that installing an HRV-system is a better investment since this study only focuses on the energy savings generated by the different methods and not the cost of the different methods. 

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  • 22.
    Björk, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Processen att framställa en funktionell galleria: Klöverns kommunikation med involverade parter under processen att starta upp Postgallerian2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about the communication between the real estate owner and the other involving parties under the project of establish a successfully mall in Västerås, Sweden. The purpose of this report is that the reader will get a survey of how the communication have been between the real estate’s owner Klövern, the tenant who already lives in the building and the ones how are interesting of moving in to the new mall named Postgallerian. Hopefully it will lead to inspiration of how you could carry out the communication to the involving parties under a project who occur in a real estate where their already are some tenant´s renting. The report starts whit a summary of why and how the project start. Interviews have been done with everybody who rents in the building under the building project occurred to get an insight of what they experience when a big rebuilding occurred in the house they rent in. A summary of these interviews are in the report along with some suggestion of how a god relationship can establish whit tenant´s who rent in the building your about to do some rebuilding in. Contact have also establish with companies who wanted to rent an area in Postgallerian but for some reason didn’t do it and with the once who sign the contract and moved in. Analyses of why some of the companies decided to rent and some didn´t are discussed in the report. In this project Klövern decided to hire a consult how helped them to find candidates for renting in Postgallerian, analyze if that was a good or bad decision is in this report. It also brings up what the difference is between the consult and Klöverns way of finding companies how are interesting in renting in Postgallerian.

  • 23.
    Björkholdt, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    jFunda2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB, ett konsultföretag inom bygg- och VVS-sektorn med ca 50 anställda, använder ett egenskrivet BASIC program i DOS för beräkning av grundfundament i betong med grundsula och plintskaft avseende stabilitet och erforderlig armering. I dagsläget finns det ungefär 10 användare av programmet.

    Några kända problem med programmet är att varje dator måste konfigureras manuellt med kommandopromptens NET USE kommando. Detta för att en anslutning av nätverksskrivaren till den lokala porten LPT1 måste finnas för att utskriften ska fungera. Dessutom kan varken indata eller resultat från ett fundament sparas.

    Detta examensarbete behandlar arbetet för att konvertera det äldre DOS programmet till ett modernare fönsterbaserat programspråk med möjlighet att kunna spara fundamenten för respektive projekt.

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  • 24.
    Bouchnak, Micke Amir
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Erfarenhetsåterföring: Diskussionsforum ett nytt verktyg för erfarenhetsåterföringen2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

    This is a bachelor’s thesis within the program society development on the collage Mälardalens

    högskola. The subject that will be handled is knowledge recycling, this intervenes very well

    with the program I am undergoing, and this is because Construction Company’s does in

    general do the same mistakes over and over again. In the long run this will mean higher end

    prices for the end user. Knowledge recycle is a subject that haven’t been researched a lot, and

    therefore the choice of the topic Erfarenhetsåterföring, knowledge recycling.

    The thesis will be divided in two parts, one part consisting of the study in the subject to

    determine were the research front is. The other part consists of a pilot project of a message

    board where the employees of Fastec can discuss known problems. The main purpose is for

    the message board to work as a place for frequently asked questions and answers. This will be

    a different way for Fastec to work according to how they earlier communicated and hopefully

    a step in the right direction towards perfection. Every discussion will be logged and become

    searchable after posted, this key function is the main principle of the forum to work as a tool

    to improve the knowledge recycling. And this is a key ingredient when an employee stands in

    front of an in certainty of choosing between two materials or ways of doing things.

    The message boards functionality will be reviewed after sometimes use, the result I receive

    will be the data that will be used for the final rapport whether a message board is useful for

    knowledge recycling or not. And hopefully this thesis will help someone else in the subject to

    continue the research in the field.

    The issues addressed in the work are:

     

    Discover what methods of work that are available in the subject knowledge recycling

    Investigate whether if a message board can come to play an important part of

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  • 25.
    Chouhan, Nimesh
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jound, Ibrahim
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jämförelse mellan prefab och platsgjuten betongstomme för kv.Kleopatra: Arbetsmiljö, kvalitet, tidplanering- kostnader och miljö2009Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This diploma work is about the comparison between the prefabricated and on-site mixed concrete frames for Cleopatra that is a multi-residential building in Västerås, Sweden. Prefabricated and on-site mixed concrete structures are two methods used in the construction of new buildings.

    Due to lack of time after procurement of project contractors usually do not have time to make a detailed study for the selection of frames. In such cases they select a frame that has been chosen for previous projects with the lowest price that takes into account the client's budget for the project. The comparison is made between the prefabricated structure and the current structure which is on-site mixed with concrete and prefabricated concrete columns and concrete stairs for kv.  Kleopatra. It is very time-efficient in the current situation to make use of prefabricated pillars and cement stairs. Pillars and beams are chosen to be made on-site moulded because there is a very few and due to that it is more expensive to buy these as prefabricated. The extra cost will be when the prefabricated factory use specific forms for those parts which are then discarded and the cost of these forms is then allocated on number of pillars and beams. On-site moulded structures are being built at the workplace and in need of reinforcement, forming, stamping, bending back, ready-mix concrete, crane, equipment for drying, calendaring, glazing and conservation. Prefab structures are built at the factory and transported to the construction site, and then they have a need for the crane, ready-mix concrete, reinforcement for floor plate and calendaring, glazing for these. The choice between the prefabricated and on-site mixed frame for kv. Kleopatra affects the environment, working environment, quality and timing and costs differently. These points are investigated and compared for the quarter. Kleopatra and the results we have arrived at through various methods, including interviews, surveys, literature studies and further research we have done. We have come to different conclusions for the work environment, quality, environment,timeschedule and costs.

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  • 26.
    Davidsson, Lukas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Alsterlund, Isak
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Badrumsrenovering i bostäder: Jämförelse mellan radiatorsystem och golvvärmesystem ur energi-, fukt- och komfortaspekt i Västerås2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This degree project cover renovation of sanitary rooms with focus on an exchange from a radiator system to an underfloor heating system out of the three aspects energy, moisture and thermal comfort. The used method is literature study, interview, case study and calculations. When a radiator system is replaced with an underfloor heating system the energy demand will decrease due to a possible temperature reduction. The power requirement for the bathrooms will be reduced if the finish material have a higher density and the volume of the room is small. The moisture aspect can in some cases deteriorate with the replacement of systems. It is possible to achieve the same thermal comfort with any system, but it is easier to adjust with an underfloor heating system. An exchange from a radiator system to an underfloor heating system is possible. The energy and thermal comfort aspects improves, but the moisture aspect will potentially degrade.

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  • 27.
    Douglahali, Ali
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Stress i byggbranschen: Orsak till stress i byggbranschen samt förslag på åtgärder2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Stress and burnout are two words that are commonly occurring in many contexts today. More and more people experience that they are stressed and that they does not feel well. The long term sick -leave increases as a consequence of people being burned out. These phenomena prolong over all ages, sexes, classes and professional categories, which probably means that the construction industry would not be spared.  

    In the construction industry, stress and bad health are no new phenomenon, already during the 1970s and big parts of the 1990 s, the construction sector were exposed to the phenomena.

    A sector that has a large turnover annually cannot presumably be faultless. This does not only concern the construction industry but all larger sectors will somehow or sometime have to be aware of  negative stress, simply because they have a lot of people working for them. 

    The aim with this degree project has been to examine and find a greater understanding in what it is that causes stress in the construction industry and also to see what the consequences of negative stress can be. The study also considered whether there is any differences between the professional categories in the construction industry. Also some proposals on measures have been lifted forward.

    The reason to why stress arises has been examined and it shows that stress can depend on several different factors. The leading reasons to stress is that the individual does not have control over their own work, the lack of time and also the fact that they do not have any time for recovery. In the constructions industry several different problems were pointed out, for example the short construction time and the time pressure and also bad work environment.

    There have been some researches done around the matter of stress that are connected to the construction industry; these studies have been presented in this report.

    On the basis of earlier research, a questionnaire has been formulated in order to compare the result with earlier research. The study has been implemented at NCC, Construction, Västerås.

    The study shows that it is big differences between the different professional categories. But at the same time there is much that can be done. And by looking of the measures that has been lifted forward, you can see how that can lead to a better work environment among the workers. All professional categories in the construction industry experience stress at work. But the study shows that the workers that are out on the building, the craftsmen and carpenter are the ones to experience the biggest amount of stress.

     

     

    Keywords: Construction industry, Stress, Studies, Trade

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  • 28.
    Due-Boje, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
      Uppföljning av nyckeltal för större bro- och betongtunnelentreprenader:   Nyckeltal tänkta att användas för att kvalitetssäkra anbudsarbete2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The taskmaster for this thesis is Skanska Sverige AB Region Stora Projekt, who works with large bridge- and construction projects. Greatest need is to enhance the understanding of the General costs of the projects. Tender calculation means to predict project costs and General costs are a significant part of the project's total cost and is difficult to calculate. This post is, broadly expressed, the construction costs that are used jointly in the project. Ratios compress information in order to make it more accessible to the user.

    The purpose of this report is to present ratios primarily intended to be used to quality-assure future tender work.

    The material and data to which the report is based on is internal information about the reference projects and their final reports.

    For two of the resources ratios can be presented, the same applies to a third based on that the reference projects have similar design. It is reasonable for a fourth. The remainder is too object-specific and there is little underlying data to draw any conclusions. For these require more reference projects in order to obtain reliable data.

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  • 29.
    Einarsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Daniel, Robertsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Utveckling av besiktningsmetoder: En fallstudie i att anpassa en besiktningsmodell för Strängnäs Fastighets AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to develop and evaluate an inspection model that will facilitate the work for Strängnäs Fastighets AB inspectors. Method: The method of this study consists of a case study in which the company´s routines was analyzed through site visits, interviews, review of the work routines and documents. The case study is supplemented by a literature study where, above all, legal requirements and to a certain extent research in the area. Results: The Analyzing of the routines resulted in the company having limited or no routines at all for inspection of the buildings. This meant that the work was based on response to complaints rather than proactive work. According to that background, a model was established based on other organization's inspection models as well as suggestions and ideas from the company itself. The model was then further adapted through tests and feedback from the company to be able to apply to as many types of buildings as possible. Conclusions: This study concludes that it is possible to customize an inspection model to some extent by the use of other organizations methods.

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    Utveckling av besiktningsmetoder
  • 30.
    Ekk, Mustafa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Alsakati, Homam
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Matloub, Antouine
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fasta och rörliga solskydd: En fallstudie på två skolor2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: During the summer, overheating in buildings is becoming more common, but at the same time the passive heat from the sun during the winter can be utilized. This project investigates which solar shading is the best alternative to use in new buildings in Kungsbacka municipality. Method: There are three main aspects that this project focuses on, which are economics, energy and thermal climate. To perform the examination in this project, two rooms in two different schools have been examined with four different solar shading options. The solar shading options are fixed solar shading with a 30 degree inclination, fixed solar shading with 45 degree inclination,  variable sun-controlled solar shading, and variable scheduled solar shading. Results: The results of the study shows that variable sun-controlled solar shading provides the best indoor climate from a thermal aspect, and provides the lowest cooling needs as it reduces the amount of passive energy supplied through the window. Variable solar shading is expensive to purchase, maintain and operate. Fixed solar shading types have a cheaper purchase price and have no operation or maintenance costs. Conclusions: you can say that the choice of solar shading types depends on the conditions one has. Given the results from the case studied in this project,  variable sun-controlled solar shading type is better than fixed solar shading but more costly.

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  • 31.
    Eklund, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Larsson, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Metodval i projekteringsfasen: Bostadshus Ljusbojen 12007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This major project in Building Engineering has its focus on inquiring into what methods has been used in the planning process of the residential building

    Ljusbojen 1. This project has been conducted in cooperation with Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB, an engineering contractor firm which also acts as the property developer. Initially several different general methods for planning residential buildings have been presented. After the methods from the process of building Ljusbojen 1 has been analyzed compared to the general methods presented in part 1. This shows what the determining factors are during the planning process; factors such as cost, quality, time management, know-how and environmental issues. Ljusbojen 1 has been a good building to study as it has a quite rare architecture and is meant to be perceived as a luxurious resident. The building has been divided into several different parts as this is how they are in the presented in offers, also the different parts are more easily analyzed; the parts are: foundation preparation, framework, exterior, rooming complements and installations. The basis of information has been extracted from relevant literature, planning project reports and in-person interviews. As the scope of this project covers a large field work has been concentrated on the most interesting methods. As a general result it can be determined that the building industry has been pressured to develop and try new methods mainly because of new and daring architectures. However, many existing and well known methods are still in use as the companies know that they work and can offer lower price from these.

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  • 32.
    Elamidi, Sokaina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Amir Taher, Dalia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Social hållbarhet och dagvattenhantering i Linköping: En studie om Parken Paradiset och Broparken i Vallastaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are several aspects which need to be considered while planning a building to achieve sustainable environment for people's well-being. One of the significant aspects is social sustainability which is largely about promoting everyone regardless of the circumstances. In a socially sustainable city, there should be access to meeting places to improve social life. The Park Paradiset and the Broparken in Vallastaden were designed to improve socializing between people. The parks in this work are examined based on social aspects; interaction and identity. In addition, a park should be designed based on different aspects to suit different people. This work considers aspects such as recreation/ leisure, cultural identity, accessibility and safety. Beyond these aspects, the stormwater management in the parks is also studied. These studies were conducted with systematic literature studies, site visits, survey and qualitative interviews. A site visit was in Vallastaden, where the authors explored the district and handed out survey to the resident. The interview for the Park Paradise was conducted with Ulrika Gunnman from White Arkitekter and the interview for the Broparken was conducted with Lina Moström from 02landskap. The result shows that the architects worked differently to achieve the social aspects. It can be concluded that Park Paradiset fulfills the aspects better than the Broparken based on survey results, site visits and the interviews. The results further show that the stormwater management for the parks consists of open systems. Open systems have even been current in the Park Paradiset. The open ditches in the park leads the water in the transverse dikes to a longitudinal dike. It can be concluded that the architects utilized stormwater management better in Broparken compared to the Park Paradiset, when the architects transformed the ordinary ditch into something attractive and gave the park a character. 

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  • 33.
    Eriksson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jenny, Löfgren
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandbelastning i träbyggnader: Jämförande beräkning och kartläggning om hur branschen hanterar permanet brandbelastning2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is a renewable material, it is strong in relation to its weight, climate smart but also combustible. Owing to its many advantages and the easy access in Sweden, wood is motivated as a topical building material. However, the aspects related to the combustible nature need to be considered in the design of buildings with a wooden frame. Whether and in such cases how to take into account the increased permanent fire load is a problem of which there are shared opinions. Today's regulatory framework is unclear in some aspects in its formulation and thus leaves room for interpretation. The purpose of this work is to investigate the reasonableness of tabulated data for permanent fire load and the sharp boundary between a BR1 building and a BR0 building but also by surveying how the industry handles the issue. In order to assess the reasonableness for the tabulated data, the method has been calculations with two different methods; one that follows BBR's guidelines (method 1) and another where calculations of the charring depth (method 2) have been performed, as well as a survey and a literature study. The result from the calculations in method 1 shows that in order for the level of the total fire load not to exceed the standard value for a residence of 800 MJ/m2, a low coefficient is required, and thus in principle all wood is assumed to be protected. According to the calculations in method two, it is possible to read out how the permanent fire load is affected by different protective linings and carbonation rates. The survey shows that the most common way to dimension fire protection is through simplified sizing, which entails that one does not have to consider whether the permanent fire load increases due to a combustible frame. There are divided opinions about whether Boverket's rules are enough to achieve adequate protection and how to handle it. The literature study shows that for the timber frame to be counted as fully protected it needs to be three layers of fire gypsum board in the ceiling and that two layers on the walls. Several conclusions can be drawn; the calculations indicate that a permanent fire load of 200 MJ/m2 (2013:11) is unreasonable in a wooden frame building also that if the permanent fire load is considered it becomes costly both economically and in terms of space. Even that Boverket's rules need to be clarified and adapted further against tall wood buildings and that fire projectors work differently and the experience of working with tall wood buildings differs greatly.

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  • 34.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Jämförelse av energianvändning och inneklimat i lågenergihus: Energisnåla hus med FTX-system eller värmepump2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljön är alltid en viktig och svår fråga, vi måste hela tiden förbättra oss för att uppnå en mer hållbar miljö. En stor del av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning är idag knutet till våra byggnader och därför måste vi minska deras energibehov. För att byggnaderna ska minska sin förbrukning av energi sätter BBR med jämna mellanrum nya och tuffare krav. Det har bl.a. kommit riktlinjer för hus som vill marknadsföras som energisnåla.

    I denna rapport har för- och nackdelar jämförts mellan två olika typer av lågenergihus. Passivhus med FTX-system kontra lågenergihus som använder en värmepump som uppvärmningssystem.

    Det går inte heller att bara fokusera på en lägre energiförbrukning, inomhusklimatet i byggnaderna är också väldigt viktigt. Därav genomfördes en enkätundersökning med fokus på hur boende i lågenergihus upplever sitt inomhusklimat. Denna undersökning har varit anonym och skickats ut till boende i områdena Misteröd i Uddevalla, Gäddeholm i Västerås samt ett antal andra lågenergihus runt om i Sverige.

    I resultatet går det att utläsa vissa skillnader i de olika typerna av lågenergihus. De boende upplever en fräschare luftkvalitet i sitt nuvarande lågenergihus i jämförelse med deras tidigare erfarenheter. Den största nackdelen som brukarna betonade var den begränsade möjligheten att anpassa inomhustemperaturen beroende på årstid.

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  • 35.
    Fahme, Safen
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hur ser Läget ut egentligen?: En studie om arbetsmiljön inom byggsektorn2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study includes several purposes which are to describe the concept of working environment, explain who is responsible for its functioning and how the working environment should look like. Other purposes the study have is to investigate how the working environment is in both Swedish and the two investigated companies construction sites and to share some operators proposing measures for the shortcomings and problems that exist in the construction sector working environment. To achieve these purposes was a qualitative study made with unstructured observations, interviews and survey where three construction sites were observed. The result shows that the concept of the working environment cover many aspects and is essentially about the environment we live in and experience in our work and this environment can be both an indoor as an outdoor environment. In this work, the concept is divided into four areas; it is the physical, the ergonomic, the psychosocial and the chemical. Since January 2009 applies new rules in the rules for building and construction engineering (1999:3) which argue that the building proprietor can waive his working responsibilities to an entrepreneur. The work environment for the construction sector is governed by regulations and by laws and regulations determined how different parts of the different working environment areas and the working environment process should be. Position in the Swedish and the surveyed construction sites contains many gaps and problems such as time pressures, ignorance of the working environment work, errors in design and planning, priorities of economic gains instead of a good working environment and workers' carelessness and oversight of the security. These outcomes have resulted in high death and accident among the construction workers and cases of fall accidents and musculoskeletal disorders are the most common occupational accidents and diseases. Suggested measures considered are increased safety and health inspections on construction sites which are more difficult today when the reductions are being made in the Work Environment Authority and arrange safety training courses at both secondary and higher education for everyone from the ground to account safety. The study concludes that the construction sector work environment will remain poor because the majority of building proprietor and contractors ignoring the regulatory framework although it is well constructed. What can slightly change the state is to increase punishment and compensation for companies that breach the working environment work.

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  • 36.
    Frankén, Sandra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Oscarsson, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    GLOBALA SAMARBETEN INOM BYGGBRANSCHEN: En studie om fyra svenska företag och deras internationella samarbetspartners2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree project was to find and investigate how global cooperation works in the construction industry. The goal of this work is to evaluate whether this type of solution remains profitable in the future and includes four perspectives consisting of communication, resource seeking, costs and quality. A final goal of this degree project was to present concrete conclusions that make it easier for companies which are interested in initiating a collaboration with a foreign company. The work is based on a literature study that describes previous research in the field as well as a case study that includes document analysis and interviews. The document analysis was carried out at the client to contribute knowledge about how a quality system is structured. Interviews have been conducted with four companies who are active in the design industry to obtain responses related to communication, quality, costs and resources. The interviews have been conducted with Skype and with one of the companies the interview was held on-site. All interviews have been recorded to reproduce the correct results. The result of this work shows the importance of a long-term relationship between the Swedish and the foreign company to make the collaboration successful. Before the cooperation starts it is important to keep in mind the differences in cultures, find people with required educational background and to search for a company that understands what is requested. If the collaboration intends to make a profit, the total cost of the project needs to be minded and not just the lower engineering costs. The results of this work also show that to find the required competence in Swedish projects, it can be successful to find that competence in a foreign country. The right quality is achieved by the foreign engineers based on the Swedish standards due to clear guidelines and system for overlooking. The technical quality has not been affected by language and communication difficulties, this because of well-structured communication methods including video meetings and patience to understand each other. Cooperation with foreign companies can be successful, the Swedish company must however be prepared for the consequences that may occur and understand that it can require more planning than initially was predicted. If the co-operation is planned in a long-term perspective and exchange of knowledge takes place on an ongoing basis, the cooperation will hopefully be efficient and successful over time.

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    Globala samarbeten inom byggbranschen
  • 37.
    Goblirsch, Amanda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Izat, Banaz
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Österblad Rintanen, Melinda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Jämförelse av värmekällor: Byte av värmekälla i ett småhus ur ett energi-, ekonomi- och klimatperspektiv2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present the economic, environmental impact, and energy saving benefits of replacing an electric boiler to a bedrock heat pump or district heating. Furthermore, the impact of additional insulation will also be presented. Method: The technical, environmental, and economical aspects of the various heat sources in this study are gathered through websites and reports from agencies, industry organisations and corporations. A case study on a family house built in 1971, heated with a combination of electric boiler and air-to-air heat pump has been made. The study investigates the impact of replacing the existing heat sources with newer and better alternatives along with additional insulation. Results: The results present the energy demand for active heating, economic analysis, environmental impact, and the impact of additional insulation. Moreover, a comparison between the heat sources and the additional insulation is presented to show the difference between them. The case study objects demand for active heating includes passive heating, heat losses through the building envelope, heat losses due to ventilation. With all these factors combined, the family house has an annual active heating demand of 11 700 kWh. The energy consumption of the electric boiler combined with air-to-air heat pump (COP 4) have an annual consumption of 7 500 kWh. The required energy from the district heating goes up to 11 700 kWh and the bedrock heat pump (COP 3) have the lowest energy consumption of 3 900 kWh. However, the amount of electricity needed is 400 kWh for district heating compared to the other alternatives that require 7 500 kWh and 3 900 kWh. For the economic aspects, the installation and operating costs for the electric boiler combined with the air-to-air heat pump, district heating and the bedrock heat pump are concluded. This shows that, on one hand the bedrock heat pump is the most expensive heat source to install but on the other hand, the cheapest to operate. Furthermore, this study compares the emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents from the production of district heating and electric energy. Due to the clean electric energy in Sweden, district heating has the highest negative impact on the greenhouse effect as it uses energy resources that have high emission of carbon dioxide equivalents. The environmental impact of the electric boiler, air-to-air heat pump and the bedrock heat pump vary depending on the energy source used to generate electricity and can in the worst case be higher than for district heating. New values with the additional insulation suggest that the improved building envelope will have a positive impact on the operation costs, energy saving and emissions. As an example, the demand for active heating can be reduced with up to 30%. Conclusions: The conclusion is that the comparison of heat sources contains many uncertain variables. Consequently, the result of this study does most likely not apply directly to other study objects. The results may vary if, for example, the geographical location or electricity agreement is changed.

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  • 38.
    Granberg, Joakim
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Gannholm, Markus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Utredning och förslag till lösning för stambyte i ett miljonprojekthus: Bäst lämpad metod avseende ekonomi, miljö, tid och helhetsintryck2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under den stora byggboomen på 1960- och 1970-talet byggdes det åtskilliga lägenheter i Sverige. Detta var ett riksdagsbeslut och syftade till att lösa den tidens akuta bostadsbrist. Projektet kom att kallas för miljonprogrammet och att innebar att en miljon lägenheter skulle byggas under en tio års period; under åren 1965-1975 byggdes 880 000 lägenheter. Många av dessa lägenheter står idag inför ett omfattande renoveringsbehov.

     

    Den problematik som finns då en fastighetsägare ställs inför ett eventuellt stambyte kan vara svår att förstå då det innebär att många och svåra beslut måste fattas både innan och under byggskedet. Styrelsen i en bostadsrättförening besitter inte alltid den kunskap som krävs utan de blir oftast tvungna att ta hjälp av konsulter och projektledare som är med och driver igenom den långa processen.

     

    Den traditionella stamrenoveringsmetoden innebär att gamla stammar och våtrum rivs ut och ett nytt badrum och nya ledningar installeras. Denna metod innebär olägenheter för de boende och i vissa fall är det kanske inte möjligt att bo kvar. Därför kan det vara lockande att satsa på andra metoder som inte tar så lång tid att genomföra. Nackdelarna med detta är att fastighetsägaren måste vara medveten om vilka risker det kan medföra. Förståelsen för att ett väl genomarbetat beslutsunderlag behövs innan beslut fattas är mycket viktig. 

     

    På senare tid har en ny metod tagits fram som innebär att man gjuter nya ledningar av plast inuti de gamla avloppsstammarna, så kallad relining. Detta betyder att stammarna kan sitta kvar i befintligt läge och rivningsarbetena minimeras därmed. Produktionstiden i varje lägenhet blir även betydligt kortare. Det som är viktigt att tänka på är dock att tätskikt och vattenledningar byts inte ut. Om våtrummen inte är renoverade sedan tidigare innebär det att den tekniska livslängden för övriga installationer och material med all säkerhet har passerats eller kommer att passeras inom ett antal år.

     

    Under 2000-talet har det framkommit ytterligare en metod som har kommit att bli ett alternativ till det traditionella stambytet: den så kallade rum-i-rum-metoden. Med denna lösning behöver badrummen inte rivas ur, ett nytt rum byggs istället inuti det gamla och en luftspalt lämnas mellan de befintliga ytorna och de nya. Den eventuella fukt som finns har på så vis möjlighet att torka ur. Problematiken är dock att badrummen blir mindre och att det än så länge är en ganska obeprövad metod.

     

    Vi anser att det är otroligt viktigt att man tillför projektet rätt sorts kunskap och erfarenhet, oftast i form av konsulter då dessa besitter specialkunskaper inom sitt område. Det är att rekommendera att även lägga tid och resurser på att utreda de olika systemens status i en byggnad för att kunna få en helhetsbild och fatta rätt och väl underbyggda beslut. Under projekteringen, upphandlingen och produktionsskedet bör föreningen ta hjälp för att vara säker på att de får rätt kvalitet, tekniska lösningar och ekonomi i projektet. Det underlag som framkommer efter utredningen ska ligga till grund för val av metod och ska noga övervägas. Vilken av de olika metoderna som bör väljas beror på förutsättningarna i byggnaden, men oftast är de ”traditionella” metoderna att föredra. Olika metoder kan också kombineras för att uppnå ett optimalt reslutat.

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  • 39.
    Gullers, Johan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Imberg, Tobias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    STOMKONSTRUKTIONER FÖR HÖGA HUS: Struktur och utformning av stabiliserande element2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 40.
    Halaf, Evan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    FORMSÄTTNING AV HÖGA PLATSGJUTNA BETONGKOSTRUKTIONER: Undersökning av diverse klättersystem samt alternativa lösningar för silo-projektet Gråbergsutfrakt i Kiruna2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today construction industry is building higher and more complicated constructions than ever thanks to the advancements in materials, technical knowledge and methodologies. One important material is concrete, which has been used to create impressive architectural marvels. This dissertation aims to examine the differences between climbing and slip formwork systems for tall concrete structures that require several pouring steps in height. The main differences noted between both systems are formwork configuration, assembly and cycling of the formwork and climbing elements, price and quantity of material, labor required, the quality of the finished structure and safety during construction. A case study was investigated with the help of formwork supplier PERI Sverige AB and nordic contractor PEAB AB regarding a 20,5 meter high reinforced concrete silo located in a mining complex in Kiruna, Sweden. Through a review of the existing literature in the subject, interviews with experts in the topic and the outcome from the project case study, the results shows that while the SCS climbing system from PERI Sverige AB required more working days compared to a slip formwork system, it was chosen as a more appropriate solution for this project in combination with the crane at the jobsite, due to the amount of labor required, safety and overall cost of it. In conclusion, the selection of the SCS climbing system as formwork system proved to be the most adequate solution for the case study when critical aspects such as assembly and cycling of formwork, price and safety were evaluated.

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  • 41.
    Hamando, Valy
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Grundförstärkning: En jämförelse mellan betong-, stålrörs- och stålkärnepålar2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Marksättning är ett problem som kan uppkomma vid planering av en nybyggnation. För att reducera detta problem måste grunden förstärkas med pålar eller annan grundläggningsmetod. Detta arbete handlar om en jämförelse mellan tre olika grundläggningsmetoder ur tekniska, ekonomiska och hållfasthetsaspekter.

    Grundläggningsmetoder som har studerats i detta arbete är pålning med slagna betong- och stålrörspålar samt borrade stålrörs- och stålkärnepålar. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka dessa tre pålningsmetoder för att sedan komma fram till den mest effektiva metoden när det gäller hållfasthet, tekniska aspekter och kostnadseffektivitet.

    Valet av grundläggningsmetod som lämpar sig mest för ett aktuellt projekt är beroende av många faktorer som måste tas hänsyn till. Resultatet visar att markförhållandet, lasterna och ekonomin har en avgörande roll för val av grundläggningsmetod. 

    Att välja rätt påltyp är nödvändigt vid byggnation. Därför är det viktigt att konstruktören känner till vilka påltyper som används mest i nuläget och känner till markförhållandet där det ska byggas för att hitta den optimala lösningen. Att välja den mest ekonomiska grundläggningsmetoden är inte alltid lönsamt eftersom den kan bli dyr i slutänden. Varje pålningsmetod har sina för- och nackdelar och att känna till dessa kan vara till stor nyttja för att sedan kunna välja en lämplig grundläggningsmetod.

    Resultatet visar att den mest ekonomiska metoden för referensobjektet är slagna betong- och stålrörspålar när markförhållandena är goda. Men dessa två metoder har sina begränsningar när marken innehåller stenblock eller hinder. Betongpålar kan knäckas och slagna stålrörspålar kan böjas när de stöter mot ett stenblock eller hinder. Detta kan ställa till stora tekniska problem vid installation. Därför är det viktigt att utföra en geoteknisk undersökning innan val av grundläggningsmetod. För att undvika dessa problem kan borrade stålrörs- och stålkärnepålar användas. Dessa två metoder är betydligt dyrare men samtidigt ger de en säkrare installation av pålarna.

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  • 42.
    Hamzaoui, Sami
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Goro, Alex
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Planeringsprocessen av ROT-projekt: En studie angående ekologiskt hållbara ROT-projekt i miljonprogrammen2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between year 1961 and 1975 were about one million homes produced, which today is called the million programme. These homes are now in a great need of renovation as they contain hazardous substances in the materials, unnecessarily high energy use and they are in critical technical condition. Purpose: of the degree project is to identify how we can become increasingly sustainable in ROT-projects within the million programme areas. The degree projects studies among other things how a renovation will be sustainable, materials and waste impact, about the million programme rebuilding needs and rebuilding needs of low-energy houses in the million programme. The method: The degree project is based on a literature study, a questionnaire study and an interview study. The literature study has been carried out to gain an increased knowledge of how a ROT-project works and facts about the million programme. The survey consisted of questions about what the environmental work looks like in various ROT-projects. Entrepreneurs working on ROT-projects, landlords who manage housing in the million programme and tenants who live in the million programmehave participated in the survey. An interview study has been conducted with various ROT-entrepreneurs and landlords to get an overview of how the work of the million programmehas looked environmentally. The result: The million programme leak large amounts of energy and heat. Older have shown that greenhouse gas emissions and energy use have increased, so the need for renovation is becoming more apparent. Sustainable renovation is needed to reduce the negative environmental impact of greenhouse gas emissions and energy gas. In a construction process does material production have a major impact on the environment. When it comes to material selection and waste management is an important aspect for the environment within a ROT-project. In order to be able to work in an environmentally friendly way, it is necessary to plan in detail about various factors when handling the use of materials. The various factors are inventory, waste sorting, ordering materials in the right dimension, choosing materials with regard to the environment and handling the materials well during the construction process. Conclusion: The million programme homes are energyintesive and require among other things trunk replacement, ventilation replacement, replacement of electrical installations, windows, balconies and facades. In order to renovate the million programme homes good knowledge is required about ay hazardous substances in the materials and what measures are required to make the homes more energy efficient.

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  • 43.
    Handfast, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Paskota, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Designa ditt eget boende: Studiolägenheter – en framtida bostadsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 44.
    Hansson, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Donner, Rasmus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Väggskivor av betong: En jämförelsestudie mellan Eurokod och Boverkets byggregler2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory framework of structural design in Sweden was changed May 2nd, 2011. Theformer national regulations Boverkets konstruktionsregler (BKR) were replaced by theEuropean common regulatory framework, Eurocodes. There may be significant differencesbetween the Eurocodes and Boverkets konstruktionsregler due to such things as safetyapproach and geography.It is also possible that calculation results from certain types ofstructural elements could vary greatly between the two standards due to factors such asminimum amount of reinforcement or completely different calculation methods.A comparison of specific elements will enable an evaluation of the differences in usage ofmaterial and provide an explanation for the underlying causes.The thesis was carried out in collaboration with Kadesjös Ingenjörsbyrå AB in Västerås. Thethesis focused on constructional calculations of concrete wall panels.A literature review of Eurocode and BKR, particularly Eurocode 2 and BBK 04 formed thebasis of the thesis. In collaboration with Kadesjös, a reference object was selected to becertain that the thesis got as realistic as possible. All calculations were initally made by hand.A worksheet (Excel) was later used to easily produce results. Geometries and loadcases weretaken directly from the reference object. The influence areas were changed in order to get amore complete study of the differences between the regulations.The comparison shows that in the ultimate limit state, Eurocode will require a significanthigher proportion of reinforcement, between 74-78% compared to BKR, for low load impact.This is due to the minimum amount of reinforcement required in Eurocode. Thecorresponding reinforcement in BKR, is called Övrig armering (additional reinforcement)and is required only when the shear force within the wall panel becomes significant. Whenthe additional reinforcement is required, BKR require a greater proportion of reinforcementcompared to Eurocode. About 12-28% more. The results show that Eurocode will generate amore even usage of reinforcement due to the required minimum reinforcement, regardless ofthe force impact in the ultimate limit state.

  • 45.
    Hawas, Allan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, Jan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Building Thermography Inspection by using a Low-Cost Visual-Thermal Drone System2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For decades, thermal imaging technology serves as an effective tool and is implemented in many industrial and commercial applications, including energy and building sectors. Recent trends in the field further show an increased interest in aerial thermal imaging applications that brings new opportunities toward sustainability. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) (i.e., drones) equipped with thermal cameras are currently used for building thermography inspection, which is a crucial technology to accelerate the identification of CO2 mitigation within the building sector to tackle the global goals (SDG 11 target 11.6 and SDG 7 target 7.3). This study presents an evaluation of a low-cost, visual-thermal drone system for building thermography inspection (SDG 9 target 5.5). The evaluation was limited to the thermal imaging potentials of the system. The UAV system is used to examine its capacity to detect various heat loss, including insulation defects, air/ water leakage, and validation of different suspected energy loss case studies. The examination also involves the evaluation of the cost-effectiveness of the thermal-drone system. The thermography inspection was carried out on several buildings with different sizes, types, and activities they are used for. Therefore, the detection/identification tasks for the thermal-drone system were different from an inspection to another. This study aimed to identify different limitations and advantages of using such a low-cost thermal-drone system for building thermography inspection. The technical evaluation was based on several criteria, including fly duration, stability, image quality, data flexibility, integration potentials, etc. Additionally, the cost-effectiveness and other practical aspects were considered in the evaluation. The results show a combination of both limitations and advantages of adopting such a low-cost drone system. In contrast to the supplier's description, the thermal image data are not a radiometric JPG file that significantly limits quality and opportunities. Accordingly, the thermal image gives a standard JPG file and does not provide a temperature distribution to make any post-analysis processing or post-editing presentations. This issue can be solved partially, as the live thermal images provide a temperature distribution that allows different utilizations, e.g., identifying temperature spots, which can be included in a screenshot of the drone screen controller. Furthermore, the image data's limitations do not allow 3D modelling of the building objects which is possible for the radiometric image files. The image resolution and accuracy are limited; however, short distance inspections provide good image qualities. The results reveal that the thermal drone system can detect common insulation issues such as missing insulation and clear energy loss. However, the capacity is limited in regards to high accuracy demand and more in-depth data analysis. In conclusion, the examined drone system is a cost-effective tool for DIY use and superficial aerial building thermography inspection (SDG 11 target 11.6). Therefore the suggested system is not sufficient for higher demand and more professional inspections. The suggested proposal is an effective method to identify CO2 mitigation potentials within the buildings that are significantly promoting the achievement of some SDGs. Additionally, the inspection method can be conducted remotely, keeping social distancing in the time of pandemics.

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  • 46.
    Hellberg, Philip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wennberg, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Inomhusklimat i studentbostad: En studie om det termiska inomhusklimatet på Åkarhagsgatan 1 i Västerås2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays most people tend to spend a major part of their lives indoors; therefore, the importance of withholding a good internal environment in our buildings is essential. What follows, the thermal indoor climate is strongly influencing the quality and comfort of life in residential areas. This essay will focus on thermal indoor climate situation in a student residence. Based on calculations, measurements and simulations from two different student apartments as well as data collected through a survey, this work will discuss whether the indoor climate complies with the requirements and standards for student housing and what improvement options are available. The survey showed dissatisfaction with the indoor temperature during summer and wintertime. Furthermore, the climate simulation demonstrated the increase in temperature during the summertime, which resulted in a greater dissatisfaction (PPD). Additionally, the calculations made to compare with the climate simulation have also shown that the apartments are getting too hot during summer. IDA ICE logged the relative humidity over a longer period of 1 year, resulting in a range between 5.8% -77.8%. Own measurements such as temperatures, relative humidity, carbon dioxide and exhaust airflows have been set against standards and requirements from authorities and deficiencies of the thermal indoor climate have been mapped. The apartments meet the standard of thermal indoor climate for student housing with one exception -the carbon dioxide content exceeds 1000 ppm in the apartment with the presence of two people. The exhaust airflow in both apartments was lower in our own measurements in comparison to what they were at the OVK protocol from 2014. The exhaust airflow in one apartment had a flow rate of 10 l / s higher than the dimensional flow rate, which indicates imbalance in the system. According to IDA ICE, too high and too low humidity was observed. This may indicate that the apartments do not have a satisfactory sun shading, which plays a significant role in the indoor climate. Using sun shading on all windows could reduce the temperature increase from solar radiation by 50% and the maximum operating temperature could be lowered by 4 degrees in IDA ICE. Using awnings as the sun shading solutions would also lower PPD's high peaks to 10%.

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  • 47.
    Hellman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Falck, Nils
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Platta på mark av korslimmat trä: En undersökning av bärförmåga med och utan kantförstyvning2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: This work investigates the load-bearing capacity of a foundation built out of cross-laminated timber. The foundation is built with the same principles as a slab on grade made out of concrete. The purpose is also to account for the different operating principles of a wooden slab on grade with, and without, an edge beam. Method: To answer the issues at hand, a literature study was used to collect relevant information. Calculations were made with data from an example house which is presented with various drawings that illustrate the building’s size and form. Data from the example house is used to determine the loads. Thereafter, calculations were made both by hand and with the computer software FEM-design which uses the finite element method. Results: The main principle of shallow foundation design is contact pressure. The calculations show a range of contact pressure applied to the underlying soil and insulation of the foundation. Load combinations according to Eurocode 1 are used to determine the sum of loads affecting the foundation. All load combinations result in a higher contact pressure when using a foundation without an edge beam. Calculations done by hand presents the maximum value of contact pressure of the two separate foundations and highlights the difference between the two. The results from hand calculations and computer software regarding contact pressure varies. Calculations performed in FEM-design use three variations of the modulus of subgrade reaction to investigate the impact of said modulus. FEM-design also calculates the deflection which is significantly larger without an edge beam. The Conclusions of this work include a reduction in contact pressure when the wooden foundation is constructed with an edge beam. Calculations done by hand may overestimate the stiffening ability of the wooden edge beam. The modulus of subgrade reaction affects the magnitude of deflection in a larger extent than the contact pressure. It is suitable to design a wooden foundation with an edge beam with the purpose of keeping deflection to a minimum.

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  • 48.
    Hermansson, Per
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Isacson, Johan
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Underlag för en kommande rivning av J-huset på Akademiska sjukhuset i Uppsala: Generell planeringshjälp vid utförande av rivning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is about planning a demolition. The purpose of this report is that it should become a base for a demolition of house J at the Academic hospital in Uppsala, and also to make general help for planning a demolition. This report also contains a part about how a change in the work environment affects general people. The work started with studies of literature and design of the general part of the report and then continued with a practical study of house J. From the experience of the first two parts of the report a general help for planning a demolition was shaped. Today in the demolition industry the most common and effective way to demolish a building is to do it selective and that means, taking the building down part by part depending on the grade of separation. The recommendation for the demolition of house J is to do it selective. “Thinking” about the demolition in the building phase of a house helps to reduce the environmental effects of the demolition and makes it easier to carry out. Planning a building should be done in a long term perspective to make it easier to cope with activity changes, rebuilding and complementary building. When a building is due for demolition it’s important to know everything about the construction of the building and it’s materials to make a good demolition plan both economic and environmental.

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  • 49.
    Hosseini, Mojdeh
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brister vid totalentreprenad: En fallstudie med fokus på ombyggnation och effektivisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenadformen totalentreprenad är en av de vanligaste former inom svensk husbyggande, likväl för Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad är det den entreprenadform som används mest. Idag råder det bostadsbrist i Västerås stad på grund av den senaste tidens befolkningsökning samt det ökade flyktingmottagandet. Detta har lett till en press att ständigt bygga nya bostäder, samt att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga fastigheter för att kunna anpassas till de uppstående behoven. På grund av denna tidspress som finns är det naturligt att man letar efter sätt att bygga snabbt på.

    Då totalentreprenad har den fördelen att kunna överlappa produktion och projektering tidsmässigt, leder detta till tidsmässiga fördelar och ses då som ett fördelaktigt val för Fastighetskontoret. Att Fastighetskontoret väljer att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga bostäder är positivt, då det inte alltid finns nya marker att bygga nyproduktioner på. Dessutom vinner man tid på att utföra en ombyggnation, då det redan finns en befintlig fastighet och man redan där ligger före i tiden jämfört mot nyproduktion.

    Det här arbetet syftade till att fastställa vilka brister som fanns i planering och samordning i projektering- och produktionsfasen specifikt inom ett genomfört ombyggnationsprojekt hos Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad. Efter att dessa brister var identifierade gavs det förslag till förbättringar i den nuvarande checklistan som användes utav projektledare.

    Initialt inleddes en arkivanalys av dokumentationen som fanns tillgänglig i en databas hos Fastighetskontoret där alla dokument granskades och blev studerade. Med hjälp av denna information kunde intervjufrågor utformas samt relaterad litteratur sökas, vilket utgjorde underlag till den teoretiska delen. Vidare utfördes en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer med nyckelpersoner inom totalentreprenaden och Fastighetskontoret som resultatet av detta arbete baserats på.

    Resultatet visade bland annat att planeringen av det studerade projektet inte hade några större brister, däremot fanns det vissa brister i kommunikation och samordning. En brist i kommunikation och samordning som visades var överlämningen av kunskap, erfarenheter och information mellan olika skeden i projektet, främst efter upphandling. Ifall man kunde se till att fler medlemmar från förprojekteringen kunde vara med i detaljprojekteringen skulle det kunna leda till att kunskapen och erfarenheten behölls kvar även i detta skede. Det visade sig också att Fastighetskontoret var ibland för detaljerade i sitt förfrågningsunderlag, då man angav både tekniska lösningar och funktionskrav. Därför var ett av förslagen på förbättringar att styra Fastighetskontorets konstruktörer på ett bättre sätt, då de bidrog till väldigt detaljerade ritningar. Förslaget var att införa en extra checklista för konstruktörerna som gav dem en hänvisning till hur deras ritningar ska förhålla sig till projektet.

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  • 50.
    Husseini, Hazhar
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Utvärdering av befintliga passivhus: En byggnadsfysikalisk bedömning och mätningar om temperatur, och fukt analys på ytterväggarna2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy price are on the way up to a high level that will not diminish in the future make us to focus more on the sustainable development for a better solution of residential houses. Passive house or low energy housing are one of the solution to make residential more environment friendly, in same time it´s a financial security using less energy, and saving money. The last 10 years in Germany and all around Europe the concept of passive house been developed, and people aim to know more about these concept that leading the market more attractive for passive houses. A passive house is a well designed building highly insulated and air tight with mechanical ventilated system for the whole building envelope that minimizes the use of energy for heating [1].

    The housing company Mimer has chosen to invest in low energy consumption in every new housing project.  These future plan projects are decided to use less than 75 kwh per square meter annually in purchased energy [2].

    This thesis is about new constructed passive houses, and focuses on the evaluations of the temperature, and moisture condition for attic, external walls and joist. Reason for doing this investigation is to see if passive houses fulfill the building codes regarding moisture, and temperature changes, and to find in early stage suspicious changes that could affect badly on the building envelop. The aim of this study is

    -         Moisture risk analyses of the attic, external walls and joist

    -         Studying temperature analysis

     

    With highly insulated walls the risk for moistures extra sensitive than normal building construction.  Also during summer time the comfort inside may be surprised by high indoor temperature and one solution for that could be using sun shading. 

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    WBT014 Master Thesis report
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