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  • 1.
    Al agedi, Bilal
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ibrahim, Maytham
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energiförbrukning och utsläpp av koldioxid vid byggande av väg2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Markförstärkning i ett vägbygge kan göras på olika sätt. I detta examensarbete jämför vi två av dessa metoder, nämligen massutskiftningsmetoden och användning av kalkcementpelare ur energi- och miljösynpunkt. För att jämföra dessa två metoder togs fram ett excelbaserat räkneverktyg där resultatet av energiförbrukningen fås i kWh och koldioxidemissioner i ton CO2. Denna jämförelse gjordes för ett specifikt vägprojekt som använde massutskiftningsmetoden för vägunderbyggnaden. Det som ingick i beräkningen var schaktning, fyllning, krossning, sprängning, transporter och kalkcementpelare. För denna uträkning användes data från både entreprenörer som var med i projektet och företag som hade dokumenterade data.

    Metoden som förbrukade minst energi och som släppte ut minst koldioxidemissioner var massutskiftningsmetoden. Det som gjorde att kalkcementpelare till en sämre metod var den höga energiförbrukningen som krävdes för tillverkningen av kalk och cement. Det som krävde mest energi i tillverkningsprocessen var ugnar där höga temperaturer krävdes.

    Skillnaden mellan utskiftningsmetoden och kalkcementpelare i objektet var att i massutskiftningsmetoden krävdes urgrävningar för att schakta bort jordmaterial med dålig hållfasthet och ersätta det med bergmaterial med hög hållfasthet. I denna metod går energi åt till schaktning, fyllning och transport. Medan förstärkningsmetoden med kalkcementpelare förbrukar energi för tillverkning, transport och installation. Eftersom metoden går ut på att vägbyggnaden ska vila på pelarna genom att borra ner dessa i marken istället för att schakta bort stora volymer och transportera dem till fyllningen så är det lätt att tro att kalkcementpelare sparar energi genom att minska massförflyttning och långa transporter. Resultatet av detta examensarbete har visat motsatsen.

  • 2.
    Al Lafta, Hussein
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Säkerhet mot fortskridande ras för prefabricerade elementväggar: UNDERSÖKNING AV FLERBOSTADSHUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive collapses may occur when a bearing wall is eliminated for various reasons. It can be a gas explosion or collision accident of a train or a vehicle, but also during renovation of a building component. After the wall has been eliminated, the building should be undamaged and not suffer a progressive collapse. Such an event can be avoided through a vertical link. The purpose of this study is to examine how secure today's vertical strap’sare against progressive collapse, and to find a solution for reduced risk of collapse Method: This study includes a literature review and a case study. The literature review was performed by a deepening of the existing literature that investigated the progressive collapse and the vertical drag strip. The studies found through the database Google school and Discovery. The case study was conducted in Kadesjös which is an engineering office where drawings and calculations were performed. Result: The result indicates that the vertical strap used today cannot withstand the design load if the entire wall (including the screw attachment) is eliminated. The threaded rod will then be pulled out of the floor and a progressive collapse occurs. By mounting a 70x70mm plate in the floor this can be prevented. Without the plate it takes only 58 kN to pull out the threaded rod from the floor, but with the plate the connection’s capacity is increased to 100 kN and then the anchorage pipe limits the capacity. Conclusion: The conclusion of this thesis is that a plate that increases the vertical strap’s capacity and thereby increases the safety against progressive collapse should be used.

  • 3.
    Bakhteyari, Karim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Public Private Partnerships: As a public infrastructure optimizer2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A public private partnership is an alternative to procurement of the facility by the public sector, using funding from tax revenues or public borrowing. In a typical public sector procurement, the public authority sets out the specifications and design of the facility, calls for bids on the basis if this detailed design, and pays for construction of the facility by a private sector contractor. The public authority has to fund the full cost of construction, including cost overruns. Operation and maintenance of the facility are handled by the public authority and the contractor takes no responsibility for the long term performance of the facility after the construction warranty period has expired. In a public private partnership, on the other hand, the authority specifies its requirements in terms of outputs, which set out the public services which the facility is intended to provide, but which do not specify how these are to be provided. It is then left to the private sector to design, finance, build and operate the facility to meet the longterm output specifications. The project company receives payments over the life of the PPP contract, which are supposed to repay the financing costs and give a return to investors. The payments are subject to deductions for failure to meet output specifications, and there is no extra allowance for cost overruns which happen during construction or in operation of the facility.

  • 4.
    Basharkar, Wahidullah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV BYGGLOGISTIK: TRANSPORT- OCH MATERIALFLÖDE: En fallstudie vid Årstastråket (Etapp 1) i Stockholm2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how construction logistics work for the ongoing

    project “Årstastråket” Stage 1, and to identify the logistics problems that the project may

    have. The aim then is to find solutions to these problems in order to avoid them in the

    upcoming projects. The study will include delopment of a standard template that can be used

    in logistics planning of the project. At the beginning of the study a comprehensive literature

    review of the available literature including reports and research articles was done to obtain a

    deeper knowledge of the subject in question. The result of this study is based on conducted

    case studies on the construction site, such as interviews and site visits. The majority of

    collection in the case study was mainly collected from 11 site visits, which then was

    supplemented with the information obtained from the interviews. The interviews were

    conducted with the local manager and supervisor of the project at “Årstastråket” Stage 1. In

    this study the construction logistics worked generally well, both in terms of transport- and

    material flow at the construction site. The main logistics problems identified in “Årstastråket”

    Stage 1 was particularly poor logistics planning of the project at an early stage, lack of visual

    communication and constant updating of construction site plan alongside project developing.

    The new developed standard template for logistics planning of the project at an early stage

    can be used in order to achieve the established goals and make the project even more

    effective.

  • 5.
    Cans, Hampus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hägglund, Anton
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Arbetsplatsomkostnader i byggprojekt: En studie om besparingsmöjligheter genom en effektiviserad och digitaliserad byggetablering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze savings opportunities in costs tied to the construction site. The purpose was also to investigate what effects a well-planned construction establishment could have on future projects. The thesis also highlighted possible difficulties in the rental process between building entrepreneurs and rental companies. A literature study of subject-relevant literature was initially conducted. The literature study highlights the various factors that costs tied to the construction site contains and theory of project planning and management. The current study covers interviews with persons in the construction industry. Respondents with different roles in the rental process were selected to study possible differences between the parties' opinions. A pattern was detected during the interviews with the respondents. They specifically noted six areas that have a potential to be improved and which can lead to lower costs. The areas were planning, communication, cost awareness, commitment, follow-up and digitization. The conclusions that this thesis has resulted in is that there are several factors to take account for in order to reduce costs tied to the construction site. For example, more time needs to be put into planning of construction projects and the planning process must be finished before the start of the construction. A completed planning will lead to fewer delays and thus lower costs. In order to achieve lower costs tied to the workplace a greater cost awareness is needed for everyone involved in the project. This creates a better understanding of how each persons’ individual decision affects the projects economy, which is needed to minimize unnecessary costs. By taking these factors into account, the savings potential will be increased.

    Keywords:   Building Engineering, Economy, Planning, Costs, Entrepreneur, Rental, Communication, Production, Construction Site

     

  • 6.
    Cavic, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bergman, Belinda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Spill- och avfallshantering: Hantering på byggarbetsplatser för nybyggnation av bostäder och kontor2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree work was to compare and investigate what kind of waste that is produced on construction sites of two different types of buildings. The investigation was made to see if there were any differences between the two and how improvements with their waste management could be made. This degree work was conducted by gathering the proper information about waste and waste management, both general and specified to building waste. Information was mainly found in both papers and reports from authorities and municipalities as well as from previous degree works in the same subject. Research about which laws, regulations and requirements that are in place and relevant to this degree work was also conducted. Interviews at the two construction sites were made to see how waste management actually works on site. The research was also conducted to get first-hand information that is current to compare with previous research on the subject says. Both Västerås and Örebro municipality have their own specified waste plan that the building companies in respective municipality has to follow. The two construction sites in question differ in distance to the city centre since one is located centrally and the other approximately five kilometres from the city centre. They also differ in size of construction site, the centrally situated building site has buildings surrounding it making the space to work with small. This compared to the construction site outside of the city centre that is a part of a newer district with lots of space available. Concluded the waste management are similar to each other, with some exceptions regarding sorting of some fractions, such as glass and corrugated paper. The two constructions are built by the same company, but different recyclers are used to handle the waste. These recyclers are managing for example plaster and plasterboard differently depending on what their capabilities are. Construction sites must comply with several laws, regulations and requirements, some of them are miljöbalken, avfallsförordningen and plan- och bygglagen. Informing workers to be careful managing the materials, using more digital software in early stages and the use of production methods such as Lean are different ways to minimize the amount of building waste that occurs today. Another way is to make sure the measurements of the materials are correct from start. If so it will not be necessary to cut and adjust length and size of the material on site and thereby reduce the amount of waste.

  • 7.
    Danielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Robertsson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Examensarbete: Prefabricerad produktion med betongelement: En kostnadsutvärdering mellan prefabricerad och platsbyggd produktion2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Elf, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cederth, Kevin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner: Lathund för brandskyddsdimensionering av stålprofiler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis covers fire protection methods of structural steel and the aim is to develop an information tool designed for inexperienced structural engineers. The information tool covers basic fire protection methods and the general way to produce a fire resistance for structural steel. The layout of this information tool is a simple folder that contains information about the most important steps when producing fire protection for a steel structure.

    The thesis starts with a general overview of the fire protection needed in buildings to fulfill national legislative and regulatory requirements. To get an understanding of how steel components behave during the influence of fire, a brief overview is presented of the material properties of steel. This chapter also contains a review of previous research in the area. Furthermore, some of the most common fire protection materials are introduced and the general way of producing a safe fire protection for steel components is explained. For example, the chapter handles topics such as critical steel temperature, section factor and degree of utilization, which are key factors for designing fire protection for structural steel components.

    To evaluate the information tool, experienced structural engineers have been interviewed with a given interview guide to assist the making of this tool. The results from the interviews provided an insight into the needs for information regarding fire protection for structural engineers.

     

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktionsstyrning: Tillämpning av NCC Projektplanering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate which elements of the design process in production that have key features for successful progress of production and how these are regulated in the developed production model, the NCC Project planning, NCC Construction Sweden AB. A study of NCC Project planning used in construction output in the department of Mälardalen has been carried out and proposals for implementation of the model has been proposed. The work is carried out through interviews and archival analysis of NCC's business system.  NCC Project planning is a production model based on LEAN Construction's governance model pull-planning and 5S principle. By means of the production model desired involvement in the work and control over the work process increase. In the current situation is not production model to the extent that the company wishes and therefore the reasons why mapped and solutions to the problem have been proposed.  One of the biggest reasons that the NCC Project planning is not used in practice is the lack of commitment from supervisors, managers and production managers. As a solution to the problem suggested mentors, field trips and custom training for production management model.

  • 10.
    Hallin, Anette
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, Projektkommunikation.
    Digging wider and deeper: Revealing the hegemony of project studies2010In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a brief illustration, this article discusses the need for new empirical fields and methods in project management research. This would not only provide novel insights into project practices and management, but would also entail questioning the hegemony (Gramsci, 1988) of project management and project research. We argue that the hegemony is upheld by, or perhaps even constructed through, the language and the ideal images of the area, developed by project researchers and used by project practitioners; adding to what could be called 'the social power' (Bourdieu, 1991) of those involved in what are called 'projects' and 'project management'. It is also argued that the social power of those familiar with 'projects' and 'project management' is sustained by the silence of all those involved in similar practices, but who do not master the terminology of project work.

  • 11.
    Hambraeus, Lydia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Vad krävs för att partnering ska fungera optimalt i ett byggprojekt?: Att optimera kunskapen i ett partneringprojekt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis was to point out key factors on how to get the best result from a project performed in partnering. The result is based on interviews with 19 people and case studies on three projects performed in partnering, one hospital project and two projects where they built multiple family houses. There are three key factors to get the best results possible from projects performed in partnering. These are: the right persons with the right abilities, putting the project as the first priority and to define what partnering means for each project. The right abilities can be summoned as open, honest and social with both the ability and mandate to make decisions. Economic incentive should not be used in partnering projects since they are found to do more harm than good. All sorts of projects would benefit from being performed as partnering projects instead of using the traditional ways of performing projects in the Swedish construction business. Even though smaller projects probably will make a smaller profit when performed in partnering instead of the traditional ways, there are other profits such as larger focus on quality and work environment. In the Swedish construction industry there is one thing that would need improvement to get even better results from projects performed in partnering, that is a standardization of the system of rules. The main reason for this is that many conflicts could be avoided and time put on defining who has responsibility for what wouldn’t be needed. But there is an uncertainty if there is need for a whole new system of rules or if it would do with just an addition to the existing system of rules.

  • 12.
    Handfast, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Paskota, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Designa ditt eget boende: Studiolägenheter – en framtida bostadsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Herrera, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) - Användning under byggprocessen: Möjligheter och hinder med BIM2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The construction industry represents one of the largest and most important industries in Sweden with a large throughput per year. Problems often arise in construction projects which lead to unnecessary construction costs, material costs and waste of time. A solution to those problems can be BIM-Building Information Modeling. BIM is a collective concept of how information is created, stored and used in different stages using a BIM 3D-model. The information should contain important data like height, volume, area, pressure etc. and be digital, measurable and available throughout the whole construction process.   

    The purpose of this study is to explore how BIM can make the construction industry more efficient regarding construction costs and time and to obtain a comprehensive view of BIM concept and functions during the construction process.

    The theoretical part includes benefits and disadvantages of BIM during the project planning, production and management stages. The implementation part describes the background of several of the interviewed actors and the implementation of a BIM-model in the program Autodesk Revit. The results are mainly based on interviews of different actors from project planning, production and management stages, but also from a BIM-model of a simple component. The interview result is a summary and reports the features and benefits of the use of BIM.  Former research in one residential shows that BIM perhaps give a saving in 5.15% of the costs.

    In conclusion BIM represents many advantages that will change and improve the construction process including time saving and less costs. BIM will be the leading approach in the construction industry with more education and better adapted software.

  • 14.
    Hosseini, Mojdeh
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brister vid totalentreprenad: En fallstudie med fokus på ombyggnation och effektivisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenadformen totalentreprenad är en av de vanligaste former inom svensk husbyggande, likväl för Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad är det den entreprenadform som används mest. Idag råder det bostadsbrist i Västerås stad på grund av den senaste tidens befolkningsökning samt det ökade flyktingmottagandet. Detta har lett till en press att ständigt bygga nya bostäder, samt att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga fastigheter för att kunna anpassas till de uppstående behoven. På grund av denna tidspress som finns är det naturligt att man letar efter sätt att bygga snabbt på.

    Då totalentreprenad har den fördelen att kunna överlappa produktion och projektering tidsmässigt, leder detta till tidsmässiga fördelar och ses då som ett fördelaktigt val för Fastighetskontoret. Att Fastighetskontoret väljer att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga bostäder är positivt, då det inte alltid finns nya marker att bygga nyproduktioner på. Dessutom vinner man tid på att utföra en ombyggnation, då det redan finns en befintlig fastighet och man redan där ligger före i tiden jämfört mot nyproduktion.

    Det här arbetet syftade till att fastställa vilka brister som fanns i planering och samordning i projektering- och produktionsfasen specifikt inom ett genomfört ombyggnationsprojekt hos Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad. Efter att dessa brister var identifierade gavs det förslag till förbättringar i den nuvarande checklistan som användes utav projektledare.

    Initialt inleddes en arkivanalys av dokumentationen som fanns tillgänglig i en databas hos Fastighetskontoret där alla dokument granskades och blev studerade. Med hjälp av denna information kunde intervjufrågor utformas samt relaterad litteratur sökas, vilket utgjorde underlag till den teoretiska delen. Vidare utfördes en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer med nyckelpersoner inom totalentreprenaden och Fastighetskontoret som resultatet av detta arbete baserats på.

    Resultatet visade bland annat att planeringen av det studerade projektet inte hade några större brister, däremot fanns det vissa brister i kommunikation och samordning. En brist i kommunikation och samordning som visades var överlämningen av kunskap, erfarenheter och information mellan olika skeden i projektet, främst efter upphandling. Ifall man kunde se till att fler medlemmar från förprojekteringen kunde vara med i detaljprojekteringen skulle det kunna leda till att kunskapen och erfarenheten behölls kvar även i detta skede. Det visade sig också att Fastighetskontoret var ibland för detaljerade i sitt förfrågningsunderlag, då man angav både tekniska lösningar och funktionskrav. Därför var ett av förslagen på förbättringar att styra Fastighetskontorets konstruktörer på ett bättre sätt, då de bidrog till väldigt detaljerade ritningar. Förslaget var att införa en extra checklista för konstruktörerna som gav dem en hänvisning till hur deras ritningar ska förhålla sig till projektet.

  • 15.
    Hägg Wickman, Camilla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wistling, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadens andra skepnad: En anpassning för att möta samhällets behov och krav2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth leads to an increased need for new buildings, both residential and commercial. The regulations of structural design also changes with time. From a sustainable community perspective it may be profitable if existing buildings, that no longer performs their original function, are reconditioned. Knowledge and understanding of the surroundings of the residence must be available. Regulations regarding accessibility to all has increased. There are solutions in older residences that are not thoroughly thought through and leave much to be desired for a disabled person.

    The purpose of this thesis is to find a practical, creative and energy-efficient solution to change the Gideonsberg School into apartments, this in respect of the building, the site's visual expression, energy consumption, accessibility, and community needs. Questions asked and answered in this thesis are: How can the energy consumption be reduced in connection with a redevelopment and functional change? What is required to get an accessible living environment? What features are important and desirable in a home? How can the school's appearance and surroundings change to be more appealing and tied together with existing and prospective structures?

    Through site visits and literature an understanding has taken form on the requirements to create a pleasant and accessible living environment. Drawings and photographs have been created in Revit in order to present an overview of the study results.

    The architect office Tovatt won a design challenge that the City of Västerås held for the Kungsljuset 2 area. Tovatt's proposal of the area will be the basis for a new zoning plan in consultation with the City of Västerås. One of the goals of this thesis is to plan and redesign the existing school buildings so that they fit into the surrounding buildings and the proposal from Tovatt.

    There are certain technical regulations a building must fulfill. These regulations include the durability of the construction, stability and carrying capacity. The building must be suitable for its intended use and be available for people with limited orientation and mobility. Safety regulations for fire, safety in use, noise, hygiene, health and the environment must be met. From an environmental perspective there are also regulations regarding energy consumption, thermal insulation and management of waste and water.

    The proposal of this thesis is to turn three of the Gideonsberg School’s existing structures into 59 apartments and one terraced house with five apartments.

  • 16.
    Jarrin Peters, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fiberföstärkning av Limträbalkar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glulam is a product that was engineered to make use of timber in a more efficient way. Bychoosing timber of similar quality and discarding natural defects during production, thedevelopment of a stronger cross-section is achieved.Carbon fiber is a relatively new material with a high tension capacity. This feature is used toexamine how the bending capacity of the beams improve by adhering carbon fiber laminateson the lower edge of the beamsThe strength of the material is tested with three experiments: carbon fiber on the bottom of thebeam (a), carbon fiber attached to the lower sides of the beam (b) and carbon fiber in thebeam, covered with a layer of wood (c)

    The results show that the first case, where the carbon fiber is attached to the bottom of thebeam, gave the best result with an increase in capacity of 59 % compared to the nonreinforcedcontrol. The other two cases also show an improvement in capacity, beam-type 3had a capacity increase of 47% and beam-type 4 increased with 25 %Tests were also made with glulam beams reinforced with fiberglass, but these tests were notanalyzed in depth because the purpose was to compare the capacity to carbon fiber. Thisbeam improved its capacity by 40.3%.The tests show that carbon fiber as a reinforcement material for glulam is a good choice whenthere is a requirement for stronger cross-sections in both new production and renovation ofold buildings. However there are some disadvantages to carbon fiber, for example costs andincreased demands on work environment, which makes steel a cheaper option.

  • 17.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Landegren, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Identifiering och uppföljning av dagliga fel och brister på byggarbetsplatsen: Samt hur dessa kan hanteras enligt Lean-koncepttänkande2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Construction industry struggles with quality deviances and defects in the building process. Various kinds of problem are for example expensive costs for production, defects in quality and negligence and ignorance in the industry in general. The development of productivity in building process has not progressed at the same rate as companies within manufacturing industry who are using the Lean Production philosophy.

    The purpose whit this degree project is to bring knowledge about what kind of deviances and defects that exist in the industry, and to recommend suggestions for improvements in accordance with Lean Thinking. When you speak about Lean in the construction business it is called Lean Construction. Lean Construction has its theoretical background in the engineering industries Lean Production and Lean Thinking.

    Lean Production is an industrial production method which purpose is to increase the effectiveness of production. It originates from the car-industry in Japan. The concept of Lean Thinking is a further development of Lean Production and it includes all industries, not just the manufacturing industry. To work according to Lean means that you all the time tries to achieve constant improvements and to identify and eliminate all kinds of waste in time and materials. Waste can be seen as an activity that do not create any added value for the customer but still however consume resources.

    While implementing and using Lean in your business corporation you have to analyze how a potentiate can be achieved outgoing from the existing production process. Some main elements within Lean are Kaizen, which means constant improvements, and Just In Time.

    There have been many studies about waste in production in the construction industry. Some are introduced in this report. Activities that have been identified as waste are among others reworking, waste of material, overproduction and misplanning causing waiting times among employees. Based on these ascertained wastages we have formulated the questionnaire study.

    The study does not show large differences between local managers/team leaders and construction workers when it comes to their opinion about what kinds of deviances and defects they find as frequent. The both professions agree that waste can be reduced, by the way of for example efficacious material handling on the building sites and better communication and planning on several levels.

    Keywords: Building process, Lean Construction, Wasting, Kaizen and Just In Time

  • 18.
    Lindström, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rutiner vid upphandling av leverantörer och underentreprenörer: En studie av Kv. Mimer 52010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Linnskog, Philip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tanskanen, Samuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kvalitet-, miljö- och arbetsmiljö i produktion: En analys av problemområden och utvecklingsmöjligheter som kan resultera i tids- och kostnadseffektivisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this work was to analyze thecurrent problem areas within quality-, environment and work environment in theconstruction industry, and to develop a potential improvement which results inincreased efficiency in the subject of speaking. The study’s focus applied on thecurrent working method which is used today within quality-, environmental andwork environment. A comparison has been made to see if this method is the mostefficient according to time and economic aspects or if there is another methodthat is more profitable. The result has been produced by doing a literaturestudy followed by a series of case studies. The case study includedobservations from two different construction sites, an archive study of documentsassigned from our collaboration partners Peab and Aros Bygg & Förvaltningand finally from interviews with individuals whose competence is of value tothis work. To gain a wider understanding of the current problem areas, acomparison between the literature study and the case study has been made. Basedon the comparison a line of argument can be made and it highlights specific workstages that can be improved and increase its efficiency. Based on the result arecurring improvement point has arisen which was digitalization of the practicaland administrative work in the form of digital programs and tools, and here iswhere development can be made. It would benefit all personnel affected by thedaily work with quality-, environment and work environment in the constructionindustry which would result in their work being simplified and a lot more time efficient.The communication within the project can be improved with the help of digitalprogram and tools which may result in improvements regarding communication betweenthe different parties. Feedback and follow-up would be more accessible which inturn could contribute to improved experience feedback within and betweendifferent projects. As a result, all parties involved in the project will benefitfrom it during the whole project and afterwards.

  • 20.
    Moini Mostofi, Ramtin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hantering av fukt: Innan och under byggtid2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to examine the method that Skanska Healthcare has

    used in their current project in order to prevent moisture damages from arising.

    Furthermore, another substantial aim was to inspect the actions that have been used in the

    management of these damages. By examining various approaches of reducing the probability

    or preventing the emergence of moisture damages, a clearer insight can be achieved which

    consecutively could facilitate future studies within the same area. Thus, an analysis of the

    method used by Skanska Healthcare in order to prevent moisture damages is in this regard

    suitable and relevant. This study was based on Skanska Healthcare’s current project, which is

    the New Karolinska Solna Phase 5b. To achieve the aims of the study, a literature study was

    used along with other data which includes documents, moisture safety rounds and diagrams

    that have been created by Skanska Healthcare. Furthermore, the extensive literature study

    was carried out in order to present a solid overview of the planned project. By dint of the

    literature study, this bachelor’s thesis could be mapped out. The information was searched

    for and retrieved from printed books, the internet and course literature of the subject

    building physics at Mälardalen University. The result of the study showed that Skanska

    Healthcare has used the industry standard ByggaF to undertake the moisture issues of the

    project. By using this method, they have been able to ensure, document and communicate on

    moisture safety throughout the entire construction process. Furthermore, the result also

    showed that by constantly documenting and verifying all planned and executed operations,

    Skanska Healthcare has been able to obtain a beneficial overview of the project. Also weekly

    moisture safety rounds are implemented in order to note any discrepancies. Moreover, a

    special routine founded by Skanska themselves is pursued to cope with the discovery of

    potential risks.

  • 21.
    Norbäck, Susanne
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BYGGNADENS ENERGIANVÄNDNING I OLIKA KLIMATZONER: En studie av ett flerbostadshus2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impact can be reduced by building energy efficient dwellings. Boverket, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, has under several years increased the requirements for new dwellings to reduce the energy consumption. During construction energy is used for material production, transports and others. However, the largest parts of the energy consumption of a building during its lifespan is used for heating and operations. Regulations issued by Boverket are designed as functional requirements. Thus, there are many different alternative ways the developer can design the overall building, the building envelope and technical installations to fulfil the requirements. The impact of climate on energy consumption in different parts of Sweden has been studied. The energy balance in a multi apartment building has been calculated manually and by computer simulations, using the energy calculation software VIP-Energy. Simulations has been done using climate data for four different Swedish cities, Malmö, Stockholm, Mora and Östersund. Different parameters for the buildings walls, windows, air tightness and heat recovery have been compared to analyse the impact on specific energy use. Results show that the building would meet the requirements with good margin in Mora and Östersund. Energy consumption can however increase by several percentage units at minor changes in the input data. A cost comparison for external walls with different U-values has been done, resulting in that the energy savings are in this case too small to justify the additional costs.

  • 22.
    Nordh, Evelina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mårten, Karlsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Checklista för uppstart av husbyggnadsprojekt: Ett verktyg framtaget med hjälp av NCC för entreprenörer och projektörer i tidigt skede av produktionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innan första spadtaget tas vid en nybyggnation, finns det vissa förpliktelser byggherren tvingas beakta. Beroende på placering av fastigheten finns det olika anmälningar att utföra och tillstånd att söka. Anmälningarna kan skilja sig om det är innanför detaljplanerat område eller utanför. Nybyggnationen ska följa Plan- och bygglagen, Miljöbalken och myndigheters föreskrifter. Det är en stor omfattning av moment som skall genomföras med anledning av förpliktelser byggherren har vid uppstart av byggnadsprojekt. Om något av momenten försummas kan hela projektet tvingas att stanna av. Att komma ihåg alla moment eller att veta om de är relevanta är en svårighet för byggherren. I moderna entreprenader landar fler och fler av byggherrens uppgifter på entreprenören och det blir därför deras ansvar.

    I samarbete med företaget NCC utformades inom detta examensarbete en checklista som skall underlätta uppstarten av nybyggnationsprojekt inom husproduktion. Listan skall resultera i förståelse om varför momentet fordras och vilken lag, förordningen eller föreskrift den uppfyller. Checklistan är relativt generell för husbyggnad, men den är mer direkt användbar för bostadshus och liknande relativt enkla byggnader.

    Arbetet grundades i två studier, en studie om checklistans innehåll och en den aktuella studien. Studien om checklistans innehåll analyserade de krav som finns enligt lagar, förordningar och myndighetsföreskrifter. Den analyserade även interna dokument från NCC:s interna portal. Den aktuella studien bestod av intervjuer med sex personer i branschen för att få åsikter om checklistans uppbyggnad. Studierna resulterade till information om kraven och åsikter från respondenterna. Det bidrog till innehållet och uppbyggnaden av checklistan som skall göra det lättare för användaren att starta upp ett projekt. Den ger en överskådlig bild på vad som ska genomföras, när det ska vara klart, vem som ska utföra uppgiften och vem som ansvarar för att det blir gjort. Den ger även ytterligare uppgifter om varit kraven kommer ifrån samt en kort förklaring om varför kravet ska utföras eller varför det förekommer. Den skall även främja kommunikation mellan medarbetarna i och med att den talar om vem som ska utföra vad och vem som faktiskt ansvarar för uppgiften. Den är simpelt uppbyggd för att öka användarvänlighet. Checklistan skall även kunna vara enkel att ändra av den orsaken till att alla projekt skiljer sig åt och att kraven kan komma att ändras med tiden. Den ska ge användaren möjlighet att lägga till egna punkter eller ta bort de som inte behövs. För mer komplicerade husbyggnadsprojekt kan listan behöva kompletteras med ytterligare punkter.

    I diskussionskapitlet diskuteras eventuella andra metoder som skulle kunna ge annorlunda resultat. Att förändra den aktuella studien hade gett störst inverkan på resultatet. Att utöka den aktuella studien och använda fler respondenter med olika yrkesroller skulle kunna bidragit till en annorlunda upplagd checklista. Den aktuella studien gjordes med anställda på NCC eftersom det är de som i första hand skall använda checklistan. Diskussionen behandlade även respondenternas och författarnas tankar om kraven som finns inför uppstart av projekt. Dessa tankar jämfördes och skillnaden mellan ålder/erfarenhet och åsikter analyserades.

    Slutsatsen av arbetet är att checklistor är en viktig och användbar del i byggbranschen. För att de ska fungera på bästa sätt ska de vara konkreta och okomplicerade. Olika typer av checklistor används flitigt i byggnadsbranschen och tjänstemännen som intervjuades ansåg att checklistan som genereras i arbetet kommer hjälpa dem i sitt yrke. Checklistan behöver efter arbetet prövas i verkligheten för att se om den fungerar på tänkt vis.

  • 23.
    Nordstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Zingmark, Rasmus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktion med fältfabrik: Effektivisering av byggprocess med inflytande av kund och IT2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 24.
    Olofsson, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BYGGTRAFIK OCH LOGISTIK: Förslag på logistiklösningar vid nybyggnation av resecentrum i Västerås2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To take advantage of all buildable ground in city and exploit already existing infrastructure for a more efficient society high demands are therefore placed on logistics around large construction projects. Travel center in Västerås will be raised in the same place as existing buildning, while the business will be operational during the construction and the goal with the project work is to identify and present logistic solutions and evaluate, compare and adapt these to new travel center in Västerås. What is being investigated among other things is, ”What is the problem with construction traffic and logistics in large infrastructure projects in urban areas?”. In order to find information and answers of questions a literature study, case study, study visits and interviews are used. Logistics is the strategy that involves planning, development, coordination, organization and control of material flows from supplier. Construction logistics differ considerably from traditional logistics in, for example, the manufacturing industry, since each project is unique. Among other things, consideration must be given to environmental impacts such as noise environmental impact and sustainability, but also transport distances and social aspects. Examples of logistic strategies include supply chain management, lean production, just in time, construction logistic centers, Vendor-controlled inventory. This study focuses primarily on the problems that arise in urban areas and how deliveries of building materials are handled. Work within the railroads track area also entails challenges and special rules. The planning of new construction of the travel center in Västerås is divided into seven different stages at the time of writing, where the railway acts as a barrier between these. The construction project manager for the project has experience from previous projects in the urban area and believes that solutions must be adapted to projects. It is seldom easy to use the same solution in another location without modifying it according to the project's conditions. Building logistics implicates great complexity as many players are involved. The problem around construction traffic and logistics in large infrastructure projects is that is has negativ impact on the enviroment and it disrupts the trafic. Project ”Slussen” in Stockholm used a logistics center and from there used the method Just In Time to the workplace with materials that would be used within three days. A material storage in another location is a better alternative than a material storage on site and a solution for logistics management for the travel center is to use logistics center in the harbour and Mälarhamnar can act as third party logistics partner in the project.

  • 25.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Westblom, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Platschefens roll i planeringen: Hur produktionsplaneringen kan förbättras hos Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB and many other contractors in the construction business, the overall responsibilities for the production and a big part of the production planning are today put in the hands of the site manager. This role is as such crucial for the execution of the production and whether the building process will be safe enough, economical and of high quality. In order to be able to take on several projects at once, a well-established company would need several site managers. Chances are there could be differences in construction management between these site managers, this due to individual diverseness and differences in experience. To improve the site managers’ chances to manage the construction, an investigation was made to evaluate the possibilities to restructure the work procedure of the site manager. To obtain a comprehensive view of the role the site manager plays in the construction business, a comparison of the description of the site manager role was made between Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB and several of the major Swedish contractors. The literature study was made to support our hypothesis and interviews to obtain current information from the company. In order to evaluate whether it is possible to ease the work load of the site manager and to contribute to a bigger uniformity among site managers, an informal meeting between site managers was arranged. The interviews with the site managers and related staff at Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB would bring context to the comprehensive view of the site manager at the company. The gathered results were analysed and evaluated. By establishing a straight dialogue among the site managers as well as a sufficient method of experience-sharing, differences in ways of thinking can provide the individual site manager a wider perspective on construction management and a better production planning at Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB could be achieved. This can result in long term improvements for the company regarding their work process. To maintain a dialogue and share experiences after projects, time for the effort must be included during the project planning. The possibility to create more time and better conditions for the site manager during the construction production process can also be made in connection to the early planning. If the site manager had been given insight to the project earlier, the thought process of how the planning should be done could begin earlier.

  • 26.
    Persson, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kommunikation på byggarbetsplatsen: En studie av kommunikation och informationsspridning mellan yrkesgrupper2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 27.
    Pirgholizadeh, Nezar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Krikor, Tafid
    Krikor, Jeny
    Dimensionering och analys av stålfiberarmerad betong: En mekanisk, ergonomisk och ekonomisk jämförlelse med konventionell armerad betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete and its design models in relation to conventional reinforced concrete from a mechanical, economical and ergonomic perspective. Design examples were also presented for beams and slabs-on-ground for their shear and moment capacity. For this reason, both bending tests and design calculations were performed to help compare the different reinforcing methods. The bending tests were performed on seven beams where three were conventional and four were reinforced with steel fibre. Half of the steel fibre beams were reinforced with 1 % of the volume amount while the other half contained 1.5 %. The design examples were all according to the new Swedish standard for fibre concrete, SS 812310: 2014 and the European standard for concrete structures, Eurocode 2. Examples of shear capacity in relation to the bending tests were given. This thesis also included design examples of moment capacity for slab-on-ground to show its wide area of use. According to the performed bending tests, it showed that beams reinforced with 1% and 1.5% steel fibres could effectively handle shear forces. In comparison to the conventional reinforced beams, the steel fibre beams had an increased shear capacity with a minimum of 20%.  The bending tests and the design calculations showed that steel fibres can replace stirrups as shear reinforcement. Clear ergonomic and economic benefits of reinforcing with steel fibres were shown. Handling of conventional reinforcement was physically stressful as opposed to the shorter casting process that came with steel fibre reinforcement which contributed to a better working environment.

  • 28.
    Pourkaveh, Ramin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Svensson, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljöns påverkan vid konceptbyggnation: Skillnader mellan arbetsmiljölagar och utvalda byggnadstekniska lösningar i Sverige och Norge2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of the workingenvironment acts between Sweden and Norway shows that the legislations in thetwo countries have different structures. Norway has 20 chapters in the workingenvironmental act and Sweden has only nine chapters. It leads to somedifferences in the chapters and its contents, the Norwegian working environmentalact is more descriptive than the Swedish one, and Sweden have provisionsdistributed in other laws and regulations in addition to the work environmentact. In Sweden's health plan and Norway's safety, health and workingenvironment plan, the content is generally the same; the plans describe theorganization, the risk analysis and the responsible of the establishment of theplans. Norway's risk analysis contains 16 risks and the Swedish risk analysisdescribes 13 risks. The risks that aren’t included in the Swedish analysis are:work close to installations in theground, work with a risk of harmful exposure of dust, gas, noise or vibration,and work with fire- and explosion risks. Although there are more controlsin the Norwegian risk analysis, a larger number of workers are exposed to occupationaldiseases and fatal accidents per 100 000 employed inNorway compared to Sweden. The construction technique part is resulted in twodifferences and one similarity in Sweden's and Norway's building regulations.The first difference is that it´s a requirement to use an inward drainagesystems in Norway during the installation of flat cardboard roof, which is notrequired in Sweden. The second difference is that in Sweden it´s allowed tohave more than 20% window section in relationship to the heated floor area, ifthe window fulfills the heat transfer coefficient requirement. In Norway, thewindow section is not allowed to exceed 20% of the heated floor area, there areno exceptions. The similarity in the building regulations between the countriesis that both Norway and Sweden have requirements for venting regarding firesafety and air cleaning in caterers but none of the countries has requirements on which methods areallowed to use in air purification.

  • 29.
    Rafighi Oskoi, Roxana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Analys av Byggprocessen för kommunala Väg- och anläggningsarbeten: En studie av påverkande faktorer och samarbete vid byggande av väg 762015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Redeskog, Anton
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tillämpning av Lean i tidigt skede: En jämförelse mellan NCC Folkboende och NCC Design2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Företaget NCC har tagit fram två olika bostadskoncept, NCC Folkboende och NCC Design. NCC Folkboende är ett punkthus som kan byggas i 4-8 våningar och konceptet NCC Design är ett lamellhus som kan utföras i 2-4 våningar. Genom standardiseringen av dessa koncept så tillkommer många fördelar som bland annat lägre priser, kortare byggtid och stor del av arbetet i tidigt skede är redan utfört. Standardisering är ett viktigt verktyg inom produktionstänket Lean, som behandlas i arbetets litteraturstudie. Lean är ett tankesätt som härstammar från bilindustrins produktion och är även känt som ”The Toyota Way”. Tankesättet Lean har även på senare tid börjat tillämpas i byggbranschen. Lean handlar om att minska all slöseri och eliminera de kostnader som inte ger kunden eller slutprodukten något mervärde. Några av de viktigaste verktygen samt principerna inom Lean är standardisering, Just-in-Time, mätning, kvalitet, kontinuerliga förbättringar, kundfokus och engagemang. För att lättare kunna identifiera förbättringspotential så utfördes en litteraturstudie inom detta område. Slöseri inom byggbranschen kartlades också inom litteraturstudien för att se vart och hur det sker.

    Detta arbete syftar till att hitta förbättringar i arbetsprocessen i det tidiga skedet för de två koncepten. Det tidiga skedet är otroligt viktigt då de sätter standarden för resterande del av byggprocessen samt att det är i detta skede man kan påverka projektet utan att dess kostnad för projektet blivit allt för hög. I tidigt skede så ingår anbudsfasen, projekteringsfasen och planeringsfasen. Övergripande frågeställningar som detta arbete är utformat kring är hur arbetsprocessen i dessa faser ser ut för de två koncepten samt att hitta förbättringsförslag till dem.

    Arbetets resultat baserades främst på intervjuer av tjänstemän som varit delaktiga i projekt med både NCC Folkboende och NCC Design. Utifrån intervjuerna så gjordes en kartläggning för de två koncepten i de tre faserna samt hur intervjudeltagarna tror de kan förbättras.

    Arbetsprocessen för NCC Folkboende visade sig vara väldigt likt ett vanligt projekt. Hela affären sköts av lokalavdelningen samtidigt som Folkboendegruppen som tagit fram konceptet agerar stödjande under hela processen. Folkboendegruppen har tagit fram en grundläggande kalkyl, grundläggande tidplan samt systemhandlingar för att få arbetsprocessen i tidigt skede att flyta på så bra som möjligt. Arbetsprocessen för NCC Design var lite annorlunda där man arbetar på ett nytt sätt. Affären sköts av NCC Byggsystem och Produkter som tagit fram konceptet istället för att lokalavdelningen sköter den. BoP sköter även delar av arbetsprocessen i de tre faserna. BoP utför allt som har med själva husprodukten att göra samtidigt som lokalavdelningen utför det som behandlar markarbeten och komplementbyggnader.

  • 31.
    Rogerson, Carl
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Partneringupphandling inom anläggningssektorn: Kommunernas intresse i Mälardalen2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Sannö, Anna
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, M. T.
    Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Thollander, P.
    Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wollin, J.
    Volvo Construction Equipment, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjögren, B.
    IVL, Swedish Environmental Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Approaching sustainable energy management operations in a multinational industrial corporation2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 754Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large share of the energy efficiency improvement measures available for industrial companies remains unadopted due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. One of the main means of overcoming barriers to energy efficiency is via energy management operations. The major parts of the published scientific papers have covered energy management on a company level or on a sector level. However, so far, the literature is scarce regarding empirical studies on energy management on a corporate level. With the aim of filling the research gap, the aim of this paper is to empirically assess the performance of an in-house energy management program adoption from the year of initiation and four years ahead in the multinational company Volvo CE. The paper was conducted as a case study including a participative approach, which has not previously been done in energy management research. This paper adds value, through complementing the existing literature on energy management on a factory or sector level, by highlighting the importance of leadership, speed of execution, and cultural transformation on a corporate level. 

  • 33.
    Sarmad, Yousif
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    FUKTSKADOR I BADRUM: Ytskikt på väggar och golv2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Sköld, Tess
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brettéus, Richard
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    DIGITALA HJÄLPMEDEL: Avvikelsehantering och kvalitetssäkring med hjälp av Autodesk BIM 360 Field En studie riktad mot Skanska Sverige AB, Region Hus Stockholm Bostäder2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the work was to analyze the existing deviation management process and how the process could be optimized using BIM 360 Field on behalf of Skanska Sverige AB. This is because the deviation management on several projects is not carried requirements at present, which is to use BIM 360 Field. The analysis was aimed at Region Hus Stockholm Bostäder. The goal of the work was that the work would serve as an aid to obtain better quality assurance with focus on BIM 360 Field as a tool. The work was a qualitative work and the methods used to answer the questions first consisted of a literature review and then interviews and project visits. The result showed that deviation management took place in different ways within the region where a few used BIM 360 Field as an aid. According to respondents, some of the most common reasons why the tool was not used were the individual approach to the tool and that there was no proper structure or common working method for how the tool would be applied. The respondents themselves considered that the tool seemed good and have good potential to act as an aid, if Skanska created better structure and knowledge of the tool. As a suggestion as to how the tool could be implemented, respondents replied that the introduction of BIM 360 Field would be arranged closer to production start and have more follow-up meetings and continuation courses. Another suggestion that was made to create better engagement among employees was to go on visits to projects that are incorporated when it comes to BIM 360 Field, this to more easily understand how the tool can help in their daily work. The conclusions that can be drawn from the results and the literature study were that BIM 360 Field can improve the quality management of the projects, and that the employees at Skanska Hus Stockholm Bostäder handle deviations in several ways.

  • 35. Spinos, A.
    et al.
    Kvarnström, A.
    Öman, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    OPTISEL - Optimized Selection of Windows and Glass for Large Buildings, Based on Energy, Economy and Indoor Climate2006In: 8th International Conference and Exhibition on Healthy Buildings 2006, Lisbon, Portugal, 2006, p. 241-246Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Taxén, Caroline
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En olycka är en olycka för mycket: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om förebyggande av arbetsplatsolyckor2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Enligt arbetsmiljölagen ska arbete planläggas och anordnas rätt, så att det kan utföras i en säker och sund miljö. Trots det inträffar arbetsplatsolyckor i Sverige av olika anledningar. Ett uppdrag har tilldelats författaren för att öka förståelsen för hur anställda på Peab Anläggning AB i Region Mellansverige anser att företaget kan nå sitt mål att halvera antalet arbetsplatsolyckor till år 2017. Sex semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med anställda på företaget. Intervjuerna transkriberades och analyserades genom en manifest innehållsanalys. I resultatet beskrivs faktorer såsom tidsbrist och dålig planering av arbeten, vilka i sin tur gjorde att de anställda tog riskfyllda genvägar. Önskemål om mer tid för säkerhetsarbete och bättre samverkan var påtaglig. Delaktighet och ett större inflytande i ett tidigt skede i olika arbetsprojekt, ansågs vara en förutsättning för att nå det uppsatta målet. Eventuella förbättringsmöjligheter som framkom var bland annat den hårt pressade tidsramen som bör ses över, då det är en uttalad risk för arbetsplatsolyckor. Ett hänsynstagande till etik har genomsyrat hela studien och en diskussion har förts även kring det. Denna studie kan komma till nytta i flera avseenden. Den bekräftar till stor del redan publicerad vetenskap, men kan även påvisa områden och samband där tidigare forskning inte gjorts.

  • 37.
    Vieites, Esteban
    et al.
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Vassileva, Iana
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Arias, Juan
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    European initiatives towards improving the energy efficiency in existing and historic buildings2015In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1679-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing the building sector's energy efficiency while reducing CO2 emissions, constitute the main challenge that most European cities need to tackle. In Europe the building sector is responsible for nearly 40% of the total energy consumption. Considering the slow rates of constructing new buildings, a lot of attention needs to be paid to the already existing building stock. This paper presents some of the major projects carried out in Europe and their achievements regarding the integration of innovative technologies and use of different sources of renewable energy in existing buildings. Special attention has been paid to projects targeting historic buildings, since their significant cultural and historic values make their refurbishment and retrofitting process more complex.

  • 38.
    Yamabo, Deo Gratias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Förbättring av Egenvärmehus: En fallstudie av ett flerbostadshus, Kv. Fyrtornet2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency has become a very topical issue that has been discussed throughout the European Union for preventing negative environmental impacts that have been associated with the consumption of energy. In the residential sector have mainly municipalities set strict requirements for the reduction of energy consumption while the renewable energy has been asked. Different concepts of low-energy buildings have been developed to reduce the cost of operation and maintenance in existing buildings such as in new ones.

    This thesis has aimed to minimize the energy cost of a large building which has had low energy consumption features originally. Energy reviews has been initiated in order to be able for showing how the house electricity could be carried out even more efficiently.

    The work was initiated through a literature study to clearly increase the reliability on the energy subject. Different concepts of low-energy buildings have been treated in connection with its specifications, afterward those have been compared with the obtained results. An analysis of the building’s energy use has been carried out as well as economic evaluation has been considered in order to the viability of the energy efficiency measures that have been proposed.

    Energy demand for the studied building has been valued at 48, 7 kWh/m2 annually in its original form. The obtained value has been lower than the required energy which has been promoted in Building Regulations, BBR 18. After the improvement of building has been performed, by using a package of measures, the building has been upgraded to a passive house level and the energy demand has become 21, 5 kWh/m2 annually. A reasonably large amount of energy has been reduced in connection with the improvement package as well as the whole profitability has proven to be economic sustainable. By integrating solar energy systems in the building, its result has shown a biggest benefit for saving energy.

  • 39.
    Yousef, Jivara
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    ARBETSMILJÖ OCH SÄKERHET: Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete på byggarbetsplatser i Mellansverige2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry is a large industry with approximately 320,000 employees according to the Swedish construction industry. As the work environment at construction sites affects a large number of individuals, it is important that there is good security at the construction sites, in order to reduce and prevent workers in the construction industry from being injured. The work thesis has been carried out in collaboration with Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB with the aim of creating better conditions for work environment and strategic safety work at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's construction sites, as well as highlighting risks and safety aspects. This qualitative study has been carried out at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB, where semi-structured interviews and observations were conducted to then use the information as the foundation of the study. The work has also been based on reviewed literature studies in the form of pre-review. In order to have a good working environment and safety at the construction sites, a number of factors are involved. The study shows that time, cleaning, communication, education and experience are the factors that have the greatest impact on the work environment and safety. According to some of Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's workforce, there will always be deficiencies in safety, while some claim that a "zero vision" is possible to reach, so far no occupational accidents has occurred at Tuna Förvaltning & Entreprenad AB's construction sites, however, it seems that the subject does not get enough time, resources and like to prevent future accidents with "safety-first". The Work Environment Authority requires employers to systematically work with environment and safety issues with a vision of "zero tolerance", in which is strengthened by the work environment act. The interviews show that the viewpoint of the working environment differs depending on what perspective is being analyzed, for example, the supervisor has a wider perspective and greater responsibility whilst the professional worker has more narrow perspective and less responsibility. The survey shows that planning and preventive work can prevent workplace accidents with a systematic follow-up. In order for professionals and supervisors to understand the risks and preventive work they should be educated and thus gain an awareness of the problem. Improvement needs to create more awareness and prevention for work environment and safety with "safety deadline" have always been a goal to reach. One hope is that the working environment and security policy will contribute to improved security at the company's construction sites. systematic environmental work simplified by existing routines in environmental work for construction workers, leads to increased workplace safety and fewer occupational accidents.

  • 40.
    Öman, Robert
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Spinos, Antonios
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Thermal Comfort Near Windows. Measurements and Computer Calculations for an Office Room2006In: HB 2006 - Healthy Buildings: Creating a Healthy Indoor Environment for People, Proceedings, 2006, p. 149-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Windows can have a significant influence on the thermal indoor climate. In most cases the lowest surface temperatures in a room are the surface temperatures on the inside of windows, and the infiltration of cold outdoor air around windows can be significant. This study demonstrates possibilities to evaluate thermal comfort near windows in office rooms in wintertime in Scandinavian climate. Results in the form of PPD at different distances from a window are compared based on measurements made by a thermal comfort meter and computer calculations with a program for energy and indoor climate. The influence of different room conditions are measured and analyzed.

1 - 40 of 40
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