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  • 1.
    Abdulle, Adan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Ali Ahmed, Adnan
    DIGITALISERINGENS EFFEKT PÅ BYGGPRDUKTIONEN: En studie om fördelarna och utmaningar med digitalisering i produktionsmiljö samt hur digitaliseringen kan påskyndas.2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyse the positive impact of digitization on the production environment and challenges that may come along with digitalization. This study goes further on to looking into how to increase the use of digital tools. Method: The method used in this study is mainly based on an interview study, where interviews are carried out with expertise of the field of digitization. Literature study was used to compliment the interview study with previous scientific studies on the field. The literature used is based on scientific articles, reports, government reports and relevant previous studies related to the subject. Results: The results from the interview study showed that the use of digital tools had positive impact on the construction stage. The most important benefit of digitization is the information management. There are also economical and work environmental benefits as well as higher work productivity. However, there are no exact figures showing these profits. The result also shows what challenges can be encountered and how these challenges can be best avoided. In addition, this study highlights how the industry should go about increasing the use of digital tools. Conclusion: The conclusions that can be drawn are that digitization has positive impact in construction, but challenges can arise. These challenges can be avoided through cooperation between companies and participantes to achieve a more digitized construction stage.

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  • 2.
    Akhlaqi, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hybrida stomsystem för Flervåningshus: Sammansättning av trä och betong i stomsystem ur stabilitet och koldioxidutsläpp2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ninety percent of all single-family houses and smaller residential buildings in Sweden are built with timber frames. Though, this figure is different for higher buildings, about twenty percent in timber frames and eighty percent in concrete and steel. However, the knowledge and experience about tall timber houses is limited today and it needs to be developed over the time, both technically and architecturally. Purpose: The wood has a lower E-module than concrete and steel, which cause an additional problem in high-rise buildings of more than eight floors, stability. The measures for this problem can be costly and reduce the living space of the building due to large dimensions of the wooden structure. This project work is based on the challenges that exist around the construction of tall wooden buildings and tries to present a beneficial hybrid solution for the construction of tall houses in wood and concrete. Method: The study object is a multi-story building on ten floors where wood is used in combination with concrete for the frame system. The vertical loads such as self-weight, payload and snow load are carried by the wooden frame. On the other hand, concrete has the task of taking care of the horizontal forces caused by wind loads. The frame system is dimensioned according to the Eurocodes and standard dimensions to ensure the load-bearing capacity of the building. Results: The result reports that two concrete cores in the hybrid building absorb all horizontal forces and loads down to the foundation. These cores can also be used as stair/elevator shafts and will not affect the building's living area. A timber-concrete composite with a thickness of 300 mm, replaced the wooden composite which normally reaches a thickness of 400 to 500 mm. This means a height gain of one to two meters. The columns will get smaller dimensions because of the cores and give more living space. The concrete utilization in that hybrid building decreases by 57 percent, which is a large saving from an environmental perspective. In addition, life cycle analysis, LCA shows that carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2e are 43 percent less in the hybrid framework. Conclusion: The hybrid multi-stories houses of concrete and wood can be a useful alternative for increasing construction of wooden houses. A concrete core in the middle of building helps the construction to become more stable and the swaying due to wind loads be minimized. Furthermore, the columns can have smaller dimensions, which increases the living space in the building. The timber-concrete composite gives the building more weight and solves the step sound problem that arises due to low E-module on the wooden flooring. Additionally, the height of the building decreases, which in turn leads to buildings being able to have more stories and more living space. Moreover, through hybrid solutions in buildings, the environmental benefits of wood can be utilized to build environmentally friendly buildings. The ten-stories hybrid framework in this study, saves 43 percent CO2e compared to the corresponding framework in concrete. 

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    Hybrida stomsystem
  • 3.
    Al agedi, Bilal
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ibrahim, Maytham
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Energiförbrukning och utsläpp av koldioxid vid byggande av väg2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Markförstärkning i ett vägbygge kan göras på olika sätt. I detta examensarbete jämför vi två av dessa metoder, nämligen massutskiftningsmetoden och användning av kalkcementpelare ur energi- och miljösynpunkt. För att jämföra dessa två metoder togs fram ett excelbaserat räkneverktyg där resultatet av energiförbrukningen fås i kWh och koldioxidemissioner i ton CO2. Denna jämförelse gjordes för ett specifikt vägprojekt som använde massutskiftningsmetoden för vägunderbyggnaden. Det som ingick i beräkningen var schaktning, fyllning, krossning, sprängning, transporter och kalkcementpelare. För denna uträkning användes data från både entreprenörer som var med i projektet och företag som hade dokumenterade data.

    Metoden som förbrukade minst energi och som släppte ut minst koldioxidemissioner var massutskiftningsmetoden. Det som gjorde att kalkcementpelare till en sämre metod var den höga energiförbrukningen som krävdes för tillverkningen av kalk och cement. Det som krävde mest energi i tillverkningsprocessen var ugnar där höga temperaturer krävdes.

    Skillnaden mellan utskiftningsmetoden och kalkcementpelare i objektet var att i massutskiftningsmetoden krävdes urgrävningar för att schakta bort jordmaterial med dålig hållfasthet och ersätta det med bergmaterial med hög hållfasthet. I denna metod går energi åt till schaktning, fyllning och transport. Medan förstärkningsmetoden med kalkcementpelare förbrukar energi för tillverkning, transport och installation. Eftersom metoden går ut på att vägbyggnaden ska vila på pelarna genom att borra ner dessa i marken istället för att schakta bort stora volymer och transportera dem till fyllningen så är det lätt att tro att kalkcementpelare sparar energi genom att minska massförflyttning och långa transporter. Resultatet av detta examensarbete har visat motsatsen.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Al Lafta, Hussein
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Säkerhet mot fortskridande ras för prefabricerade elementväggar: UNDERSÖKNING AV FLERBOSTADSHUS2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive collapses may occur when a bearing wall is eliminated for various reasons. It can be a gas explosion or collision accident of a train or a vehicle, but also during renovation of a building component. After the wall has been eliminated, the building should be undamaged and not suffer a progressive collapse. Such an event can be avoided through a vertical link. The purpose of this study is to examine how secure today's vertical strap’sare against progressive collapse, and to find a solution for reduced risk of collapse Method: This study includes a literature review and a case study. The literature review was performed by a deepening of the existing literature that investigated the progressive collapse and the vertical drag strip. The studies found through the database Google school and Discovery. The case study was conducted in Kadesjös which is an engineering office where drawings and calculations were performed. Result: The result indicates that the vertical strap used today cannot withstand the design load if the entire wall (including the screw attachment) is eliminated. The threaded rod will then be pulled out of the floor and a progressive collapse occurs. By mounting a 70x70mm plate in the floor this can be prevented. Without the plate it takes only 58 kN to pull out the threaded rod from the floor, but with the plate the connection’s capacity is increased to 100 kN and then the anchorage pipe limits the capacity. Conclusion: The conclusion of this thesis is that a plate that increases the vertical strap’s capacity and thereby increases the safety against progressive collapse should be used.

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  • 5.
    AL-Ammari, Aseel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    AL-Massri, Fares
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Manuellt rotationssystem till väggfixtur2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis aims to find a more sustainable and cost-effective solution for a rotation system used for turning walls. The work was carried out by the client Husmuttern AB, which requires a rotation system for rotating wall fixtures in the company's future construction projects in Scandinavia, as well as in Poland and Ukraine.

    The current fixture is powered by an electric motor, which the company considers to be a costly and less sustainable solution. Therefore, this work will present a more cost-effective and sustainable solution and address the development process for the proposed design.

    The research question for this thesis is: How can an existing electrically driven rotation system be replaced with a manually operated mechanical rotation system while ensuring that the design meets the internal requirements of Husmuttern AB and the external regulations from the Swedish Work Environment Authority regarding load ergonomics?

    The work has been done with consideration for cost-effectiveness, ergonomics, and safety. Relevant regulations from the Swedish Work Environment Authority have been reviewed in the course of this work. The work has also focused on developing a concrete proposal where the use of standard components has been prioritized to save resources and result in a cost-effective solution based on available material dimensions from different suppliers.

    Computer Aided Design (CAD) has been used to draw and assemble components that the rotation system's design consists in a virtual environment. CAD has been used with the help of Solidworks software to give a closer picture of what the construction might look like, as well as how the components sit and their position and direction.

    The work has been completed within the specified time limit and delivers what was specified in the limitations. The result is a new rotation system - a manually operated mechanical rotation system that enables ergonomic and safe work tasks. The report describes the work process, calculations, drawing documents, and a user description of the rotation system's work tasks, thus constituting the delivery of the work.

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  • 6.
    Aljawaheri, Moustafa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kako, Hawar
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Projekteringsprocessens utveckling: En studie om projekteringsprocessens utveckling de senaste 30 åren och eventuella effektiviseringsmöjligheter2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Abstract 

    Purpose: The purpose of the degree project is to examine how the development within the planning process has been over the past thirty years and also to highlight challenges and the shortcomings that arose in the last 30 years. Through streamlining, minimizing costs and specifying the design leads to further development and simplicity in the planning process. Method: The method in the degree project began with a literature study where a theoretical frame of reference regarding the planning process is presented to expand the knowledge of the subject. Subsequently, a qualitative study was conducted in the form of interviews with experienced individuals in the construction industry. With the literature studies and interviews as a basis, practical application was also carried out in the form of a model study where the functionality of different software was considered. Results: The results of the study present a summation of the interviews conducted. Digital development has facilitated with calculation programs or drawings that are simpler than before, and easier to edit with the help of digitization, but it has also resulted in poor communication, poorer connection and less collaboration because of this digital development. Furthermore, these problems have led to several errors in the projects. Another important problem that is noticed in the work is to cut off the projects in smaller moments that always create confusion and shortcomings. The stage shifts in the projects damage two major factors which are time and cost. After a summer of the interviews conducted, the data collected from the literature study were analyzed and linked. The analysis led to a proposal for improvement which is presented in the results of the work. Conclusions: Regarding the results of the study conducted in this degree project, plenty of conclusions are drawn on how the planning process have developed over the past 30 years, such as where in the planning process there are shortcomings, what development opportunities there are and what their potential consequences are.

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    Projekteringsprocessens utveckling
  • 7.
    Andersson, Jasmine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mård, Oliver
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fuktproblem i produktionsskedet: Förebyggande åtgärder och åtgärder efter fuktskada2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the problems that occur due to moist in the workplace, as well as the measures that can be taken and which measures are most effective. The study will examine the material storage and how it is being handled in the workplace, exploring what directives the insurance companies have, so the insurance is valid. Lastly the study will compare the different measures based on an economic perspective, time perspective as well as material savings. Method: This study is based on a literature study and a case study. The case study is based on both an interview and a site visit. Information has been gathered from various sources such as books, previously made thesis and various governments websites. The case study for this thesis is conducted at Emausskolan in Västerås. Results: To ensure that the moisture management in the production is good a certified moisture expert is hired. Moisture on materials can be prevented by using just-in-time deliveries and the most optimal solution a weather protection. Directives from the insurance companies regarding moisture management at the workplace and what the entrepreneur is obligated to do after moisture damage has occurred. To minimize moisture and mold growth the workplace should be clean and dry. Self-monitoring and samples were carried out throughout the project to ensure that the work has been performed correctly. Conclusions: The conclusion for this thesis is that challenges for moisture depends on the weather, carelessness, and time pressed schedules. Solutions would be to have a tight climate shell, usage of weather protection and surface treatment on materials. Handling of materials is to a certain degree taken care of in terms of palletized and packaged but not always. 

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  • 8.
    Andersson, Victor
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Forsblad, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Israelsson, Robert
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fallstudie av en plattrambro: Skillnader mellan prefabricerat och platsgjutet med aspekt på teknik, arbetsmiljö och ekonomi2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aimed to conduct a case study, with focus on work environment, economy and technical implementation, to determinate the difference if a prefabricated bridge had been constructed instead of a cast-in-situ bridge. Method: The study is based on a literature study and a case study. The case study is mainly based on interviews, data collection and attendance at the construction site. Results: The result of this study was that it is possible to combine both on-site and prefabricated elements, not as requested but as a beam frame bridge. The best option would be to cast the foundation on site and use prefabricate beams and retaining walls.  Prefabricated elements are constructed in a more controlled environment and therefore it is easier to fulfil a better work environment. If the actual bridge were to be made with prefabricated elements instead of layed on-site, the price would not differ too much. Conclusions: The big difference between prefabricated elements and on-site concrete is the labour and the material cost for the formwork. The biggest risk, regarding work environment from both perspectives, was identified as working at heights and vehicle in movement.

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  • 9.
    Bakhteyari, Karim
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Public Private Partnerships: As a public infrastructure optimizer2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A public private partnership is an alternative to procurement of the facility by the public sector, using funding from tax revenues or public borrowing. In a typical public sector procurement, the public authority sets out the specifications and design of the facility, calls for bids on the basis if this detailed design, and pays for construction of the facility by a private sector contractor. The public authority has to fund the full cost of construction, including cost overruns. Operation and maintenance of the facility are handled by the public authority and the contractor takes no responsibility for the long term performance of the facility after the construction warranty period has expired. In a public private partnership, on the other hand, the authority specifies its requirements in terms of outputs, which set out the public services which the facility is intended to provide, but which do not specify how these are to be provided. It is then left to the private sector to design, finance, build and operate the facility to meet the longterm output specifications. The project company receives payments over the life of the PPP contract, which are supposed to repay the financing costs and give a return to investors. The payments are subject to deductions for failure to meet output specifications, and there is no extra allowance for cost overruns which happen during construction or in operation of the facility.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Basharkar, Wahidullah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    EFFEKTIVISERING AV BYGGLOGISTIK: TRANSPORT- OCH MATERIALFLÖDE: En fallstudie vid Årstastråket (Etapp 1) i Stockholm2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to examine how construction logistics work for the ongoing

    project “Årstastråket” Stage 1, and to identify the logistics problems that the project may

    have. The aim then is to find solutions to these problems in order to avoid them in the

    upcoming projects. The study will include delopment of a standard template that can be used

    in logistics planning of the project. At the beginning of the study a comprehensive literature

    review of the available literature including reports and research articles was done to obtain a

    deeper knowledge of the subject in question. The result of this study is based on conducted

    case studies on the construction site, such as interviews and site visits. The majority of

    collection in the case study was mainly collected from 11 site visits, which then was

    supplemented with the information obtained from the interviews. The interviews were

    conducted with the local manager and supervisor of the project at “Årstastråket” Stage 1. In

    this study the construction logistics worked generally well, both in terms of transport- and

    material flow at the construction site. The main logistics problems identified in “Årstastråket”

    Stage 1 was particularly poor logistics planning of the project at an early stage, lack of visual

    communication and constant updating of construction site plan alongside project developing.

    The new developed standard template for logistics planning of the project at an early stage

    can be used in order to achieve the established goals and make the project even more

    effective.

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    fulltext
  • 11.
    Cans, Hampus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hägglund, Anton
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Arbetsplatsomkostnader i byggprojekt: En studie om besparingsmöjligheter genom en effektiviserad och digitaliserad byggetablering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyze savings opportunities in costs tied to the construction site. The purpose was also to investigate what effects a well-planned construction establishment could have on future projects. The thesis also highlighted possible difficulties in the rental process between building entrepreneurs and rental companies. A literature study of subject-relevant literature was initially conducted. The literature study highlights the various factors that costs tied to the construction site contains and theory of project planning and management. The current study covers interviews with persons in the construction industry. Respondents with different roles in the rental process were selected to study possible differences between the parties' opinions. A pattern was detected during the interviews with the respondents. They specifically noted six areas that have a potential to be improved and which can lead to lower costs. The areas were planning, communication, cost awareness, commitment, follow-up and digitization. The conclusions that this thesis has resulted in is that there are several factors to take account for in order to reduce costs tied to the construction site. For example, more time needs to be put into planning of construction projects and the planning process must be finished before the start of the construction. A completed planning will lead to fewer delays and thus lower costs. In order to achieve lower costs tied to the workplace a greater cost awareness is needed for everyone involved in the project. This creates a better understanding of how each persons’ individual decision affects the projects economy, which is needed to minimize unnecessary costs. By taking these factors into account, the savings potential will be increased.

    Keywords:   Building Engineering, Economy, Planning, Costs, Entrepreneur, Rental, Communication, Production, Construction Site

     

  • 12.
    Cavic, Petra
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Bergman, Belinda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Spill- och avfallshantering: Hantering på byggarbetsplatser för nybyggnation av bostäder och kontor2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this degree work was to compare and investigate what kind of waste that is produced on construction sites of two different types of buildings. The investigation was made to see if there were any differences between the two and how improvements with their waste management could be made. This degree work was conducted by gathering the proper information about waste and waste management, both general and specified to building waste. Information was mainly found in both papers and reports from authorities and municipalities as well as from previous degree works in the same subject. Research about which laws, regulations and requirements that are in place and relevant to this degree work was also conducted. Interviews at the two construction sites were made to see how waste management actually works on site. The research was also conducted to get first-hand information that is current to compare with previous research on the subject says. Both Västerås and Örebro municipality have their own specified waste plan that the building companies in respective municipality has to follow. The two construction sites in question differ in distance to the city centre since one is located centrally and the other approximately five kilometres from the city centre. They also differ in size of construction site, the centrally situated building site has buildings surrounding it making the space to work with small. This compared to the construction site outside of the city centre that is a part of a newer district with lots of space available. Concluded the waste management are similar to each other, with some exceptions regarding sorting of some fractions, such as glass and corrugated paper. The two constructions are built by the same company, but different recyclers are used to handle the waste. These recyclers are managing for example plaster and plasterboard differently depending on what their capabilities are. Construction sites must comply with several laws, regulations and requirements, some of them are miljöbalken, avfallsförordningen and plan- och bygglagen. Informing workers to be careful managing the materials, using more digital software in early stages and the use of production methods such as Lean are different ways to minimize the amount of building waste that occurs today. Another way is to make sure the measurements of the materials are correct from start. If so it will not be necessary to cut and adjust length and size of the material on site and thereby reduce the amount of waste.

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  • 13.
    Cicek, Evelin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Irmak, Ronas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskyddsarbetet under byggtid: Att reducera brandrisken på byggarbetsplatser2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of the degree project was to investigating fire protection work during construction at various companies and proposing improvement proposals to reduce the risk of fire at construction sites. Method: The method on which the thesis project was based on was a literature study, interviews and document analysis. The literature study has been carried out to gain in-depth knowledge regarding the fire protection during the construction phase. The interview study was conducted at different construction companies to get an idea of ​​how the different companies handle fire safety at construction sites. The document analysis has been carried out with the help of various companies requirements documents, which form the basis for the fire protection work at the construction sites. Results: The results present the companies fire protection work during construction. Prior to the start of construction, a fire protection description is projected that covers how to build to prevent fire safety, it also covers the how parts of the workplace should be designed. The fire protection that proved to exist mostly consists of two mutually independent escape routes with clearly visible escape signs, a dedicated collection point and strategically placed hand-held fire extinguishers that should be within a range of 25 meters. Hot work, electrical causes and arson have emerged as a recurring shortage and cause of most fires occurring at construction sites. There is room for improvement by, among other things, spending more time in planning, introducing a practice on fire and evacuation alarms and creating the company's fire protection description in connection with the production of the A-drawings. Conclusions: In conclusion, there are opportunities for improvement, but unfortunately nothing has been implemented in practice.

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  • 14.
    Danielsson, Erik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Robertsson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Examensarbete: Prefabricerad produktion med betongelement: En kostnadsutvärdering mellan prefabricerad och platsbyggd produktion2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 15.
    Ehrenberg, Oliver
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Dmitriev, Roman
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Den innovativa säljprocessen för att sprida innovativa produkter: En experimentell studie på Swedish Construction Sales AB2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on Partner X's challenges in launching an innovative replacement for rebar on the Swedish market. Swedish Construction Sales AB is working to introduce the product and the study aims to help Swedish Construction Sales AB develop an effective sales process to spread this innovation. Many companies face similar challenges, often due to a lack of sales experience. This research has focused on the application of diffusion of innovation theory in a sales process to see how it can help spread innovative products. To answer this question, one experiment with two parts was conducted and then analyzed and compared with each other. It turned out that offering the customer the opportunity to test the product, highlighting its benefits in a clear way, and demonstrating that the product is compatible in the customer's area of use and that it is not complex to use increases the commitment to the product. However, more research is needed to see if the increased response actually leads to increased sales over time. The researchers' study illustrates how theories can be applied practically to improve the sales process, contributing to a deeper understanding of how diffusion of innovation theories can be used to promote commercial success in spreading innovative products to new markets.

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  • 16.
    Elf, Adam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cederth, Kevin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner: Lathund för brandskyddsdimensionering av stålprofiler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis covers fire protection methods of structural steel and the aim is to develop an information tool designed for inexperienced structural engineers. The information tool covers basic fire protection methods and the general way to produce a fire resistance for structural steel. The layout of this information tool is a simple folder that contains information about the most important steps when producing fire protection for a steel structure.

    The thesis starts with a general overview of the fire protection needed in buildings to fulfill national legislative and regulatory requirements. To get an understanding of how steel components behave during the influence of fire, a brief overview is presented of the material properties of steel. This chapter also contains a review of previous research in the area. Furthermore, some of the most common fire protection materials are introduced and the general way of producing a safe fire protection for steel components is explained. For example, the chapter handles topics such as critical steel temperature, section factor and degree of utilization, which are key factors for designing fire protection for structural steel components.

    To evaluate the information tool, experienced structural engineers have been interviewed with a given interview guide to assist the making of this tool. The results from the interviews provided an insight into the needs for information regarding fire protection for structural engineers.

     

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    Brandskydd av stålkonstruktioner
  • 17.
    Eriksson, Emilia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktionsstyrning: Tillämpning av NCC Projektplanering i praktiken2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate which elements of the design process in production that have key features for successful progress of production and how these are regulated in the developed production model, the NCC Project planning, NCC Construction Sweden AB. A study of NCC Project planning used in construction output in the department of Mälardalen has been carried out and proposals for implementation of the model has been proposed. The work is carried out through interviews and archival analysis of NCC's business system.  NCC Project planning is a production model based on LEAN Construction's governance model pull-planning and 5S principle. By means of the production model desired involvement in the work and control over the work process increase. In the current situation is not production model to the extent that the company wishes and therefore the reasons why mapped and solutions to the problem have been proposed.  One of the biggest reasons that the NCC Project planning is not used in practice is the lack of commitment from supervisors, managers and production managers. As a solution to the problem suggested mentors, field trips and custom training for production management model.

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    Produktionsstyrning
  • 18.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Managing complex projects in the infrastructure sector: A structural equation model for flexibility-focused project management2017In: International Journal of Project Management, ISSN 0263-7863, E-ISSN 1873-4634, Vol. 35, no 8, p. 1512-1523Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex construction projects in the infrastructure sector are often beset with delays, which cause benefit shortfalls and increased costs. Prior project management literature and practice have mostly adopted a traditional control-focused approach, but recent research suggests that complex projects need more flexible practices to manage inevitable project change. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and empirically test a model for flexibility-focused project management practices to improve time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector. Based on empirical data from 138 construction projects procured and managed by the Swedish Transport Administration, the structural equation model shows that complexity and collaboration drive explorative learning, which improves adaptation and thereby improves time performance. Hence, the empirical test verifies that flexibility-focused project management practices based on collaboration, explorative learning, and adaptation enhance time performance in complex projects in the infrastructure sector.

  • 19.
    Fadi, Kunda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Nahla, Alhamada
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mert, Celen
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Optimering av klassrumsmiljön i en ny skolbyggnad i Västerås: En studie om fönsterplacering och energiförluster2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to plan blueprints for a school located Härbregatan and Vallby Skolgata in Västerås with a focus on energy losses and window placement to choose the most suitable types of windows to obtain a good internal environment. Method: The methodology used to conduct this thesis was based on earlier case studies, literature book and literature reviews in the form of legal specification from Boverket Byggregel (BBR) that had a significant impact on how the school was designed, interior and exterior views. Results: The study demonstrated how important window types and selection was for the students and the teachers occupying the classrooms because windows are a vital source of light, energy and encouragement due to the daylight. Larger windows minimize the need for electrical lighting but increases the risk of energy loss due to inadequate insulation resulting in an impact on the indoor environment and causing a higher energy usage. The size of the window also has an impact on specific transmission losses, thermal bridges, heat losses and as well as the solar radiation passing through the glass, according to this study. Conclusions: The study came to the conclusion that while windows have a significant role in these aspects, additional aspects that include the size of walls, doors, floors and ceiling also play an essential part. Larger windows lead to increased transmission losses and thermal bridges, but at the same time it lets in more daylight and sunlight in the form of heat energy, therefore larger windows are a better choice to use in the school building.

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  • 20.
    Halaf, Evan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    FORMSÄTTNING AV HÖGA PLATSGJUTNA BETONGKOSTRUKTIONER: Undersökning av diverse klättersystem samt alternativa lösningar för silo-projektet Gråbergsutfrakt i Kiruna2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today construction industry is building higher and more complicated constructions than ever thanks to the advancements in materials, technical knowledge and methodologies. One important material is concrete, which has been used to create impressive architectural marvels. This dissertation aims to examine the differences between climbing and slip formwork systems for tall concrete structures that require several pouring steps in height. The main differences noted between both systems are formwork configuration, assembly and cycling of the formwork and climbing elements, price and quantity of material, labor required, the quality of the finished structure and safety during construction. A case study was investigated with the help of formwork supplier PERI Sverige AB and nordic contractor PEAB AB regarding a 20,5 meter high reinforced concrete silo located in a mining complex in Kiruna, Sweden. Through a review of the existing literature in the subject, interviews with experts in the topic and the outcome from the project case study, the results shows that while the SCS climbing system from PERI Sverige AB required more working days compared to a slip formwork system, it was chosen as a more appropriate solution for this project in combination with the crane at the jobsite, due to the amount of labor required, safety and overall cost of it. In conclusion, the selection of the SCS climbing system as formwork system proved to be the most adequate solution for the case study when critical aspects such as assembly and cycling of formwork, price and safety were evaluated.

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  • 21.
    Hallin, Anette
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, Projektkommunikation.
    Digging wider and deeper: Revealing the hegemony of project studies2010In: International Journal of Project Organisation and Management, ISSN 1740-2891, E-ISSN 1740-2905, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on a brief illustration, this article discusses the need for new empirical fields and methods in project management research. This would not only provide novel insights into project practices and management, but would also entail questioning the hegemony (Gramsci, 1988) of project management and project research. We argue that the hegemony is upheld by, or perhaps even constructed through, the language and the ideal images of the area, developed by project researchers and used by project practitioners; adding to what could be called 'the social power' (Bourdieu, 1991) of those involved in what are called 'projects' and 'project management'. It is also argued that the social power of those familiar with 'projects' and 'project management' is sustained by the silence of all those involved in similar practices, but who do not master the terminology of project work.

  • 22.
    Hambraeus, Lydia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Vad krävs för att partnering ska fungera optimalt i ett byggprojekt?: Att optimera kunskapen i ett partneringprojekt2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose with this thesis was to point out key factors on how to get the best result from a project performed in partnering. The result is based on interviews with 19 people and case studies on three projects performed in partnering, one hospital project and two projects where they built multiple family houses. There are three key factors to get the best results possible from projects performed in partnering. These are: the right persons with the right abilities, putting the project as the first priority and to define what partnering means for each project. The right abilities can be summoned as open, honest and social with both the ability and mandate to make decisions. Economic incentive should not be used in partnering projects since they are found to do more harm than good. All sorts of projects would benefit from being performed as partnering projects instead of using the traditional ways of performing projects in the Swedish construction business. Even though smaller projects probably will make a smaller profit when performed in partnering instead of the traditional ways, there are other profits such as larger focus on quality and work environment. In the Swedish construction industry there is one thing that would need improvement to get even better results from projects performed in partnering, that is a standardization of the system of rules. The main reason for this is that many conflicts could be avoided and time put on defining who has responsibility for what wouldn’t be needed. But there is an uncertainty if there is need for a whole new system of rules or if it would do with just an addition to the existing system of rules.

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  • 23.
    Handfast, Mikael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Paskota, Sarah
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Designa ditt eget boende: Studiolägenheter – en framtida bostadsutveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 24.
    Herrera, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadsinformationsmodellering (BIM) - Användning under byggprocessen: Möjligheter och hinder med BIM2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The construction industry represents one of the largest and most important industries in Sweden with a large throughput per year. Problems often arise in construction projects which lead to unnecessary construction costs, material costs and waste of time. A solution to those problems can be BIM-Building Information Modeling. BIM is a collective concept of how information is created, stored and used in different stages using a BIM 3D-model. The information should contain important data like height, volume, area, pressure etc. and be digital, measurable and available throughout the whole construction process.   

    The purpose of this study is to explore how BIM can make the construction industry more efficient regarding construction costs and time and to obtain a comprehensive view of BIM concept and functions during the construction process.

    The theoretical part includes benefits and disadvantages of BIM during the project planning, production and management stages. The implementation part describes the background of several of the interviewed actors and the implementation of a BIM-model in the program Autodesk Revit. The results are mainly based on interviews of different actors from project planning, production and management stages, but also from a BIM-model of a simple component. The interview result is a summary and reports the features and benefits of the use of BIM.  Former research in one residential shows that BIM perhaps give a saving in 5.15% of the costs.

    In conclusion BIM represents many advantages that will change and improve the construction process including time saving and less costs. BIM will be the leading approach in the construction industry with more education and better adapted software.

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    Examensarbete BIM
  • 25.
    Hosseini, Mojdeh
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Brister vid totalentreprenad: En fallstudie med fokus på ombyggnation och effektivisering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Entreprenadformen totalentreprenad är en av de vanligaste former inom svensk husbyggande, likväl för Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad är det den entreprenadform som används mest. Idag råder det bostadsbrist i Västerås stad på grund av den senaste tidens befolkningsökning samt det ökade flyktingmottagandet. Detta har lett till en press att ständigt bygga nya bostäder, samt att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga fastigheter för att kunna anpassas till de uppstående behoven. På grund av denna tidspress som finns är det naturligt att man letar efter sätt att bygga snabbt på.

    Då totalentreprenad har den fördelen att kunna överlappa produktion och projektering tidsmässigt, leder detta till tidsmässiga fördelar och ses då som ett fördelaktigt val för Fastighetskontoret. Att Fastighetskontoret väljer att utföra ombyggnationer av befintliga bostäder är positivt, då det inte alltid finns nya marker att bygga nyproduktioner på. Dessutom vinner man tid på att utföra en ombyggnation, då det redan finns en befintlig fastighet och man redan där ligger före i tiden jämfört mot nyproduktion.

    Det här arbetet syftade till att fastställa vilka brister som fanns i planering och samordning i projektering- och produktionsfasen specifikt inom ett genomfört ombyggnationsprojekt hos Fastighetskontoret Västerås Stad. Efter att dessa brister var identifierade gavs det förslag till förbättringar i den nuvarande checklistan som användes utav projektledare.

    Initialt inleddes en arkivanalys av dokumentationen som fanns tillgänglig i en databas hos Fastighetskontoret där alla dokument granskades och blev studerade. Med hjälp av denna information kunde intervjufrågor utformas samt relaterad litteratur sökas, vilket utgjorde underlag till den teoretiska delen. Vidare utfördes en kvalitativ metod i form av intervjuer med nyckelpersoner inom totalentreprenaden och Fastighetskontoret som resultatet av detta arbete baserats på.

    Resultatet visade bland annat att planeringen av det studerade projektet inte hade några större brister, däremot fanns det vissa brister i kommunikation och samordning. En brist i kommunikation och samordning som visades var överlämningen av kunskap, erfarenheter och information mellan olika skeden i projektet, främst efter upphandling. Ifall man kunde se till att fler medlemmar från förprojekteringen kunde vara med i detaljprojekteringen skulle det kunna leda till att kunskapen och erfarenheten behölls kvar även i detta skede. Det visade sig också att Fastighetskontoret var ibland för detaljerade i sitt förfrågningsunderlag, då man angav både tekniska lösningar och funktionskrav. Därför var ett av förslagen på förbättringar att styra Fastighetskontorets konstruktörer på ett bättre sätt, då de bidrog till väldigt detaljerade ritningar. Förslaget var att införa en extra checklista för konstruktörerna som gav dem en hänvisning till hur deras ritningar ska förhålla sig till projektet.

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  • 26.
    Hägg Wickman, Camilla
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Wistling, Linda
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Byggnadens andra skepnad: En anpassning för att möta samhällets behov och krav2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Population growth leads to an increased need for new buildings, both residential and commercial. The regulations of structural design also changes with time. From a sustainable community perspective it may be profitable if existing buildings, that no longer performs their original function, are reconditioned. Knowledge and understanding of the surroundings of the residence must be available. Regulations regarding accessibility to all has increased. There are solutions in older residences that are not thoroughly thought through and leave much to be desired for a disabled person.

    The purpose of this thesis is to find a practical, creative and energy-efficient solution to change the Gideonsberg School into apartments, this in respect of the building, the site's visual expression, energy consumption, accessibility, and community needs. Questions asked and answered in this thesis are: How can the energy consumption be reduced in connection with a redevelopment and functional change? What is required to get an accessible living environment? What features are important and desirable in a home? How can the school's appearance and surroundings change to be more appealing and tied together with existing and prospective structures?

    Through site visits and literature an understanding has taken form on the requirements to create a pleasant and accessible living environment. Drawings and photographs have been created in Revit in order to present an overview of the study results.

    The architect office Tovatt won a design challenge that the City of Västerås held for the Kungsljuset 2 area. Tovatt's proposal of the area will be the basis for a new zoning plan in consultation with the City of Västerås. One of the goals of this thesis is to plan and redesign the existing school buildings so that they fit into the surrounding buildings and the proposal from Tovatt.

    There are certain technical regulations a building must fulfill. These regulations include the durability of the construction, stability and carrying capacity. The building must be suitable for its intended use and be available for people with limited orientation and mobility. Safety regulations for fire, safety in use, noise, hygiene, health and the environment must be met. From an environmental perspective there are also regulations regarding energy consumption, thermal insulation and management of waste and water.

    The proposal of this thesis is to turn three of the Gideonsberg School’s existing structures into 59 apartments and one terraced house with five apartments.

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  • 27.
    Jarrin Peters, David
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Fiberföstärkning av Limträbalkar2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glulam is a product that was engineered to make use of timber in a more efficient way. Bychoosing timber of similar quality and discarding natural defects during production, thedevelopment of a stronger cross-section is achieved.Carbon fiber is a relatively new material with a high tension capacity. This feature is used toexamine how the bending capacity of the beams improve by adhering carbon fiber laminateson the lower edge of the beamsThe strength of the material is tested with three experiments: carbon fiber on the bottom of thebeam (a), carbon fiber attached to the lower sides of the beam (b) and carbon fiber in thebeam, covered with a layer of wood (c)

    The results show that the first case, where the carbon fiber is attached to the bottom of thebeam, gave the best result with an increase in capacity of 59 % compared to the nonreinforcedcontrol. The other two cases also show an improvement in capacity, beam-type 3had a capacity increase of 47% and beam-type 4 increased with 25 %Tests were also made with glulam beams reinforced with fiberglass, but these tests were notanalyzed in depth because the purpose was to compare the capacity to carbon fiber. Thisbeam improved its capacity by 40.3%.The tests show that carbon fiber as a reinforcement material for glulam is a good choice whenthere is a requirement for stronger cross-sections in both new production and renovation ofold buildings. However there are some disadvantages to carbon fiber, for example costs andincreased demands on work environment, which makes steel a cheaper option.

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  • 28.
    Johansson, Julius
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Skoglund, Nicolas
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Projektering i byggbranschen: En undersökning mellan projekterade och verkliga resultat2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: the differences between projection and actual results are very common in most of the construction projects. The problems that seem to be most common appears in projection, communication, planning and documents but there are as well smaller areas to find in the study. The aim of the study is to investigate what differences can be found between the theoretical and actual time schedule and the problems that can appear in the construction industry. Method: The study is based on a literature study, two interviews and two case studies. The literature study gives an understanding of what has to be in consideration when planning a project. Detailed information about all the aspects gives a good base for the study. Two people that works with building planning were interviewed to give some better insight. First some general questions about building planning were asked to give a better understanding of the subject. Then questions were asked about the specific projects and what results they had. The case studies consist of two projects, one of them being “Nationalmuseet” and the other “Kulturhuset Stadsteatern”. Documentation about the projects were examined to evaluate the procedure and outcome. The projects were used to compare with the results from the interviews to see if there was any connection. Results: the project is presented by responses from both of the preformed interviews. Respondents describes the challenges with the design process and what kind of problems that often occurs during projects. The questions are asked regarding their design process and thoughts about time pressure, the use of programs as well as preferred forms of contracting. The interviews also provide an insight into how experience feedback and improvements addressed within the company. Conclusions: from the own study, most conclusions could be drawn regarding which factors influences the projection, what are the differences between the theoretical and actual result and how these differences can be reduced. With the help of the interview study, conclusions could be made based on experience and knowledge of which problem areas are common for construction industry at present.

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  • 29.
    Johar, Selman
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tofik, Hedi
    Byggmaterialens livscykel: En analys om hur miljön påverkas under ett byggprojekt2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem background: During a construction project, the environment is negatively affected due to all construction waste that occurs. Even during the manufacture of building materials, the environment is affected. Construction waste in Sweden is about 31 percent, it is quite high, but they are constantly trying to reduce construction waste and the environmental impact that the construction sector is responsible for. The construction waste that takes place has a direct connection to building materials, which also has a direct connection to the carbon dioxide emission in the production of these building materials. Therefore, in this work we have addressed these three points that focus on the environmental impact that the construction industry has in a construction project. The purpose of the work is to investigate how the construction industry affects the environment. Because it is a complicated industry where a lot happens. For example, there are several different types of transport both from and to the construction site that leads to increased carbon dioxide emissions. To reduce construction waste, you must have the knowledge as to know why construction waste occurs and be able to apply the waste hierarchy during a construction project for reduced environmental impact. The methodology for completing this work was due to various scientific articles and literature studies used, via Mälardalens University's library database. In addition, some interviews were conducted that helped strengthen and complete the work. The interviews provided different views and perspectives and explained in detail how construction waste is handled during a construction project. The survey provided a better insight into how this is done, handled and what solutions are available to reduce the construction sector's environmental impact during a construction project. The end results of the work showed that there are some methods you can use to reduce the environmental impact that the construction industry has today. With these methods, it is not only the environment that has a positive effect but also the construction company because it leads to lower costs and more efficient construction methods. The results also showed that the construction industry is a complicated industry where a lot affects each other and that they always try to reduce their environmental impact by constantly striving for their environmental goals. The Conclusions of the work is that the environment affects the construction industry in different ways. Everyone involved is trying to reduce their influence, but there are some challenges that exists and should be addressed. The work highlights the problem and alternative solutions that the construction industry can use to reduce their environmental impact. 

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  • 30.
    Kamranfar, S.
    et al.
    Department of Architecture, Built Environment and Construction Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan, 20133, Italy.
    Damirchi, F.
    Construction Engineering and Management, Department of Civil Engineering, Payame Noor University, Tehran, 19395-4697, Iran.
    Pourvaziri, M.
    Department of Architecture, University of Tehran, Tehran, 14395 515, Iran.
    Abdunabi Xalikovich, P.
    Department of Accounting, Tashkent Institute of Finance, Tashkent, 10012, Uzbekistan.
    Mahmoudkelayeh, S.
    Department of Architecture, University of Tehran, Tehran, 14395 515, Iran.
    Moezzi, R.
    Association of Talent under Liberty in Technology (TULTECH), Tallinn, 10615, Estonia .
    Vadiee, Amir
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    A Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling Analysis of the Primary Barriers to Sustainable Construction in Iran2023In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 13762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the obstacles to sustainable construction growth in Iran and thereafter examines the effect and relation between these barriers and the direction of sustainable construction growth as one of the essential objectives for achieving sustainable cities and infrastructure. The study is applied for research purposes that are based on descriptive survey data gathering and correlational data analysis techniques. The statistical population for this study consists of 120 construction-related engineers and university professors who were assessed on a five-point Likert scale. Using SmartPLS software version 4, the responses to the questionnaire were examined. The Kolmogorov–Smirnov assessment was utilized to evaluate the normalcy of the variables, as this assessment is typically employed for this purpose. For data analysis, the PLS (partial least squares) method was used, while SEM (structural equation modeling) methods have been used to assess the study hypotheses. Cronbach’s alpha and the composite reliability coefficient (CR) were applied to determine the instrument’s viability, and the results show that the coefficient connected to all variables is above 7.0, which is an acceptable value. The AVE (average variance extracted) was also used to evaluate the questionnaire’s validity, which was greater than 0.4 and deemed acceptable for coefficients of significance (T-values), coefficient of predictive power (Q2), and coefficient of determination (R2). The obtained results support and confirm all research hypotheses, including that the identified obstacles directly affect the performance of sustainable construction. According to the results of the Friedman test, the legal restrictions variable (CL) is the most significant obstacle to sustainable construction in Iran, with a rank of 4.24. The indicators of political limits (CP) and social and cultural constraints (CSC) came in at second and third, respectively. The results could help government officials make better decisions about where to focus their attention and how to distribute scarce resources. 

  • 31.
    Karlsson, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Landegren, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Identifiering och uppföljning av dagliga fel och brister på byggarbetsplatsen: Samt hur dessa kan hanteras enligt Lean-koncepttänkande2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Construction industry struggles with quality deviances and defects in the building process. Various kinds of problem are for example expensive costs for production, defects in quality and negligence and ignorance in the industry in general. The development of productivity in building process has not progressed at the same rate as companies within manufacturing industry who are using the Lean Production philosophy.

    The purpose whit this degree project is to bring knowledge about what kind of deviances and defects that exist in the industry, and to recommend suggestions for improvements in accordance with Lean Thinking. When you speak about Lean in the construction business it is called Lean Construction. Lean Construction has its theoretical background in the engineering industries Lean Production and Lean Thinking.

    Lean Production is an industrial production method which purpose is to increase the effectiveness of production. It originates from the car-industry in Japan. The concept of Lean Thinking is a further development of Lean Production and it includes all industries, not just the manufacturing industry. To work according to Lean means that you all the time tries to achieve constant improvements and to identify and eliminate all kinds of waste in time and materials. Waste can be seen as an activity that do not create any added value for the customer but still however consume resources.

    While implementing and using Lean in your business corporation you have to analyze how a potentiate can be achieved outgoing from the existing production process. Some main elements within Lean are Kaizen, which means constant improvements, and Just In Time.

    There have been many studies about waste in production in the construction industry. Some are introduced in this report. Activities that have been identified as waste are among others reworking, waste of material, overproduction and misplanning causing waiting times among employees. Based on these ascertained wastages we have formulated the questionnaire study.

    The study does not show large differences between local managers/team leaders and construction workers when it comes to their opinion about what kinds of deviances and defects they find as frequent. The both professions agree that waste can be reduced, by the way of for example efficacious material handling on the building sites and better communication and planning on several levels.

    Keywords: Building process, Lean Construction, Wasting, Kaizen and Just In Time

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 32.
    Khedher, Amin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. PEAB.
    Divanian, Mohammed
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. PEAB.
    Chehab Eddine, Sirin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering. PEAB.
    Uppbyggnad av flervåningshus: Jämförelse mellan trästomme kontra traditionell betongstomme ur ett praktiskt perspektiv samt ur brand- och fuktrisker2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This work has been based on getting more builders to want to build multi-storey houses with a wooden frame instead of a concrete frame. Building with various frame materials, concrete and wood, has good properties but also its challenges. On the other hand, competence and experience have a major influencing role during the production phase. This degree project has been chosen to be written by PEAB. The work focuses on and deepens itself within fire risks and moisture problems. This degree project also addresses what experience and competence look like and how they affect the production phase. Method: This work consists of literature study, case study, interviews, study visits and reference object description. Where information was taken from previous degree projects, scientific articles and research  reports. The case study that was done for this work was about two different schools, Westerlundska gymnasiet and Irstaskolan, where both are built by PEAB. There were also interviews with site managers, fire consultants and contracting engineers, where relevant questions about the subject areas fire and moisture were asked in connection with concrete frames and wooden frames. Results: Concrete as a material has good properties around fire and moisture. Concrete as a building material has long been used in the construction industry, where competence and experience are high. However, certain shortcomings in the event of a fire can occur when a multi-storey building with a concrete frame is built. Wood as a building material has other properties compared to the building material concrete. An important property of wood is that it maintains a much lower temperature on the various parts that have not caught fire yet. Conclusion: The conclusions from this project are that many construction actors choose to build with a concrete frame instead of a wooden frame. This is because experience and competence in concrete frames is greater than in wooden frames. From a fire and moisture perspective, there are challenges and solutions when it comes to concrete frames and wooden frames. It has long been built with a concrete frame, which means that more construction players have more competence and experience when it comes to concrete frames and therefore choose to work with something they are experienced with. However, there is an increased interest and construction players have an understanding that wood will be more common as a frame in multi-storey buildings in the future.

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    Uppbyggnad av flervåningshus
  • 33.
    Kibar, Meltem
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kudhayer, Zhra
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hanna, Valentina
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Traditionella reglar och korslimmat trä: En jämförelse av småhusbyggnader med fokus på mängden material och spill som går åt vid framtagning av väggelement2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares two wood materials, cross-laminated timber (CLT) and traditional wood studs, for small house construction. The aim of this degree project is to assess their specific properties and differences in terms of sustainability and safety. The method for the study employs semi-structured interviews, development of wall elements using Revit and an extensive literature review to arrive at conclusions. CLT is examined as an innovative construction material known for its high strength and stability, while wood studs are analyzed for their energy efficiency and compliance with modern building standards. The findings are supported by previous research comparing different wood construction methods. Through a comprehensive analysis, this study provides valuable insights into the advantages and disadvantages of CLT and traditional wood studs for small house construction. The results from this work were that CLT used more material and had more waste than traditional wood. The interviews indicated differences and challenges related to fire risks associated with adhesive use in cross-laminated timber. Both PUR adhesive and MUF adhesive have their advantages and disadvantages, so it is important to follow the safety protocols and increase industry knowledge for improving fire safety in cross-laminated timber. The conclusion of the study was that cross-laminated timber is affected by the adhesive when considering the reuse of wall elements and fire challenges. It also requires more material, making traditional timber studs a better choice.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Johan
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet,Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet,Sweden.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    Luleå tekniska universitet,Sweden.
    The importance of hard project management and team motivation for construction project performance2018In: International Journal of Managing Projects in Business/Emerald, ISSN 1753-8378, E-ISSN 1753-8386, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 275-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Hard project management practices, based on strict planning and control, are traditionally applied in construction projects, although research frequently promotes the importance of teams for various project outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to examine the importance of hard project management and team motivation for process performance in construction projects. A hypothesis tested is that hard project management can impair process performance if team motivation is not promoted.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The paper presents and empirically tests a structural equation model, with and without a mediating link between hard project management and process performance, based on data from a survey of 2,175 respondents, representing contractors and clients involved in 109 Swedish construction projects.

    Findings

    The results confirm that hard project management is best conveyed through teams to enhance process performance. “Path analysis,” using the model with the mediating link, confirms that neglecting team motivation can significantly impair process performance.

    Research limitations/implications

    The data set provides unusually high representation of views of contractors and clients involved in diverse Swedish construction projects. Thus, the results have likely relevance in other project-based industries and/or national settings, but this possibility requires further investigation.

    Originality/value

    The findings show that team motivation is a key process performance factor; hard project management may indeed be important, but its effects will be enhanced by (and partially mediated through) team motivation. Thus, the findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the development of project management practices.

  • 35.
    Lieu, Kevin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Sium, Nahom
    ÄTA ARBETEN FÖR PROJEKT INOM VÄGARBETE: Fallstudie av cirkulationsplats Hammarbykorset, Eskilstuna2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to analyze the different contract changes that potentially could be added to projects made on the road. For this study specifically, a project where a traffic circle is produced, is used as a reference. This is then further investigated by how these contract changes occurred and what type of temporal, economical and technical influence each and every contract change has on the project. By knowing why and how these contract changes occur, there is an evaluation made to list the different factors that entail the contract changes and different methods to prevent these factors which results in less appearing contract changes. Methods: The methods used in this study contains literature studies and case studies as well as analyzing documents regarding the project, calculations made and measurement values and lastly interviews with the different members that are involved in this project. Results: The results gave a perspective of what types of contract changes the project had and how each one affected the project temporally, economically and technically. The results also included answers from the entrepreneur, the client and the consultant for the interviews. It gave a perspective of their view on the project and their thoughts on the contract changes. By compiling their opinions and views one could detect the similarities and the differences. Further after gathering all of the previous results and comparing them, one could identify a common denominator where there clearly is a mismanagement and find ways to fix and evade the problems which results in less contract changes arising. Conclusion: All of the contract changes has been summurized and conlcuded in a UR-sheet. The following conclusions could be drawn from the framing of questions and results: there were a total of 18 different contract changes where as two of these were regulated from outsider factors. The rest were regulated through factors within the project itself, meaning they could have been either prevented or some what predicted and could have had a less of a effect on the project. All of the contract changes had some type of technical effect on the project however not all of them had an effect temporally or economically. The one that had most effect was UR_ÄTA_006 where this was regulated because of a previous project that wasn’t completed in time and stood as a hindrance for the roundabout. This contributed in extra charges, more time spent of certain moments and changes in the timetable. Based on the answers from the interviews, one could conclude that all of the people who are involved in the project think that there are some deficient working power in the project planning. As a solution to the issue, they sugested that one of the people from the entreprenuer side and the client should be some what involved in the early stages and work as a helping hand for the project planning side of the project since they have more experience in how the actual production of a project is done, thus resulting in less contract changes. 

    Keywords: Contract changes, roundabout, entreprenouer, client, consultant, temporal, economical, technical,, documents 

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    ÄTA ARBETEN FÖR PROJEKT INOM VÄGARBETE
  • 36.
    Lindström, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Rutiner vid upphandling av leverantörer och underentreprenörer: En studie av Kv. Mimer 52010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 37.
    Linnskog, Philip
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tanskanen, Samuel
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kvalitet-, miljö- och arbetsmiljö i produktion: En analys av problemområden och utvecklingsmöjligheter som kan resultera i tids- och kostnadseffektivisering2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose with this work was to analyze thecurrent problem areas within quality-, environment and work environment in theconstruction industry, and to develop a potential improvement which results inincreased efficiency in the subject of speaking. The study’s focus applied on thecurrent working method which is used today within quality-, environmental andwork environment. A comparison has been made to see if this method is the mostefficient according to time and economic aspects or if there is another methodthat is more profitable. The result has been produced by doing a literaturestudy followed by a series of case studies. The case study includedobservations from two different construction sites, an archive study of documentsassigned from our collaboration partners Peab and Aros Bygg & Förvaltningand finally from interviews with individuals whose competence is of value tothis work. To gain a wider understanding of the current problem areas, acomparison between the literature study and the case study has been made. Basedon the comparison a line of argument can be made and it highlights specific workstages that can be improved and increase its efficiency. Based on the result arecurring improvement point has arisen which was digitalization of the practicaland administrative work in the form of digital programs and tools, and here iswhere development can be made. It would benefit all personnel affected by thedaily work with quality-, environment and work environment in the constructionindustry which would result in their work being simplified and a lot more time efficient.The communication within the project can be improved with the help of digitalprogram and tools which may result in improvements regarding communication betweenthe different parties. Feedback and follow-up would be more accessible which inturn could contribute to improved experience feedback within and betweendifferent projects. As a result, all parties involved in the project will benefitfrom it during the whole project and afterwards.

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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Mohamed, Mumin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Osman, Mohamed
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Tan, Malik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kl-trä i Byggnader: Utmaningar att bygga hus i KL-trä med fokus till fukt, brand och förband aspekter.2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Sustainability and reduced environmental impact are increasingly pressing challenges within the construction sector. Wood has become a sought-after building material due to its renewability and lower energy intensity during manufacturing. However, the growing demand for buildings coupled with diminishing available land has led to vertical construction emerging as a solution. Multi-story buildings that primarily utilize wood as their construction material, however, face a range of challenges, including fire hazards, moisture-related issues, and requirements for strong connections between various components of the structure. Method: The research methodology employed in this study is based on a systematic review of relevant literature to investigate the use of CLT in tall buildings. The three selected aspects for this study will then be examined to gain in-depth knowledge of the challenges that arise. Interviews will be conducted regarding moisture and fire aspects to obtain firsthand insights from industry experts on how these challenges are addressed. The third component, concerning connections, will be investigated using literature on various types of connections used in CLT buildings. Two different solutions will be evaluated and compared based on observations and documentation from sitevisits. Results: CLT is a building material that exhibits certain challenges regarding connections, fire resistance, and moisture. This study investigated various solutions to address these three aspects. Moisture control can be achieved through different measures such as weather protection, moisture measurements, and on-site or pre-manufacturing drying of CLT. Fire solutions commonly employed include fire-retardant coatings, sprinklersystems, and fire-resistant gypsum boards. Another viable approach is oversizing, taking advantage of wood's natural charring process. The two most common connection solutions for the selected joints are angle brackets and long timber screws. These solutions yield comparable results in terms of load-bearing capacities but require distinct approaches to installation and fireinsulation. Conclusions: This study investigated challenges related to three aspects in order to develop effective solutions for these various challenges. The solutions examined in this work are viable and applicable, but careful consideration must be given to their practical implementation. All three aspects require meticulous planning and expertise, and the application should also be carried out correctly.

  • 39.
    Mohri, Alva
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Grip, Julia
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Cirkulärt byggande och återbruk: En arbetsmodell avseende logistiklösningar vid ombyggnation av Vasen 3 i Stockholm2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate how the construction industry can work towards a circular economy by reusing materials and products. The construction industry contributes to a large climate impact, mainly due to the distinctive resource intensity. The main purpose of this study is to develop a work model that simplifies circularity and the reuse of materials during reconstructions. The work model is based on the current obstacles and solutions encountered when working with reuse of construction material and products. Method: The execution of the work is based on two different methodologies, a literature study and a case study. The literature study investigates challenges, solutions and important concepts related to a circular construction industry. The case study involves an investigation of a study object to form a perception of reality. The investigation is covered by site visits, document analysis and dialogues with industry experts. The case study concerns a reconstruction of Vasen 3 in Stockholm. Results: The results present four different aspects with associated challenges that are overall for circular construction. The aspects covered in the degree project are storage & logistics, quality assurance & guarantees, incentive and lastly knowledge, experience & demand. Based on the case study, challenges directly linked to the study object have also been developed regarding logistics and storage. Furthermore, based on the challenges, identified solutions are presented regarding the four aspects. In accordance with identified challenges and solutions, a working model is presented which is covered by six different descriptive steps that can be followed when working with circular construction and reuse. Lastly, it is explained how the work model can be implemented and adapted for the study object. Conclusions: The conclusions compile the results of the degree project which demonstrate that increased knowledge, logistics solutions, incentives, planning at an early stage and a routine work model can steer the construction industry towards a circular economy and material flow. 

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    Cirkulärt byggande och återbruk
  • 40.
    Moini Mostofi, Ramtin
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Hantering av fukt: Innan och under byggtid2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to examine the method that Skanska Healthcare has

    used in their current project in order to prevent moisture damages from arising.

    Furthermore, another substantial aim was to inspect the actions that have been used in the

    management of these damages. By examining various approaches of reducing the probability

    or preventing the emergence of moisture damages, a clearer insight can be achieved which

    consecutively could facilitate future studies within the same area. Thus, an analysis of the

    method used by Skanska Healthcare in order to prevent moisture damages is in this regard

    suitable and relevant. This study was based on Skanska Healthcare’s current project, which is

    the New Karolinska Solna Phase 5b. To achieve the aims of the study, a literature study was

    used along with other data which includes documents, moisture safety rounds and diagrams

    that have been created by Skanska Healthcare. Furthermore, the extensive literature study

    was carried out in order to present a solid overview of the planned project. By dint of the

    literature study, this bachelor’s thesis could be mapped out. The information was searched

    for and retrieved from printed books, the internet and course literature of the subject

    building physics at Mälardalen University. The result of the study showed that Skanska

    Healthcare has used the industry standard ByggaF to undertake the moisture issues of the

    project. By using this method, they have been able to ensure, document and communicate on

    moisture safety throughout the entire construction process. Furthermore, the result also

    showed that by constantly documenting and verifying all planned and executed operations,

    Skanska Healthcare has been able to obtain a beneficial overview of the project. Also weekly

    moisture safety rounds are implemented in order to note any discrepancies. Moreover, a

    special routine founded by Skanska themselves is pursued to cope with the discovery of

    potential risks.

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    Hantering av fukt - Innan och under byggtid
  • 41.
    Norbäck, Susanne
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BYGGNADENS ENERGIANVÄNDNING I OLIKA KLIMATZONER: En studie av ett flerbostadshus2018Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate impact can be reduced by building energy efficient dwellings. Boverket, the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning, has under several years increased the requirements for new dwellings to reduce the energy consumption. During construction energy is used for material production, transports and others. However, the largest parts of the energy consumption of a building during its lifespan is used for heating and operations. Regulations issued by Boverket are designed as functional requirements. Thus, there are many different alternative ways the developer can design the overall building, the building envelope and technical installations to fulfil the requirements. The impact of climate on energy consumption in different parts of Sweden has been studied. The energy balance in a multi apartment building has been calculated manually and by computer simulations, using the energy calculation software VIP-Energy. Simulations has been done using climate data for four different Swedish cities, Malmö, Stockholm, Mora and Östersund. Different parameters for the buildings walls, windows, air tightness and heat recovery have been compared to analyse the impact on specific energy use. Results show that the building would meet the requirements with good margin in Mora and Östersund. Energy consumption can however increase by several percentage units at minor changes in the input data. A cost comparison for external walls with different U-values has been done, resulting in that the energy savings are in this case too small to justify the additional costs.

  • 42.
    Nordh, Evelina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Mårten, Karlsson
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Checklista för uppstart av husbyggnadsprojekt: Ett verktyg framtaget med hjälp av NCC för entreprenörer och projektörer i tidigt skede av produktionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Innan första spadtaget tas vid en nybyggnation, finns det vissa förpliktelser byggherren tvingas beakta. Beroende på placering av fastigheten finns det olika anmälningar att utföra och tillstånd att söka. Anmälningarna kan skilja sig om det är innanför detaljplanerat område eller utanför. Nybyggnationen ska följa Plan- och bygglagen, Miljöbalken och myndigheters föreskrifter. Det är en stor omfattning av moment som skall genomföras med anledning av förpliktelser byggherren har vid uppstart av byggnadsprojekt. Om något av momenten försummas kan hela projektet tvingas att stanna av. Att komma ihåg alla moment eller att veta om de är relevanta är en svårighet för byggherren. I moderna entreprenader landar fler och fler av byggherrens uppgifter på entreprenören och det blir därför deras ansvar.

    I samarbete med företaget NCC utformades inom detta examensarbete en checklista som skall underlätta uppstarten av nybyggnationsprojekt inom husproduktion. Listan skall resultera i förståelse om varför momentet fordras och vilken lag, förordningen eller föreskrift den uppfyller. Checklistan är relativt generell för husbyggnad, men den är mer direkt användbar för bostadshus och liknande relativt enkla byggnader.

    Arbetet grundades i två studier, en studie om checklistans innehåll och en den aktuella studien. Studien om checklistans innehåll analyserade de krav som finns enligt lagar, förordningar och myndighetsföreskrifter. Den analyserade även interna dokument från NCC:s interna portal. Den aktuella studien bestod av intervjuer med sex personer i branschen för att få åsikter om checklistans uppbyggnad. Studierna resulterade till information om kraven och åsikter från respondenterna. Det bidrog till innehållet och uppbyggnaden av checklistan som skall göra det lättare för användaren att starta upp ett projekt. Den ger en överskådlig bild på vad som ska genomföras, när det ska vara klart, vem som ska utföra uppgiften och vem som ansvarar för att det blir gjort. Den ger även ytterligare uppgifter om varit kraven kommer ifrån samt en kort förklaring om varför kravet ska utföras eller varför det förekommer. Den skall även främja kommunikation mellan medarbetarna i och med att den talar om vem som ska utföra vad och vem som faktiskt ansvarar för uppgiften. Den är simpelt uppbyggd för att öka användarvänlighet. Checklistan skall även kunna vara enkel att ändra av den orsaken till att alla projekt skiljer sig åt och att kraven kan komma att ändras med tiden. Den ska ge användaren möjlighet att lägga till egna punkter eller ta bort de som inte behövs. För mer komplicerade husbyggnadsprojekt kan listan behöva kompletteras med ytterligare punkter.

    I diskussionskapitlet diskuteras eventuella andra metoder som skulle kunna ge annorlunda resultat. Att förändra den aktuella studien hade gett störst inverkan på resultatet. Att utöka den aktuella studien och använda fler respondenter med olika yrkesroller skulle kunna bidragit till en annorlunda upplagd checklista. Den aktuella studien gjordes med anställda på NCC eftersom det är de som i första hand skall använda checklistan. Diskussionen behandlade även respondenternas och författarnas tankar om kraven som finns inför uppstart av projekt. Dessa tankar jämfördes och skillnaden mellan ålder/erfarenhet och åsikter analyserades.

    Slutsatsen av arbetet är att checklistor är en viktig och användbar del i byggbranschen. För att de ska fungera på bästa sätt ska de vara konkreta och okomplicerade. Olika typer av checklistor används flitigt i byggnadsbranschen och tjänstemännen som intervjuades ansåg att checklistan som genereras i arbetet kommer hjälpa dem i sitt yrke. Checklistan behöver efter arbetet prövas i verkligheten för att se om den fungerar på tänkt vis.

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    Checklista för uppstart av husbyggnadsprojekt
  • 43.
    Nordstedt, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Zingmark, Rasmus
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Produktion med fältfabrik: Effektivisering av byggprocess med inflytande av kund och IT2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 44.
    Olofsson, Joel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    BYGGTRAFIK OCH LOGISTIK: Förslag på logistiklösningar vid nybyggnation av resecentrum i Västerås2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To take advantage of all buildable ground in city and exploit already existing infrastructure for a more efficient society high demands are therefore placed on logistics around large construction projects. Travel center in Västerås will be raised in the same place as existing buildning, while the business will be operational during the construction and the goal with the project work is to identify and present logistic solutions and evaluate, compare and adapt these to new travel center in Västerås. What is being investigated among other things is, ”What is the problem with construction traffic and logistics in large infrastructure projects in urban areas?”. In order to find information and answers of questions a literature study, case study, study visits and interviews are used. Logistics is the strategy that involves planning, development, coordination, organization and control of material flows from supplier. Construction logistics differ considerably from traditional logistics in, for example, the manufacturing industry, since each project is unique. Among other things, consideration must be given to environmental impacts such as noise environmental impact and sustainability, but also transport distances and social aspects. Examples of logistic strategies include supply chain management, lean production, just in time, construction logistic centers, Vendor-controlled inventory. This study focuses primarily on the problems that arise in urban areas and how deliveries of building materials are handled. Work within the railroads track area also entails challenges and special rules. The planning of new construction of the travel center in Västerås is divided into seven different stages at the time of writing, where the railway acts as a barrier between these. The construction project manager for the project has experience from previous projects in the urban area and believes that solutions must be adapted to projects. It is seldom easy to use the same solution in another location without modifying it according to the project's conditions. Building logistics implicates great complexity as many players are involved. The problem around construction traffic and logistics in large infrastructure projects is that is has negativ impact on the enviroment and it disrupts the trafic. Project ”Slussen” in Stockholm used a logistics center and from there used the method Just In Time to the workplace with materials that would be used within three days. A material storage in another location is a better alternative than a material storage on site and a solution for logistics management for the travel center is to use logistics center in the harbour and Mälarhamnar can act as third party logistics partner in the project.

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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Olsson, Simon
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Westblom, Erik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Platschefens roll i planeringen: Hur produktionsplaneringen kan förbättras hos Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB and many other contractors in the construction business, the overall responsibilities for the production and a big part of the production planning are today put in the hands of the site manager. This role is as such crucial for the execution of the production and whether the building process will be safe enough, economical and of high quality. In order to be able to take on several projects at once, a well-established company would need several site managers. Chances are there could be differences in construction management between these site managers, this due to individual diverseness and differences in experience. To improve the site managers’ chances to manage the construction, an investigation was made to evaluate the possibilities to restructure the work procedure of the site manager. To obtain a comprehensive view of the role the site manager plays in the construction business, a comparison of the description of the site manager role was made between Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB and several of the major Swedish contractors. The literature study was made to support our hypothesis and interviews to obtain current information from the company. In order to evaluate whether it is possible to ease the work load of the site manager and to contribute to a bigger uniformity among site managers, an informal meeting between site managers was arranged. The interviews with the site managers and related staff at Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB would bring context to the comprehensive view of the site manager at the company. The gathered results were analysed and evaluated. By establishing a straight dialogue among the site managers as well as a sufficient method of experience-sharing, differences in ways of thinking can provide the individual site manager a wider perspective on construction management and a better production planning at Byggmäster i Mälardalen AB could be achieved. This can result in long term improvements for the company regarding their work process. To maintain a dialogue and share experiences after projects, time for the effort must be included during the project planning. The possibility to create more time and better conditions for the site manager during the construction production process can also be made in connection to the early planning. If the site manager had been given insight to the project earlier, the thought process of how the planning should be done could begin earlier.

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    fulltext
  • 46.
    Persson, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Kommunikation på byggarbetsplatsen: En studie av kommunikation och informationsspridning mellan yrkesgrupper2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    fulltext
  • 47.
    Pesämaa, Ossi
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Larsson, Johan
    Luleå tekniska universitet,Sweden.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Sweden.
    Role of Performance Feedback on Process Performance in Construction Projects: Client and Contractor Perspectives2018In: Journal of Management in Engineering, ISSN 0742-597X, E-ISSN 1943-5479, Vol. 34, no 4, article id 04018023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addressed a perceived research gap by examining the role of performance feedback in construction process performance from both client and contractor perspectives using a database of unprecedented scale, with 2,175 sets of observations (expressed views of 579 clients and 1,596 contractors involved in diverse Swedish construction projects). Following validation of latent concepts by multigroup assessment of responses across the two groups (clients and contractors), using confirmatory factor analysis, this enabled robust tests of evidence of structural paths (potentially causal or mediating relationships) embedded in both groups’ responses. The results confirmed, with unprecedented clarity, that performance feedback has significant, direct positive effects on construction process performance, and that performance feedback mediates (i.e., strengthens) effects of learning and collaboration on process performance.

  • 48.
    Pirgholizadeh, Nezar
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Krikor, Tafid
    Krikor, Jeny
    Dimensionering och analys av stålfiberarmerad betong: En mekanisk, ergonomisk och ekonomisk jämförlelse med konventionell armerad betong2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the properties of steel fibre reinforced concrete and its design models in relation to conventional reinforced concrete from a mechanical, economical and ergonomic perspective. Design examples were also presented for beams and slabs-on-ground for their shear and moment capacity. For this reason, both bending tests and design calculations were performed to help compare the different reinforcing methods. The bending tests were performed on seven beams where three were conventional and four were reinforced with steel fibre. Half of the steel fibre beams were reinforced with 1 % of the volume amount while the other half contained 1.5 %. The design examples were all according to the new Swedish standard for fibre concrete, SS 812310: 2014 and the European standard for concrete structures, Eurocode 2. Examples of shear capacity in relation to the bending tests were given. This thesis also included design examples of moment capacity for slab-on-ground to show its wide area of use. According to the performed bending tests, it showed that beams reinforced with 1% and 1.5% steel fibres could effectively handle shear forces. In comparison to the conventional reinforced beams, the steel fibre beams had an increased shear capacity with a minimum of 20%.  The bending tests and the design calculations showed that steel fibres can replace stirrups as shear reinforcement. Clear ergonomic and economic benefits of reinforcing with steel fibres were shown. Handling of conventional reinforcement was physically stressful as opposed to the shorter casting process that came with steel fibre reinforcement which contributed to a better working environment.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Pourkaveh, Ramin
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Svensson, Emil
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Arbetsmiljöns påverkan vid konceptbyggnation: Skillnader mellan arbetsmiljölagar och utvalda byggnadstekniska lösningar i Sverige och Norge2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The comparison of the workingenvironment acts between Sweden and Norway shows that the legislations in thetwo countries have different structures. Norway has 20 chapters in the workingenvironmental act and Sweden has only nine chapters. It leads to somedifferences in the chapters and its contents, the Norwegian working environmentalact is more descriptive than the Swedish one, and Sweden have provisionsdistributed in other laws and regulations in addition to the work environmentact. In Sweden's health plan and Norway's safety, health and workingenvironment plan, the content is generally the same; the plans describe theorganization, the risk analysis and the responsible of the establishment of theplans. Norway's risk analysis contains 16 risks and the Swedish risk analysisdescribes 13 risks. The risks that aren’t included in the Swedish analysis are:work close to installations in theground, work with a risk of harmful exposure of dust, gas, noise or vibration,and work with fire- and explosion risks. Although there are more controlsin the Norwegian risk analysis, a larger number of workers are exposed to occupationaldiseases and fatal accidents per 100 000 employed inNorway compared to Sweden. The construction technique part is resulted in twodifferences and one similarity in Sweden's and Norway's building regulations.The first difference is that it´s a requirement to use an inward drainagesystems in Norway during the installation of flat cardboard roof, which is notrequired in Sweden. The second difference is that in Sweden it´s allowed tohave more than 20% window section in relationship to the heated floor area, ifthe window fulfills the heat transfer coefficient requirement. In Norway, thewindow section is not allowed to exceed 20% of the heated floor area, there areno exceptions. The similarity in the building regulations between the countriesis that both Norway and Sweden have requirements for venting regarding firesafety and air cleaning in caterers but none of the countries has requirements on which methods areallowed to use in air purification.

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  • 50.
    Qasemi, Mustafa
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    SANAEE, CAMILLA
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    FRAMGÅNGSRIK DIGITALISERING PÅ BYGGARBETSPLATSEN: Användandet av digitala verktyg och inlärning av digitala arbetssätt inom byggproduktion2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the current issue areas within digitization in the construction industry, which are perceived to be slow at a time when time- and cost-efficiency is a critical component of successful construction projects. The implementation process is problematic and prevents companies from utilizing digital tools to the extent needed. However, by handling the implementation process carefully, the investment can be implemented more efficiently. This study aims to identify and map the inadequacy in the implementation process employees at the two reviewed case projects at Skanska AB experience in the construction sites. The goal was to come up with concrete proposals after analyzing the results that our collaboration partner would be able to use in future work and projects. Furthermore, it's intended to show how a change in employees' working methods can cause them to use new digital tools more effectively. Method: This research method is based on a case study and consists of qualitative and quantitative methods. To determine the perceived shortcomings in Skanska's implementation process, an interview study was performed with officials from the studied case projects and a person with expertise in digital tools implementation. To gain further perspective, all employees involved in the case projects were asked to respond to an anonymous survey, which consisted of multiple-choice questions and a text question. According to the theoretical framework, careful planning is required to achieve the company's goals and meet its needs to reduce costs and increase productivity in the construction industry. Constant changes for needs and goals require training, knowledge dissemination, time planning, and functional support systems, and to achieve this, the business needs to understand its own function in relation to the functionality of the digital tools. Additionally, it was mentioned that having a clear picture of the goal of digitization is important, even if the attitude towards the goal is negative and the knowledge to accomplish it is insufficient. In previous research, it has been found that many companies have failed to invest in change efforts due to a lack of implementation strategies. In this study, it was found that implementation strategies highlight the value of digital tools. According to the literature, this is possible with a greater commitment, motivation, and participation to help lead the process of change development, as well as a variety of theoretical and practical methodologies. Based on responses received, this thesis examines employees' perceptions of implementation, user-friendliness, obstacles, and challenges in relation to three of the most used digital tools. Results: The results of the employee interviews and survey have been analyzed and presented under four themes and based on their experience, a project-specific implementation program should be developed, additional resources should be available, and more education is essential for keeping employees engaged in continuous improvement. Furthermore, the user-friendliness of the tool combined with the implementation technology and commitment create efficiency for the company to succeed with its investment. Conclusions: This thesis concluded that digitization has a positive impact on construction sites despite challenges that can limit its efficiency. The authors of the work believe the success of the digital working methods can be achieved with the aid of a functioning support system and close collaboration as well as knowledge, understanding, and communication.

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