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  • 1.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bugs and Debugging of Concurrent and Multicore Software2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Towards Classification of Concurrency Bugs Based on Observable Properties2015In: Proceedings - 1st International Workshop on Complex Faults and Failures in Large Software Systems, COUFLESS 2015, 2015, 41-47 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In software engineering, classification is a way to find an organized structure of knowledge about objects. Classification serves to investigate the relationship between the items to be classified, and can be used to identify the current gaps in the field. In many cases users are able to order and relate objects by fitting them in a category. This paper presents initial work on a taxonomy for classification of errors (bugs) related to concurrent execution of application level software threads. By classifying concurrency bugs based on their corresponding observable properties, this research aims to examine and structure the state of the art in this field, as well as to provide practitioner support for testing and debugging of concurrent software. We also show how the proposed classification, and the different classes of bugs, relates to the state of the art in the field by providing a mapping of the classification to a number of recently published papers in the software engineering field.

  • 3.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Inam, Rafia
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Survey on Testing for Cyber Physical System2015In: Testing Software and Systems: 27th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, ICTSS 2015, Sharjah and Dubai, United Arab Emirates, November 23-25, 2015, Proceedings, 2015, 194-207 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyber Physical Systems (CPS) bridge the cyber-world of computing and communications with the physical world and require development of secure and reliable software. It asserts a big challenge not only on testing and verifying the correctness of all physical and cyber components of such big systems, but also on integration of these components. This paper develops a categorization of multiple levels of testing required to test CPS and makes a comparison of these levels with the levels of software testing based on the V-model. It presents a detailed state-of-the-art survey on the testing approaches performed on the CPS. Further, it provides challenges in CPS testing.

  • 4.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Saadatmand, Mehrdad
    SICS Swedish ICT, Västerås, Sweden.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Model for Systematic Monitoring and Debugging of Starvation Bugs in Multicore Software2016In: 2016 ASE Workshop on Specification, Comprehension, Testing and Debugging of Concurrent Programs SCTDCP2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the development of multicore hardware, concurrent, parallel and multicore software are becoming increasingly popular. Software companies are spending a huge amount of time and resources to nd and debug the bugs. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are also important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. In this position paper, we propose a model for monitoring and debugging Starvation bugs as a type of concurrency bugs in multicore software. The model is composed into three phases: monitoring, detecting and debugging. The monitoring phase can support detecting phase by storing collected data from the system execution. The detecting phase can support debugging phase by comparing the stored data with starvation bug's properties, and the debugging phase can help in reproducing and removing the Starvation bug from multicore software. Our intention is that our model is the basis for developing tool(s) to enable solving Starvation bugs in software for multicore platforms.

  • 5.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Afza, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    10 Years of research on debugging concurrent and multicore software: a systematic mapping studyIn: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Debugging – the process of identifying, localizing and fixing bugs – is a key activity in software development. Due to issues such as non-determinism and difficulties of reproducing failures, debugging concurrent software is significantly more challenging than debugging sequential software. A number of methods, models and tools for debugging concurrent and multicore software have been proposed, but the body of work partially lacks a common terminology and a more recent view of the problems to solve. This suggests the need for a classification, and an up-to-date comprehensive overview of the area. 

    This paper presents the results of a systematic mapping study in the field of debugging of concurrent and multicore software in the last decade (2005– 2014). The study is guided by two objectives: (1) to summarize the recent publication trends and (2) to clarify current research gaps in the field.

    Through a multi-stage selection process, we identified 145 relevant papers. Based on these, we summarize the publication trend in the field by showing distribution of publications with respect to year , publication venues , representation of academia and industry , and active research institutes . We also identify research gaps in the field based on attributes such as types of concurrency bugs, types of debugging processes , types of research  and research contributions.

    The main observations from the study are that during the years 2005–2014: (1) there is no focal conference or venue to publish papers in this area, hence a large variety of conferences and journal venues (90) are used to publish relevant papers in this area; (2) in terms of publication contribution, academia was more active in this area than industry; (3) most publications in the field address the data race bug; (4) bug identification is the most common stage of debugging addressed by articles in the period; (5) there are six types of research approaches found, with solution proposals being the most common one; and (6) the published papers essentially focus on four different types of contributions, with ”methods” being the type most common one.

    We can further conclude that there is still quite a number of aspects that are not sufficiently covered in the field, most notably including (1) exploring correction  and fixing bugs  in terms of debugging process; (2) order violation, suspension  and starvation  in terms of concurrency bugs; (3) validation and evaluation research  in the matter of research type; (4) metric  in terms of research contribution. It is clear that the concurrent, parallel and multicore software community needs broader studies in debugging.This systematic mapping study can help direct such efforts.

  • 6.
    Abbaspour Asadollah, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Eldh, Sigrid
    Ericsson AB, Kista, Sweden.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Paul Enoiu, Eduard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    A Study on Concurrency Bugs in an Open Source Software2016In: IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology, vol. 472, 2016, Vol. 472, 16-31 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concurrent programming puts demands on software debugging and testing, as concurrent software may exhibit problems not present in sequential software, e.g., deadlocks and race conditions. In aiming to increase efficiency and effectiveness of debugging and bug-fixing for concurrent software, a deep understanding of concurrency bugs, their frequency and fixingtimes would be helpful. Similarly, to design effective tools and techniques for testing and debugging concurrent software understanding the differences between non-concurrency and concurrency bugs in real-word software would be useful.

  • 7.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Proposing Combined Approaches to Remove ECG Artifacts from Surface EMG Signals2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electromyography (EMG) is a tool routinely used for a variety of applications in a very large breadth of disciplines. However, this signal is inevitably contaminated by various artifacts originated from different sources. Electrical activity of heart muscles, electrocardiogram (ECG), is one of sources which affects the EMG signals due to the proximity of the collection sites to the heart and makes its analysis non-reliable. Different methods have been proposed to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals; however, in spite of numerous attempts to eliminate or reduce this artifact, the problem of accurate and effective de-noising of EMG still remains a challenge. In this study common methods such as high pass filter (HPF), gating method, spike clipping, hybrid technique, template subtraction, independent component analysis (ICA), wavelet transform, wavelet-ICA, artificial neural network (ANN), and adaptive noise canceller (ANC) and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) are used to remove ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals and their accuracy and effectiveness is investigated. HPF, gating method and spike clipping are fast; however they remove useful information from EMG signals. Hybrid technique and ANC are time consuming. Template subtraction requires predetermined QRS pattern. Using wavelet transform some artifacts remain in the original signal and part of the desired signal is removed. ICA requires multi-channel signals. Wavelet-ICA approach does not require multi-channel signals; however, it is user-dependent. ANN and ANFIS have good performance, but it is possible to improve their results by combining them with other techniques. For some applications of EMG signals such as rehabilitation, motion control and motion prediction, the quality of EMG signals is very important. Furthermore, the artifact removal methods need to be online and automatic. Hence, efficient methods such as ANN-wavelet, adaptive subtraction and automated wavelet-ICA are proposed to effectively eliminate ECG artifacts from surface EMG signals. To compare the results of the investigated methods and the proposed methods in this study, clean EMG signals from biceps and deltoid muscles and ECG artifacts from pectoralis major muscle are recorded from five healthy subjects to create 10 channels of contaminated EMG signals by adding the recorded ECG artifacts to the clean EMG signals. The artifact removal methods are also applied to the 10 channels of real contaminated EMG signals from pectoralis major muscle of the left side. Evaluation criteria such as signal to noise ratio, relative error, correlation coefficient, elapsed time and power spectrum density are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed methods. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANN-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with a signal to noise ratio, relative error and correlation coefficient of 15.53, 0.01 and 0.98 respectively.

  • 8.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Chiew, Thiam Kian
    University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .
    Web Service Response Time Monitoring: Architecture and Validation2011In: Communications in Computer and Information Science Volume 164 CCIS, 2011, 2011, 276-282 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web services are used in many Web applications in order to save time and cost during software development process. To peruse Web service response time, a suitable tool is needed to automate the measurement of the response time. However, not many suitable tools are available for automatic measurement of response time. This research is carried out in the context of quality of Web services in order to measure and visualize Web service response time. The method proposed in this research for accomplishing this goal is based on creating a proxy for connecting to the required Web service, and then calculating the Web services response time via the proxy. A software tool is designed based on the proposed method in order to guide the implementation that is still in progress. The tool can be validated through empirical validation using three test cases for three different Web service access situations.

  • 9.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Daniel, Sundmark
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Hansson, Hans
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Runtime Verification for Detecting Suspension Bugs in Multicore and Parallel Software2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops, ICSTW 2017, 2017, 77-80 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicore hardware development increases the popularity of parallel and multicore software, while testing and debugging the software become more difficult, frustrating and costly. Among all types of software bugs, concurrency bugs are both important and troublesome. This type of bugs is increasingly becoming an issue, particularly due to the growing prevalence of multicore hardware. Suspension-based-locking bug is one type of concurrency bugs. This position paper proposes a model based on runtime verification and reflection technique in the context of multicore and parallel software to monitor and detect suspension-based-locking bugs. The model is not only able to detect faults, but also diagnose and even repair them. The model is composed of four layers: Logging, Monitoring, Suspension Bug Diagnosis and Mitigation. The logging layer will observe the events and save them into a file system. The monitoring layer will detect the presents of bugs in the software. The suspension bug diagnosis will identify Suspension bugs by comparing the captured data with the suspension bug properties. Finally, the mitigation layer will reconfigure the software to mitigate the suspension bugs. A functional architecture of a runtime verification tool is also proposed in this paper. This architecture is based on the proposed model and is comprised of different modules. 

  • 10.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    A Combination Method for Electrocardiogram Rejection from Surface Electromyogram2014In: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal, ISSN 1874-1207, E-ISSN 1874-1207, Vol. 8, no 1, 13-19 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electrocardiogram signal which represents the electrical activity of the heart provides interference in the recording of the electromyogram signal, when the electromyogram signal is recorded from muscles close to the heart. Therefore, due to impurities, electromyogram signals recorded from this area cannot be used. In this paper, a new method was developed using a combination of artificial neural network and wavelet transform approaches, to eliminate the electrocardiogram artifact from electromyogram signals and improve results. For this purpose, contaminated signal is initially cleaned using the neural network. With this process, a large amount of noise can be removed. However, low-frequency noise components remain in the signal that can be removed using wavelet. Finally, the result of the proposed method is compared with other methods that were used in different papers to remove electrocardiogram from electromyogram. In this paper in order to compare methods, qualitative and quantitative criteria such as signal to noise ratio, relative error, power spectrum density and coherence have been investigated for evaluation and comparison. The results of signal to noise ratio and relative error are equal to 15.6015 and 0.0139, respectively.

  • 11.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Amirkabir University of technology,Tehran, Iran.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of technology,Tehran, Iran.
    Removing ECG Artifact from the Surface EMG Signal Using Adaptive Subtraction Technique2014In: Biomedical Physics and Engineering, ISSN 2251-7200, Vol. 4, no 1, 33-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The electrocardiogram artifact is a major contamination in the electromyogram signals when electromyogram signal is recorded from upper trunk muscles and because of that the contaminated electromyogram is not useful. Objective: Removing electrocardiogram contamination from electromyogram signals. Methods: In this paper, the clean electromyogram signal, electrocardiogram artifact and electrocardiogram signal were recorded from leg muscles, the pectoralis major muscle of the left side and V4, respectively. After the pre-processing, contaminated electromyogram signal is simulated with a combination of clean electromyogram and electrocardiogram artifact. Then, contaminated electromyogram is cleaned using adaptive subtraction method. This method contains some steps; (1) QRS detection, (2) formation of electrocardiogram template by averaging the electrocardiogram complexes, (3) using low pass filter to remove undesirable artifacts, (4) subtraction. Results: Performance of our method is evaluated using qualitative criteria, power spectrum density and coherence and quantitative criteria signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation. The result of signal to noise ratio, relative error and cross correlation is equal to 10.493, 0.04 and %97 respectively. Finally, there is a comparison between proposed method and some existing methods. Conclusion: The result indicates that adaptive subtraction method is somewhat effective to remove electrocardiogram artifact from contaminated electromyogram signal and has an acceptable result.

  • 12.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Fallah, Ali
    Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.
    A Novel Approach for Removing ECG Interferences from Surface EMG signals Using a Combined ANFIS and Wavelet2015In: Journal of Electromyography & Kinesiology, ISSN 1050-6411, E-ISSN 1873-5711, Vol. 26, 52-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the removal of electrocardiogram (ECG) interferences from electromyogram (EMG) signals has been given large consideration. Where the quality of EMG signal is of interest, it is important to remove ECG interferences from EMG signals. In this paper, an efficient method based on a combination of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and wavelet transform is proposed to effectively eliminate ECG interferences from surface EMG signals. The proposed approach is compared with other common methods such as high-pass filter, artificial neural network, adaptive noise canceller, wavelet transform, subtraction method and ANFIS. It is found that the performance of the proposed ANFIS-wavelet method is superior to the other methods with the signal to noise ratio and relative error of 14.97 dB and 0.02 respectively and a significantly higher correlation coefficient (p < 0.05).

  • 13.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, H.
    School of Engineering, Auckland University of TechnologyAuckland, New Zealand .
    Linden, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Evaluation of wavelet based methods in removing motion artifact from ECG signal2015In: IFMBE Proceedings, 2015, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate recording and precise analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) signals are crucial in the pathophysiological study and clinical treatment. These recordings are often corrupted by different artifacts. The aim of this study is to propose two different methods, wavelet transform based on nonlinear thresholding and a combination method using wavelet and independent component analysis (ICA), to remove motion artifact from ECG signals. To evaluate the performance of the proposed methods, the developed techniques are applied to the real and simulated ECG data. The results of this evaluation are presented using quantitative and qualitative criteria. The results show that the proposed methods are able to reduce motion artifacts in ECG signals. Signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the wavelet technique is equal to 13.85. The wavelet-ICA method performed better with SNR of 14.23.

  • 14.
    Abbaspour, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Gholamhosseini, Hamid
    Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand.
    ECG Artifact Removal from Surface EMG Signal Using an Automated Method Based on Wavelet-ICA2015In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, Volume 211, 2015, 91-97 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at proposing an efficient method for automated electrocardiography (ECG) artifact removal from surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from upper trunk muscles. Wavelet transform is applied to the simulated data set of corrupted surface EMG signals to create multidimensional signal. Afterward, independent component analysis (ICA) is used to separate ECG artifact components from the original EMG signal. Components that correspond to the ECG artifact are then identified by an automated detection algorithm and are subsequently removed using a conventional high pass filter. Finally, the results of the proposed method are compared with wavelet transform, ICA, adaptive filter and empirical mode decomposition-ICA methods. The automated artifact removal method proposed in this study successfully removes the ECG artifacts from EMG signals with a signal to noise ratio value of 9.38 while keeping the distortion of original EMG to a minimum.

  • 15.
    Abdalsalam Noman, Riam
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Alqaisy, Ahmad
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design av hörnväggfixtur2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Abdelkarim, Sofia
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Hasan Hawre, Hazhwan
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Kartläggning av ergonomin i en produktionscell: Med utformningsförslag för en ergonomisk arbetsplats2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    Purpose: The aim of the work is to map the ergonomics in a production cell and propose and compare the solutions to identified problems. In order to identify the problem and come up with some solutions, these questions have been answered.• What factors lead to operations that are harmful to the body?• How can a production cell be designed to be more ergonomic for employees?• What are the advantages / disadvantages of ergonomics in a production company?

     

    Method: To perform the study and achieve the purpose of the work, the authors used a case study company where observations were made in parallel with a literature review mainly on ergonomics variety of analysis and quality. The case study company has been used as the basis for the case study where ergonomics are mapped by means of observations, interviews and data that were analyzed by means of literature study done in parallel.

    Study results: The study resulted in a survey of ergonomics in a production cell at the case study company and 5 different suggestions for improvement. The production cell on the case study company is a red cell today, which means that the production cell is in a non-accepted position and in need for urgent changes in ergonomics. Factors leading to bad ergonomics and a non-accepted position as Volvo's requirements have been identified. Many heavy lifting and many torque is what has the highest negative impact on the working environment and ergonomics. Lack of adequate lifting tools have led to those not used in the production cell today. This leads to repetitive work and encumbrance at the case study company. Further, also the working height of the paths contributed to an increased workload as operators are in an unnatural posture. All of these factors are the basis of the 5 suggestions for improvement as the study also resulted in. New custom lifting tools, job rotation, reverse the order of the court, new packaging and pallet to the gears and the robot turn. All these proposed solutions lead to reduced stress and improved ergonomics in the production cell as manual lifting and twists are reduced. The solutions also leads to the production cell shifting from a non-accepted position with demands of urgent change to a yellow production cell that requires an action plan for the future.

     

    Implications: The aim of this study was to map the ergonomics in a production cell. With the study in hand, a conclusion is drawn that the aim has been achieved when all three of the questions have been addressed. Factors leading to poor ergonomics are identified. As well the advantages and disadvantages of investing in ergonomics identified and how production cells should be formed. With this information in mind, a number of proposed solutions have been developed.

     

    Recommendations: Further studies on the subject are recommended to increase knowledge and interest. It may be appropriate to carry out more case studies at more industries to strengthen the study’s results and generalizability. Furthermore, studies are recommended where the entire work environment is studied and not only physical ergonomics. By studying the whole working environment and the many factors that interact it can lead to a greater force being created for higher efficiency and quality in production.

     

    Keywords: Ergonomics, Ergonomics, Work, Volvo CE, Load, Lifting Tools, Body Injury, Advantages, Improvements, Quality

  • 17.
    Abdi, Sade
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Rathmaya, Noureddine
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Managing employees and promoting internal communication during change: A case study of change management at MTR Tunnelbanan AB2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, W. A.
    Al-Isra Private University, Amman, Jordan.
    Robust distance-based watermarking for digital image2008In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Security and Management, SAM 2008, 2008, 404-409 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, an algorithm is developed to invisibly watermark a cover object (color image) using watermark object (iconic image). The algorithm is based on the distances among the addresses of values of the cover object. These distances use to make the embedding. The order of manipulating these distances are specified by the values of the watermark data which is dealt with serially. The algorithm serves and achieves self encryption key. Each watermark object has its unique pattern of distances at different possible lengths of distance bits. This enhances the complexity of sequential embedding. The algorithm is tested using direct and single level and double level of Two-Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D DWT) embeddings. Two important issues are addressed. Firstly is to achieve a high Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The ratio was found to increase with an increasing of distance bits. Secondly is that the watermarked object retains the same properties of cover object. The algorithm shows resisting and withstanding against the most important attacks. Some of these include the lossy compression, blurring, resize and some types of Noise.

  • 19. Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Larsson, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Mahmoud, Waleed A.
    Robust Distance-Based Watermarking for Digital Video2008In: Proceedings of The Annual SIGRAD Conference, Stockholm, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Abdul-Ahad, Amir Stefan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Folke, Mia
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindén, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Indirect Wavelet-Based Cardio Arrhythmia Detection Algorithm2008In: Medicinteknikdagarna, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2008, 14-15 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Abduljalil, Vian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Databasreplikering av kunddata i en DMZ miljö2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 22.
    Abdullah, Syed Md Jakaria
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Towards Implementation of Virtual-Clustered Multiprocessor Scheduling in Linux2013In: Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, SIES 2013, 2013, 97-100 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster based multiprocessor scheduling can be seen as a hybrid approach combining benefits of both partitioned and global scheduling. Virtual clustering further enhances it by providing dynamic cluster resource allocation and applying hierarchical scheduling techniques. Over the years, the study of virtual cluster scheduling has been limited to theoretical analysis. In this paper, we present our initial ideas about implementing virtual cluster scheduling in Linux. The purpose of this implementation is twofold: (i) we would like to demonstrate the feasibility of its implementation in an operating system, without modifying the kernel source code, (ii) we present practical insights on the overhead of implementing this framework.

  • 23.
    Abecassis-Moedas, Celine
    et al.
    Univ Catolica Portuguesa, Catolica Lisbon Sch Business & Econ, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Ben Mahmoud-Jouini, Sihem
    HEC Paris, Innovat & Entrepreneurship Ctr, Paris, France.
    Dell'Era, Claudio
    Politecn Milan, Dept Management Econ & Ind Engn, Milan, Italy.
    Manceau, Delphine
    Univ Penn, Wharton Sch, Philadelphia.
    Verganti, Roberto
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Key resources and internationalization modes of creative knowledge-intensive business services: The case of design consultancies2012In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 21, no 3, 315-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the knowledge economy, knowledge-intensive business services (KIBS) are a key driver for innovation and competitiveness. The internationalization of these businesses raises challenges given their specificities such as knowledge intensity, the importance of customer interaction and intimacy in service delivery. This paper focuses on design consultancies as a specific type of creative KIBS for which these characteristics are emphasized. The objective of this research is to analyse the resources leveraged by the firms to compete internationally. It is based on 11 case studies of design consultancies located in five different countries (France, Italy, Portugal, Spain and the UK) that were selected for their capacity to perform at the international level for several years. The paper advances three internationalization modes depending on contingent variables and focusing on specific resources that enable international competitiveness: star-based, process-based and glocality-based. In star-based creative KIBS, the individual designer has developed a reputation that attracts customers internationally, operating as a brand. In process-based creative KIBS, the reputation of a collective creative process attracts clients from other countries. In glocality-based creative KIBS, the geographical proximity obtained by opening international offices helps to develop a close understanding of the client through frequent interactions, and also to know the client's market well and to better understand local codes and signs. These modes complement those presented in the existing internationalization literature which takes the peculiarities of creative KIBS into consideration.

  • 24.
    Abid, Ali
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Roback, Joel
    Mälardalen University, Department of Innovation, Design and Product Development.
    Produktutveckling för Cate & Nelson Design: Framtagning av möbel2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport behandlar examensarbete utfört för industridesignföretaget Cate & Nelson Design. Företaget ligger i Eskilstuna och jobbar i huvudsakligen med möbeldesign och inredningsprodukter. Projektgruppensuppgift har varit att ta fram en ny möbel för företaget och arbetet har omfattat utveckling av hela produkten från idé till prototyp.

  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, Alexandra
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Arbetsmiljöarbetet på SverigesBostadsrättsCentrum: Vad ändringarna i arbetsmiljölagen innebär2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This diploma work was performed because the company Sveriges BostadsrättsCentrum, with the abbreviation SBC, had a need to gain insight into how changes in the Work Environment Act and related regulations which took effect January 1, 2009 affecting their work with the work environment. The changes mean that the client may hand over his work environment responsibilities to a contractor and that he has to select so-called building work environment co-ordinators. At SBC they are working as representatives for tenant-owner's association when a construction is about to be carried out. The purpose was to ascertain how changes may affect the work at SBC. The diploma work intends to educate the staff at SBC how work with the work environment would look like if they met the regulatory requirements. The main issue that the diploma work deals with is whether SBC has the responsibility to select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting before the contractor takes over responsibility for the work environment. Questions were answered by information from the Work Environment Act, AFS 1999:3 and other material from the Work Environment Authority. Two interviews with staff at the Work Environment Authority were also held. One of the conclusions drawn from the diploma work is that it’s the client who will select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting. That should be done as soon as the planning and projecting has begun. The planning and projecting usually begins before the main contractor takes over responsibility for the work environment as the employee. It is not clear that SBC will take on the client’s responsibility to select a building work environment co-ordinator for the planning and projecting in the early planning, before the contractor takes on responsibility and there are several ways to do this.

  • 26.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    Swedish Inst of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden .
    Using Empirical Distributions to Characterize Web Client Traffic and to Generate Synthetic Traffic2000In: Conference Record / IEEE Global Telecommunications ConferenceVolume 1, 2000, 2000, 428-433 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We model a web client using empirical probability distributions for user clicks and transferred data sizes. By using a heuristic threshold value to distinguish user clicks in a packet trace we get a simple method for analyzing large packet traces in order to get information about user OFF times and amount of data transferred due to a user click. We derive the empirical probability distributions from the analysis of the packet trace. The heuristic is not perfect, but we believe it is good enough to produce a useful web client model. We use the empirical model to implement a web client traffic generator. The characteristics of the generated traffic is very close to the original packet trace, including self-similar properties.

  • 27.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ahlgren, Bengt
    SICS.
    Alonso, Juan
    Andersson, Anders
    SICS.
    Kreuger, Per
    SICS.
    A Multi Path Routing Algorithm for IP Networks Based on Flow Optimisation2002In: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Quality of Future Internet Services / [ed] Burkhard Stiller, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2002, 135-144 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2009In: Proceedings of the 2009 6th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks and Systems, BROADNETS 2009, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet traffic volumes continue to grow at a great rate, now pushed by video and TV distribution in the networks. This brings up the need for traffic engineering mechanisms to better control the traffic. The objective of traffic engineering is to avoid congestion in the network and make good use of available resources by controlling and optimising the routing function. The challenge for traffic engineering in IP networks is to cope with the dynamics of Internet traffic demands. Today, the main alternative for intra-domain traffic engineering in IP networks is to use different methods for setting the weights in the routing protocols OSPF and IS-IS. In this paper we revisit the weight setting approach to traffic engineering but with focus on robustness. We propose I-balanced weight settings that route the traffic on the shortest paths possible but make sure that no link is utilised to more than a given level I. This gives efficient routing of traffic and controlled spare capacity to handle unpredictable changes in traffic. We present a heuristic search method for finding I-balanced weight settings and show that it works well in real network scenarios

  • 29.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Robust Traffic Engineering using L-balanced Weight-Settings in OSPF/IS-IS2008Other (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Gunnar, Anders
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Kista, Sweden.
    Traffic Engineering in Ambient Networks: Challenges and Approaches2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Henrik
    et al.
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Hagsand, Olof
    Dynarc AB, Kista, Sweden .
    Marsh, Ian
    SICS AB, Kista, Sweden .
    TCP over High Speed Variable Capacity Links: A Simulation Study for Bandwidth Allocation2002In: Protocols for High Speed Networks Workshop, 2002, 117-129 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Abram, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Transportoptimering för Husmuttern AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to serve as a logistical foundation for Husmuttern AB. This logistic foundation is defined by a transport solution, a loading solution that is associated with the transport, and a stock proposal for the elements. Husmuttern AB is a newly started company that has developed a new concept of modular housing, which will be built by order.The modular houses will be built by assembling prefabricated parts such as ceilings, walls, foundations and other elements. The advantage of building houses with prefabricated pieces is that the pieces themselves can hold a higher quality when prefabricated, than the pieces fabricated on the construction site, which results in a house that is built in a short matter of time, with high quality. Most of the elements will be prefabricated at Husmuttern’s micro factories.To make the prefabrication, construction and assembly of the houses possible, it is required that there is an efficient transport solution that transports all the necessary goods from retailers to the warehouse, micro-factory and construction site. The purpose of this work is to propose a suitable and efficient transport solution based on the weight and dimensions of the elements that have to be transported.This report is presenting solutions for these problems, where the solutions are assured by calculations that proves that the suggested transport is capable to deliver all necessary elements, and able of loading and unloading all the elements based on their weight and dimensions. A clear proposal on the stock solution for all elements is also presented in the report.The result of this work is considered as successful, due to the ensured transport method, loading method, and the suggested stock and transport partner. Thanks to these fundamental results, a foundation to the logistic solution is created and it is now possible to further develop the logistics, in order to achieve a complete logistics solution for Husmuttern AB.

  • 33.
    Abubaker, J.
    et al.
    SLU.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering.
    Pell, M.
    SLU.
    Nitrous Oxide Production from Soils Amended with Biogas Residues and Cattle Slurry2013In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 42, no 4, 1046-1058 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of residues generated from biogas production has increased dramatically due to the worldwide interest in renewable energy. A common way to handle the residues is to use them as fertilizers in crop production. Application of biogas residues to agricultural soils may be accompanied with environmental risks, such as increased N2O emission. In 24-d laboratory experiments, N2O dynamics and total production were studied in arable soils (sandy, clay, and organic) amended with one of two types of anaerobically digested biogas residues (BR-A and BR-B) generated from urban and agricultural waste and nondigested cattle slurry (CS) applied at rates corresponding to 70 kg NH4+-N ha(-1). Total N2O-N losses from the sandy soil were higher after amendment with BR-B (0.32 g N2O-N m(-2)) than BR-A or CS (0.02 and 0.18 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). In the clay soil, N2O-N losses were very low for CS (0.02 g N2O-N m(-2)) but higher for BR-A and BR-B (0.25 and 0.15 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). In the organic soil, CS gave higher total N2O-N losses (0.31 g N2O-N m(-2)) than BR-A or BR-B (0.09 and 0.08 g N2O-N m(-2), respectively). Emission peaks differed considerably between soils, occurring on Day 1 in the organic soil and on Days 11 to 15 in the sand, whereas in the clay the peak varied markedly (Days 1, 6, and 13) depending on residue type. In all treatments, NH4+ concentration decreased with time, and NO3- concentration increased. Potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity increased significantly in the amended sandy soil but not in the organic soil and only in the clay amended with CS. The results showed that fertilization with BR can increase N2O emissions and that the size is dependent on the total N and organic C content of the slurry and on soil type. In conclusion, the two types of BR and the CS are not interchangeable regarding their effects on N2O production in different soils, and, hence, matching fertilizer type to soil type could reduce N2O emissions. For instance, it could be advisable to avoid fertilization of organic soils with CS containing high amounts or organic C and instead use BR. In clay soil, however, the risk of N2O emissions could be lowered by choosing a CS.

  • 34. Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Le Duc, Michael
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    A systemic view on Swedish traffic road accident data acquisition system2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35. Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Le Duc, Michael
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    GLOBESAFE: A platform for information sharing among road safety organizations2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36. Abugessaisa, Imad
    et al.
    Sivertun, Åke
    Le Duc, Michael
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Map as interface for shared information: a study of design principles and user interaction satisfaction2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Abut, Hüseyin
    et al.
    San Diego State University.
    Erdogan, Hakan
    Ercil, Aytul
    Çürüklü, Baran
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Koman, Hakki Can
    Tas, Fatih
    Argunsah, Ali Özgur
    Cosar, Serhan
    Akan, Batu
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Karabalkan, Harun
    Cökelek, Emre
    Ficici, Rahmi
    Sezer, Volkan
    Danis, Serhan
    Karaca, Mehmet
    Abbak, Mehmet
    Uzunbaş, Mustafa Gökhan
    Eritmen, Kayhan
    Imamoğlu, Mümin
    Kalaycıoglu, Caglar
    Real-World Data Collection with UYANIK2009In: In-Vehicle Corpus and Signal Processing for Driver Behavior, Springer, 2009, 23-44 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Achuthan, K.
    et al.
    Amrita Center for Cybersecurity Systems and Networks, Kerala, India.
    Ramesh, M. V.
    Amrita Center for International Programs, Kerala, India.
    Punnekkat, Sasikumar
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Raman, R.
    Center for Research in Advanced Technologies for Education, Kerala, India.
    Internationalizing engineering education with phased study programs: India-European experience2015In: Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, no FebruaryConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most of the critical challenges seen in the past decades have impacted citizens in a global way. Given shrinking resources, educationists find preparing students for the global market place a formidable challenge. Hence exposing students to multi-lateral educational initiatives are critical to their growth, understanding and future contributions. This paper focuses on European Union's Erasmus Mundus programs, involving academic cooperation amongst international universities in engineering programs. A phased undergraduate engineering program with multiple specializations is analyzed within this context. Based on their performance at the end of first phase, selected students were provided opportunities using scholarship to pursue completion of their degree requirements at various European universities. This paper will elaborate the impact of differing pedagogical interventions, language and cultural differences amongst these countries on students in diverse engineering disciplines. The data presented is based on on the feedback analysis from Eramus Mundus students (N=121) that underwent the mobility programs. The findings have given important insights into the structure of the initiative and implications for academia and education policy makers for internationalizing engineering education. These included considering digital interventions such as MOOCs (Massive Open Online Courses) and Virtual Laboratory (VL) initiatives for systemic reorganization of engineering education.

  • 39.
    Adam, Hemin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Cost effect by implementing LEAN2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report is a result of master thesis performed at Volvo Powertrain in Koping, Sweden. Today Volvo Powertrain processes and assembles gearboxes for many of Volvo trucks, buses and dump trucks. It also sends gearbox components to Volvo’s plants in North and South Americas, and additionally produces Volvo Penta’s revolutionary marine gear called “IPS” within the company.In order to meet customer requirements for reduced lead time/ freezing time for order placement of products in Koping, Volvo Powertrain wants to achieve a more resource-efficient production. What will the economic costs be in order to reduce the lead time and implement improvements? Since all decision includes cost investment.The aim of this thesis is to make a deep analysis of Order-To-Delivery process between the customers of Volvo Penta, Volvo VCE as well as aftermarket and clarifying the impact of lead time shortening both in practical and economical point of view.After completing the Value Stream Mapping on the current state, problems and non-value adding time are identified. Problems that are found are the long waiting time between the machines, which is the majority of the throughput time. Other issues are the long setup time, and operations that are not performed correctly. Other types of waste were also observed included the long waiting time of material handling between the different buildings.Based on the Value Stream Mapping and through other Lean tools, various proposals have been presented to simplify and increase machine time availability and flexible the production. There have also been various scenarios calculated about what the economic costs will be if the selected items in this thesis are prioritized over other products.

  • 40.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. IS (Embedded Systems).
    Di Rocco, Juri
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Di Ruscio, Davide
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Iovino, Ludovico
    University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Pierantonio, Alfonso
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. University of L’Aquila, Italy.
    Semantic-based Model Matching with EMFCompare2016In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings (CEUR-WS.org), Saint Malo, France: CEUR-WS , 2016, Vol. 1706, 40-49 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Addazi, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Langer, Philip
    EclipsSource, Austria.
    Posse, Ernesto
    Zeligsoft, Canada.
    Towards Seamless Hybrid Graphical-Textual Modelling for UML and Profiles2017In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 10376, Springer, 2017, 20-33 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domain-specific modelling languages, in particular those described in terms of UML profiles, use graphical notations to maximise human understanding and facilitate communication among stakeholders. Nevertheless, textual notations are preferred for specific purposes, due to the nature of a specific domain, or for personal preference. The mutually exclusive use of graphical or textual modelling is not sufficient for the development of complex systems developed by large heterogeneous teams. We envision a modern modelling framework supporting seamless hybrid graphical and textual modelling. Such a framework would provide several benefits, among which: flexible separation of concerns, multi-view modelling based on multiple notations, convenient text-based editing operations, and text-based model editing outside the modelling environment, and faster modelling activities. In this paper we describe our work towards such a framework for UML and profiles. The uniqueness is that both graphical and textual modelling are done on a common persistent model resource, thus dramatically reducing the need for synchronisation among the two notations.

  • 42.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Ergül, Caroline
    Reducering av produktionstryck i A-linan: Förflyttning av produkt2013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Adolfsson, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lindgren, Peder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Managing Transfer Projects in an Offshore Strategy: Swedish and Chinese Perspectives2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Offshoring concerns the relocation or a transfer of a company’s business activities to another country. When a company decides to offshore their business to another location it involves the transfer of products and knowledge which are both key activities in transfer projects. In today’s globalization it is difficult for companies to stay competitive in the marketplace. For this reason it is becoming more common that companies offshore parts of their business and opening affiliates abroad for the production of goods or services. It is challenging to transfer a product from one site to one other since the receiving site might not have been involved in the product development process from the beginning and therefore have limited associations to the product. The transfer of competence and knowledge but also different ways of working are some of the factors that needs to be successfully managed. This makes it especially challenging when considering cultural and geographical together with the temporal distance between the sites. It is difficult for companies to maintain a sourcing strategy that is cohesive and many companies therefor fails to manage a successful relationship with their offshore partners. The purpose with this study was to present a framework that would support the transfer process when aiming for parallel production. This was to include the features needed to be developed in order to manage the most important factors in the transfer process.

    In order to answer the research questions a case study with a qualitative research method was performed. Interviews in Sweden and China including 34 respondents were performed in order to identify the transfer process. The approach was a qualitative interview with a guided conversation with the emphasis on the authors asking questions and listening, and the respondent answering. The respondents was seen as meaning makers rather than passive channels for retrieving the data needed. The purpose was to derive interpretations rather than facts or laws. Each interview was conducted between three people including the two authors and one respondent.

    The findings indicate that the organization needs to improve their knowledge transfer process. The organization also needs to develop similar processes for the activities involved in the transfer process in order to perceive the same quality. The analysis of the qualitative findings resulted in a framework including six important factors for a successful transfer project. Following factors should be taken in consideration by the company to achieve a successful transfer project: identification of knowledge carriers, set up a transfer core-team, empowering knowledge sharing, the use of a personalized strategy, the development of similar processes and improve the common perception of quality.

  • 44.
    Afshar, Sara
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Lock-Based Resource Sharing for Real-Time Multiprocessors2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Embedded systems are widely used in the industry and are typically resource constrained, i.e., resources such as processors, I/O devices, shared buffers or shared memory might be limited in the system. Hence, techniques that can enable an efficient usage of processor bandwidths in such systems are of great importance. Locked-based resource sharing protocols are proposed as a solution to overcome resource limitation by allowing the available resources in the system to be safely shared. In recent years, due to a dramatic enhancement in the functionality of systems, a shift from single-core processors to multi-core processors has become inevitable from an industrial perspective to tackle the raised challenges due to increased system complexity. However, the resource sharing protocols are not fully mature for multi-core processors. The two classical multi-core processor resource sharing protocols, spin-based and suspension-based protocols, although providing mutually exclusive access to resources, can introduce long blocking delays to tasks, which may be unacceptable for many industrial applications. In this thesis we enhance the performance of resource sharing protocols for partitioned scheduling, which is the de-facto scheduling standard for industrial real-time multi-core processor systems such as in AUTOSAR, in terms of timing and memory requirements.

     

    A new scheduling approach uses a resource efficient hybrid approach combining both partitioned and global scheduling where the partitioned scheduling is used to schedule the major number of tasks in the system. In such a scheduling approach applications with critical task sets use partitioned scheduling to achieve higher level of predictability. Then the unused bandwidth on each core that is remained from partitioning is used to schedule less critical task sets using global scheduling to achieve higher system utilization. These scheduling schema however lacks a proper resource sharing protocol since the existing protocols designed for partitioned and global scheduling cannot be directly applied due to the complex hybrid structure of these scheduling frameworks. In this thesis we propose a resource sharing solution for such a complex structure. Further, we provide the blocking bounds incurred to tasks under the proposed protocols and enhance the schedulability analysis, which is an essential requirement for real-time systems, with the provided blocking bounds.

  • 45.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Resource Sharing under Server-based Multiprocessor SchedulingIn: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS'12), Work-in-Progress (WiP) sessionConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate a mechanism for handling resource sharing among tasks under a server-based scheduling technique in multiprocessor platforms, which combines partitioned and global scheduling to benefit a better scheduling method compared to conventional techniques.

  • 46.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. 0000-0002-1351-9245.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework for multiprocessors2015In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For resource-constrained embedded real-time systems, resource-efficient approaches are very important. Such an approach is presented in this paper, targeting systems where a critical application is partitioned on a multi-core platform and the remaining capacity on each core is provided to a noncritical application using resource reservation techniques. To exploit the potential parallelism of the non-critical application, global scheduling is used for its constituent tasks. Previously, we enabled intra-application resource sharing for such a framework, i.e. each application has its own dedicated set of resources. In this paper, we enable inter-application resource sharing, in particular between the critical application and the non-critical application. This effectively enables resource sharing in a hybrid partitioned/global scheduling framework on multiprocessors. For resource sharing, we use a spin-based synchronization protocol. We derive blocking bounds and extend existing schedulability analysis for such a system.

  • 47.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Integrating independently developed real-time applications on a shared multi-core architecture2013In: ACM SIGBED Review, v. 10, n. 3, 2013, 49-56 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shift towards multi-core platforms has become inevitable from an industry perspective, therefore proper techniques are needed to deal with challenges related to this migration from single core architectures to a multi-core architecture. One of the main concerns for the system developers in this context is the migration of legacy real-time systems to multi-core architectures. To address this concern and to simplify migration, independently developed subsystems are abstracted with an interface, such that when working with multiple independently-developed subsystems to be integrated on a shared platform, one does not need to be aware of information or policies used in other subsystems in order to determine subsystem-level schedulability. Instead schedulability can be checked through their interfaces at the time of integration on a shared multi-core architecture. In this paper we propose a solution for the case where some of the independently-developed subsystems are distributed over more than one processor and we propose an approach to generate interfaces of subsystems that may share mutually exclusive resources.

  • 48.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Semi-partitioning under a Blocking-Aware Task Allocation2016In: Proceedings - Real-Time Systems Symposium, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semi-partitioned scheduling is a resource efficient scheduling approach compared to the conventional multiprocessor scheduling approaches in terms of system utilization and migration overhead. Semi-partitioned scheduling can better utilize processor bandwidth compared to the partitioned scheduling while introducing less overhead compared to the global scheduling. Various techniques have been proposed to schedule tasks in a semi-partitioned environment, however, they have used blockingagnostic allocation mechanisms in presence of resource sharing protocols. Since, the allocation mechanism can highly affect the system schedulability, in this paper we provide a blocking-aware allocation mechanism for semi-partitioned scheduling framework under a suspension-based resource sharing protocol. We have applied new heuristics for sorting the tasks in the algorithm that shows improvements upon system schedulability. Finally, we present our preliminary results.

  • 49.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Bril, Reinder J.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Intra-component Resource Sharing on a Virtual Multiprocessor Platform2016In: ACM SIGBED Review: Special Issue on 8th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems, 2016, 31-32 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software development facilitates the development process of large and complex software systems. By the advent of multiprocessors, the independently developed components can be integrated on a multi-core platform to achieve an efficient use of system hardware and a decrease in system power consumption and costs. In this paper, we consider a virtual multiprocessor platform where each component can be dynamically allocated to any set of processors of the platform with a maximum concurrency level. Global-EDF is used for intra-component scheduling. The existing analysis for such systems have assumed that tasks are independent. In this paper, we enable intra-component resource sharing for this platform. We investigate using a spin-based resource sharing protocol with the accompanying analysis that extends the existing analysis for independent tasks. We briefly illustrate and evaluate our initial results with an example.

  • 50.
    Afshar, Sara
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Moghaddami Khalilzad, Nima
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nemati, Farhang
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
    Nolte, Thomas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. 0000-0001-6132-7945.
    Resource Sharing among Prioritized Real-Time Applications on Multiprocessors2015In: ACM SIGBED Review - Special Issue on the 6th International Workshop on Compositional Theory and Technology for Real-Time Embedded Systems Homepage archiveVolume 12 Issue 1, 2015, 46-55 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a new protocol for handling resource sharing among prioritized real-time applications composed on a multiprocessor platform. We propose an optimal priority assignment algorithm which assigns unique priorities to the applications based on information in their interfaces. We have performed experimental evaluations to compare the proposed protocol (called MSOS-Priority) to the current state of the art locking protocols under multiprocessor partitioned scheduling, i.e., MPCP, MSRP, FMLP, MSOS, and OMLP. The valuations show that MSOS-Priority mostly performs significantly better than alternative approaches.

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