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  • 1.
    Carlsson, Linett
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Activity and enclosure use of a sand cat in Parken Zoo, Eskilstuna2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The escalating extinction of wildlife puts a high pressure on the standard of ex situ conservation. Some animals may spend several generations in captivity which may affect their natural behaviors and also a future reintroduction into the wild. Observations of animal behavior among captive animals are crucial for the understanding of ex situ conservation effects on behavior and in order to introduce and improve environmental enrichment. This study investigates activity and enclosure use of a sand cat (Felis margarita) at Parken zoo in Eskilstuna Sweden. Direct observations of behavior and movements were carried out and audience impact was also analyzed. The sand cat in the present study showed no behavioural response to the audience but it had some effect on his location in the enclosure. I also found that he was more active during late afternoon after feeding time and that he slept most during the forenoon. He used the whole enclosure to some extent but he spent most of his time in the cave, the front and the middle of the enclosure. Although he did not show any typical stereotypic behavior he had some odd habits that could probably be prevented through environmental enrichment.

  • 2.
    Fischer, Torkel
    Mälardalen University. Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology. Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Boplatsval hos solitära getingar, bin och rovsteklar2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna undersökning gjordes för att studera solitära steklars boplatsval speciellt med avseende på spatiala mönster. Aggregat av lämpliga bohål (bibatterier) tillverkades och gjordes tillgängliga förfrilevande steklar. Resultatet visade att steklar tenderar att anlägga bon i närheten av andra stekelbon. Ingen tendens fanns att anlägga bon i centralt belägna positioner. Steklarna verkar också föredra att anlägga bon till vänster om en tänkt mittllinje på bibatterierna. Aggregation kan vara ett sätt att undgå parasitering och predation vid boplatsen. Om detta orsakade aggregationstendensen var det dock något oväntat att inte också en central tendens kunde påvisas. Att steklarna föredrog bohål i bibatteriernas vänstra del är svårt att förklara.

  • 3.
    Gusén, Anna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Lillån: Statusbedömning enligt EU:s ramdirektiv för vatten2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the County Administration board is responsible for improving the water quality in lakes and watercourses according to the European Union Water Framework Directive. In Västmanland county, where river Lillån is situated, the County Administration of Västmanland have the main responsibility for the aquatic environment in that area. The knowledge about the different watercourses in the chatchment of river Lillån is today limited. The aim with this study was to evaluate the ecological quality of River Lillån based on water chemistry analyses and benthic fauna investigations. The aim was also for the benthic fauna to compere different samplingsites and sampling methods with each other in order to see how the species composition changes in the river, and to see the advantages and disadvantages with different sampling tecniques. The methods used for the assessment was presented in a handbook composed by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. The results of the study showed that Lillån have good quality concerning acidity and the general ecological status. The benthic fauna investigations indicated high levels of nutrients and thereby resulted in poor status concerning that parameter. The conclusion of the study was that river Lillån does not fulfill the criteria of good status according to the Water Framework Direcive composed by the European Union.

     

    Keywords: Water directive, water quality evaulation, benthic fauna, acidification, nutrients, methods for sample-taking.

    Nyckelord: Vattendirektiv, statusbedömning, bottenfauna, försurning, näringsämnen, provtagningsmetoder.

     

  • 4.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Odelström, Tommy
    Mälardalen University, Department of Public Technology.
    Dagvattenkvaliteten i anslutning till Hamnområdet i Västerås2006In: Vatten: Tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 149-159Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Dagvattenkvaliteten i hamnområden är ofta svår att definiera på grund av att hamnen ofta ligger inom industriområden med flera angränsande verksamheter och aktörer sammankopplade i samma avlopp och dagvattensystemet. Eftersom hamnen ligger närmast recipienten påverkas mätresultatet i hamnens provtagningspunkt av samtliga i avlopps- och dagvattensystemets tillförda föroreningar, vilket utgör svårigheter att få en tydlig bild av enbart hamnverksamhetens miljöpåverkan av vattnet. Bedömningsgrunder för vattenkvalitet i dagvatten och avloppsvatten är svårdefinierbara. De bedömningsgrunder som finns bygger på ett statistiskt material som utgår från olika provtagningar gjord i dag- och avloppsvatten system runt om i Sverige.

    Däremot i naturvatten finns goda underlag till vattenkvalitetsbedömningar i form av gränsvärden och normer vilka är vedertagna i litteraturen.

    I Västerås har hamnbolaget under några års tid haft hela ansvaret för mätning av förorenat vattnet i områdets dagvattensystem. Detta gäller även de föroreningar som inte härstammar från hamnens egen verksamhet, utan även från den omkringliggande. Juridiskt sett strider detta mot de allmänna hänsynsreglerna om att förorenaren betalar som beskrivs i miljöbalken. Kostnaderna har lagts på en enskild aktör för ett helt avlopps och dagvattensystem, där flera aktörer bidrar till miljöbelastningen. Detta har skett med förevändningen att hamnen är enskilt största verksamhet som bidrar med de största utsläppen av föroreningar till vattnet, vilket denna studie visar vara det motsatta förhållandet.

  • 5.
    Norström Paananen, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Boström, Magnus
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Ahlgren, Christian
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Power Lines - Wasteland or Biodiversity Hotspots?2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a consequence of the intensification of various forms of human resource utilization rural Sweden has changed radically over the past 200 years from offering a varied and diverse landscape to a more monotonous, homogenised type of environment. This has led to fragmentation of habitats for many of the species occurring. Power line corridors might harbour habitats that resemble some of the now lost or fragmented habitats (e.g. grazed forest land and certain types of meadow), and could have important functions as refuge habitats and / or distribution corridors for these species.

    In a pitfall trap study in Köping and Strängnäs municipalities in Mälardalen, the occurrence and abundance of ground-living invertebrates were investigated in power line corridors, adjoining forest and pastures. Comparisons were made between these habitat types, and between positions within the power line corridor (central and distal parts) and the nearby forested area. The comparisons included analysis of number of species (or rather the number of taxa) and several biodiversity indexes, as well as analysis of the similarity of the occurrence of certain species and individual numbers by use of "similarity index". Separate tests were made in different taxonomic groups (e.g. all taxa, only within insects, only within spiders). The number of replicates allowed statistical testing of patterns in the number of taxa and biodiversity index.

    No significant differences were documented, neither between the different habitat types, nor between positions in the power line corridors and nearby forest. There was also no consistent (non-significant) pattern indicating that this would be the case. We suggest these results to indicate that power line corridors at least are not (significantly) poorer quality habitats than are forest or pasture land with regard to number of taxa and biodiversity. Number of taxa and biodiversity indices take no account of the species or taxa included in the analysis. Thus the same weight is assigned to an unwanted species (e.g. an invasive pest species or parasite) as to a red-listed, highly valued species. Similarity index takes more heed to the species involved. Although similarity indices do not consider the exact identity of involved species (or their possible value or desirability), a high index value indicates that the same species occur in the compared habitats. In this study, where an index that takes into account the abundance of species was used, a high similarity index value also indicates that the numbers of individuals are similar.

    Overall, the results showed high similarity between habitat types. This would suggest that, to a large extent, power lines, forest and pasture land had the same composition of taxa, and that the taxa had similar abundances. Power lines and forest seemed to exhibit particularly high similarities, whereas the similarity between power lines and pasture land was less pronounced. Thus, this study indicates, in contrast to several previous suggestions, that power line corridors do not seem to be low quality habitats. We also suggest that power line corridors with well designed management routines could play an important role creating edges and habitats resembling meadow or low intensity grazed pasture land.

  • 6.
    Paulsson, Henrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Spridningsmönster och potentiella spridningsytor hos invasionsarten stor bockrot (Pimpinella major) i Tullgarns naturvårdsområde: ett framtida problem för områdets diversitet?2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An organism that is transferred from one place to another, causing major problems to the native species is termed invasive. Its natural dispersal across barriers may have been prevented but as man has turned able to rapidly travel all over the world organisms are brought to sites where they were never before observed. Adding the increasing global warming organisms may find it necessary to move around even further. This might cause major disturbance to the biological diversity, and hybridization and homogenization is one of many scenarios that could disturb the native diversity. In Sweden more that 2/3 of all alien plant species have been introduced to disturbed areas and the major introduction mechanism is gardening. The object of study in this presentation, Pimpinella major (Apiaceae) was introduced in Sweden alongside garden grasses during the 19th century but has so far spread only marginally from the areas of introduction. The aim of the study was to quantify the appearance of Pimpinella major in different types of vegetation apart from road verges, where it has been noted systematically for over a decade. The investigation area covers most of the Tullgarn nature reserve. The result shows an astonishing tendency of P. major to remain growing only along the roads in the area. The very few findings besides next to roads are from deciduous and coniferous forests and fields. It seems that Pimpinella major almost without exception prefers heavily disturbed areas and access to large amounts of nitrogen fertilizer from exhaust fumes

  • 7.
    Rioldi, Emmanuela
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Innovative environmental enrichment method for Pallas cat (Felis manul)2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the expansion of the human population we are an increasing threat to all wild animals. They are driven to exist in smaller areas and in the worst case scenario extinction. Zoos are being encouraged to improve the animal’s physical and social surroundings. Environmental enrichment is a term used for such improvements. In this behavioural study, the enrichment introduced to two Pallas cats (Felis manul) at Parken Zoo in Eskilstuna, Sweden, consisted of a fishing rod and a clothes peg with a dead mouse or chick attached. The intention was to see if the feeding enrichment could increase activity levels and how the cats were using their enclosure. The enclosure was divided into seven zones which have a varying degree of opportunities for the animals to climb, hide and rest above ground level. The environmental enrichment effects on the Pallas cats´ behaviour, activity levels and use of the enclosure were measured and recorded using instantaneous scan sampling, and the mean value was calculated for each individual. The behavioural and enclosure results proved that enrichment benefits the cats activity levels. The behaviours that showed a variation when presented with enrichment were: walking, climbing, grooming, aggressive behaviour, out of sight behaviour, crouching position, sitting and standing still.  The results showed that the cats preferred the zones in the enclosure that offered a larger view of the nearby enclosures. This study shows that providing captive felids with inexpensive, easy to administer enrichment objects can have profound effects on activity behaviours and their enclosure.

     

  • 8.
    Soderbaum, Peter
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    The Plundered Planet, Why We Must - and How We Can - Manage Nature for Global Prosperity2011In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 1240-1240Article, book review (Other academic)
1 - 8 of 8
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  • nn-NO
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