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  • 1.
    An, Lin
    et al.
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yu, Xinhai
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jie
    Univ Shanghai Sci & Technol, Shanghai, Peoples R China.
    Tu, Shan-Tung
    E China Univ Sci & Technol, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    CO2 capture using a superhydrophobic ceramic membrane contactor2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2287-2292Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wetting and fouling of membrane contactor result in performance deterioration of membrane gas absorption system for CO2 post-combustion capture of coal-fired power plants. To solve these problems, in this study, a superhydrophobic ceramic (SC) membrane contactor was fabricated by chemically modification using 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorooctylethoxysilane (FAS) solution. The membrane contactor fabrication costs for both SC membrane and PP (polypropylene) membrane contactors per unit mass absorbed CO2 were roughly the same. However, by using the SC membrane, the detrimental effects of wetting can be alleviated by periodic drying to ensure a high CO2 removal efficiency (>90%), whereas the drying does not work for the PP membrane. The SC membrane contactor exhibited a better anti-fouling ability than the PP membrane contactor because the superhydrophobic surface featured a self-cleaning function. To ensure continuous CO2 removal with high efficiency, a method that two SC membrane contactors alternatively operate combined with periodic drying was proposed.

  • 2.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Influence of light emitting diodes on indigenous microalgae cultivation in municipal wastewater2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 786-792Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the effect of light emitting diodes (LEDs) on microalgae cultivation in municipal wastewater was examined in comparison to the fluorescent light. Two kinds of wastewater were evaluated: first one with low concentration of total phosphorous (TP) and second one with high TP concentration. The nutrient removal and biomass production using LEDs is efficient at photo-synthetically active radiation (PAR) intensity of 107-112 mu mol m(-2) s(-1) which is slightly higher than fluorescent light. Furthermore, this study demonstrates the applicability and distribution of light in wastewater where the environment is not defined. More importantly, winter and rainy periods contribute to dark condition and dilution of wastewater, intense LED light offers a feasible option for the functioning of closed micro algae based activated sludge (MAAS) process for recovery and reuse of nutrients. 

  • 3.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Eliasson, Klas
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Holmgren, Anne-Charlotte
    Statens provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Borås.
    Le Duc, Michael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling. IDA, Linköpings universitet.
    Sivertun, Åke
    IDA, Linköpings universitet.
    Torstensson, Håkan
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Wikström, Evalena
    Statens provnings- och forskningsinstitut, Borås.
    Effektivare Avfallstransporter (EFFA): Slutrapport Vinnova, 20052005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 4.
    Andréewitch, Nadja
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Fosforläckage från hästhagar i Hågadalen: Åtgärdsförslag till den småskaliga hästhållaren2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The title of this degree project is “Phosphorous losses from horse paddocks in Hågadalen – action proposals for the small scaled horse keeper” Phosphorus losses from human activity is a global problem that requires identification of sources and action proposals. The purpose of this work is to identify the need for action in and near the horse paddocks in Hågadalen, and to find possible measures that the horse keepers can use. Reports from various state authorities, other degree projects and current research reports is the basis of the literature study in this report. Existing calculations of pasture acreage in Hågadalen have also been used. The calculations shows that despite that the pasture is a small percentage of the total acreage the losses from the paddocks is a significant part of the total losses. By modifying some of the horses feeding from oats to hey, the phosphorus losses could be reduced. Possibly could feeding areas also be governed by the same regulations as storage of manure. Rules about cleaning paddocks which houses more than three horses per hectare could also be considered. 

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering. Volvo Construct Equipment, Eskilstuna, Sweden..
    Salonen, Antti
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Requirements and Needs-A Foundation for Reducing Maintenance-Related Waste2016Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 10TH WORLD CONGRESS ON ENGINEERING ASSET MANAGEMENT (WCEAM 2015), 2016, s. 105-112Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to discuss and elaborate on requirements of maintenance and the resulting maintenance needs in order to maintain said requirements without introducing waste while doing so, taking into account both external and internal wastes. The paper will present, and elaborate on, conceptual models that can be utilized in maintenance operations in order to increase awareness of the importance of well-founded customer/stakeholder requirements in order to articulate appropriate maintenance needs in order to balance effectiveness and efficiency as well as to reduce or eliminate maintenance-related waste.

  • 6.
    Bergdahl, Catarina
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Säkerhets- och arbertsmiljöarbete på Arbetsförmedlingen: Naturlig utveckling och påtvingade förändringar2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Arbetsförmedlingen is the Swedish national authority responsible for the work politics, and its main purpose is to create and build a solid and sustainable job market.Economic crises together with changes in the society and in the organization over the past few years mean that the unemployed individuals that come in contact with Arbetsförmedlingen are no longer a homogenous group. A lot of effort is put into helping those who may find it difficult to enter the work environment, such as youths (19 – 26 years old), people who have been unemployed or on sick leave for a long period of time, people with disabilities or immigrants who are newly arrived in Sweden.A harder social and economic climate can lead to frustration among the unemployed which mean that security measures at the offices has had to become adjusted. Local offices now have a public area where they have meetings with their clients and a locked open plan office space to which the public have no access. Working within an open plan office environment can cause health problems, mostly due to the constant background noise that comes from people having conversations on the phone, or with each other. The public areas have been furnished from a safety aspect, and different alarm functions are in place. Interviews with employees at the local Arbetsförmedlingen in Eskilstuna show that staff safety is a high priority with plenty of guidelines and directions to be followed.There are rules regulating the handling of personal information, and strategies need to be in place regarding the IT-structure that the organization is using.

  • 7.
    Brown, J.
    et al.
    Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand.
    Söderbaum, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola.
    Dereniowska, M.
    Aix-Marseille University (Aix Marseille School of Economics), CNRS, EHESS, France.
    Positional analysis for sustainable development: Reconsidering policy, economics and accounting2017Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, biodiversity loss, pollution of land and water, land-use changes, lack of equality and other problems at local, national and global levels represent a challenge for economics as a social science. Mainstream neoclassical economics may be able to contribute to a more sustainable society but it has also played a dominant role in a period where problems have been aggravated. A pluralist and democratic view of economics is therefore very much warranted. This book presents a multidimensional and ideologically more open view of economics: understanding economics in multidimensional terms is in accordance with the 17 sustainable development goals recognized by nations at the UN-level in 2015. Accordingly, approaches to decision making and accounting at the national- and business levels have to be reconsidered. Neoclassical Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA) with focus on the monetary dimension and an assumed consensus about a specific market ideology to be applied is not compatible with democratic societies where citizen and actors in other roles normally differ with respect to ideological orientation. Environmental Impact Statements and Multi-Criteria methods are used to some extent to broaden approaches to decision-making. In this book, Positional Analysis is advocated as a multidimensional and ideologically open approach. Positional Analysis is based on a political economic conceptual framework (as part of ecological economics) that differs from neoclassical ideas of individuals, firms and markets. And since approaches to decision-making and to accounting are closely connected, a new theoretical perspective in economics similarly raises issues of how national and business accounting can be opened up to meet present demands among various actors in society. This perspective raises also numerous ethical questions at the science and policy interface that need to be properly addressed for sustainability decision making. © 2017 Judy Brown, Peter Söderbaum and Malgorzata Dereniowska. All rights reserved.

  • 8.
    Bröms, Maria
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Informationsarbete för energisparande åtgärder i hushåll: Fallstudie i samarbete med Västerås stad för identifiering av goda exempel i kommuners klimatkampanjer och informationsarbete2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past five years the energy- and climate advisors representing the municipality of Västerås Sweden have conducted an energy-saving campaign concerning households, which will be completed during fall 2015. The aim of the campaign was to raise awareness of the free energy-guidance provided to inhabitants of Västerås and the necessary actions of households’ energy saving, to reach goal attainment of local and national environmental goals concerning climate change. In preparation of new innovative and effective ways to reach out to the public in the future, this study aims to identify future options by examining good examples through a case study of four different Swedish municipalities strategies and experiences with campaigns and information incentives. First scientific literature was reviewed to build a foundation of findings that the interviews could rest on. Thereafter preliminary investigation and one interview per municipality were conducted to get a deeper understanding of the information activities and approaches towards energy friendly behavior. The result show most monitoring and evaluation were based on statistics of people reached and the experience of the advisors or the inhabitants through surveys. All energy- and climate advisors agree upon the fact that the economical incentives to motivate energy conservation is dominating opposed to environmental incentives. The groups that are the hardest to reach are for instance individuals with low interest, not susceptible or those who do not speak the language. The good examples identified are represented by e.g. projects targeting the majority of households by monthly challenges, motivating climate friendly behavior and sustainable development in Örebro. Information incentives performed in Eskilstuna through meetings with an Arabic speaking energy advisor. As well as the 600m2 energy exhibition in Jönköping localized in connection to a shopping center.

  • 9.
    Carlsen, Inger-Marie
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Efterpolering med våtmark: Hur kan det användas vid Haga reningsverk?2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt vatten här på jorden ingår i den hydrologiska cykeln, så även det renade avloppsvattnet.Avloppsvatten innehåller bland annat kväve och fosfor vilka bidrar till övergödningen avsjöar, vattendrag och hav. Övergödningen är ett utbrett problem och i Västmanland är 53 %av länets sjöar och vattendrag utsatta för det.Syftet med den här rapporten är att ta fram ett förslag till våtmark för Haga reningsverk,Surahammar. Först har information om hur en våtmark kan användas för efterpolering avrenat avloppsvatten tagits fram för att därefter nyttjas som grund i ett förslag till våtmark förHaga reningsverk, Surahammar. Först gjordes en litteraturstudie inom ämnesområdet ochdärefter gjordes en fallstudie där Ekeby och Trosa våtmark besöktes. Parallellt utfördes enarkivstudie och flera områdesbesök på den tilltänkta platsen för att få fram vilkaförutsättningar som finns för att anlägga en våtmark i anslutning till Haga reningsverk ochsist gjordes ett förslag på en våtmark.Anledningen till att anlägga en våtmark kan vara flera, men att avskilja fosfor, kväve samtbryta ner organiskt material är vanliga orsaker. En våtmark fungerar som ett kompletterandesteg till det ordinarie reningsverket och minskar belastningen på recipienten. Hur mycketutsläppen reduceras beror på många faktorer och egenskaper där utformning, vattnetsuppehållstid, syresättning och tillgång till organiskt material är viktiga men även parametrarsom förbehandling av avloppsvattnet och belastningen på våtmarken spelar stor roll. Ävenväxtligheten i våtmarken påverkar det slutliga resultatet, både vad det gäller vad och hurmycket som avskiljs. Avskiljningen av fosfor och kväve sker främst genom sedimentation ochnäringsupptag till växter samt att kväve även avskiljs vid denitrifikation. För den långsiktigaavskiljningen av kväve från vattnets kretslopp är nitrifikation och denitrifikation de som harstörst betydelse. Nitrifikationsprocessen är när ammoniumjoner omvandlas till nitratjoneroch det kräver god tillgång på syre, därefter följer denitrifikationen när nitratjonerna undersyrefria förhållanden omvandlas till kvävgas som diffunderar upp i atmosfären. För attnitrifikationsprocessen ska kunna fungera krävs antingen att det finns ennitrifikationsanläggning i reningsverket eller en syresättningsfas i våtmarken. Det kan skapasgenom att börja våtmarken med en översilningsäng, där det renade avloppsvattnet får strilaner över en bevuxen äng. Vattnet syresätts av luften och nitrifikationsbakterier som trivs bra iväxtligheten utför nitrifikationsprocessen och omvandlar ammoniumjonerna till nitratjoner.Därefter följer ett system av dammar och kanaler där denitrifikationsprocessen tar vid ochomvandlar nitratjonerna till harmlöst kväve. Även i dammar och kanaler har växtlighetenstor betydelse eftersom det bildas biofilm, ett tunt lager av bakterier på växterna, som deltar iden biologiska processen av nedbrytning av organiskt material samt avskiljning av fosfor ochkväve i vattnet.När vattnet passerar genom våtmarken sker också en reducering av antalet bakterier somfinns i det renade avloppsvattnet. Mätningar av E. coli, fekala streptokocker, Koliformabakterier och intestinala enterokocker visar på att halterna kan reduceras kraftigt. Även vissaläkemedel visar tendenser till att brytas ned, men läkemedel är en komplex grupp och detfinns begränsad kunskap om deras omvandling och påverkan i miljön. Det finns dock indikationer om att nedbrytningen av läkemedelsrester är högre i de våtmarker som harsyresättande delar som till exempel översilningsäng.Haga reningsverk är beläget strax utanför Surahammars tätort och har idag en kulvert somleder ut det renade avloppsvattnet från verket till recipienten. Mellan Haga och recipientenligger ett markområde på cirka 750 gånger 750 meter som skulle kunna utnyttjas till envåtmark. Redan idag ligger utsläppsvärdena för Haga reningsverk under de tillåtna halternamen en önskan att ytterligare minska belastningen på miljön finns. Vid analysering avutsläppsvärden för Haga reningsverk framkom att ammoniumkväve utgör en stor andel avutgående totalkväve samt att halterna av totalfosfor, BOD7 och suspenderade ämnen är lågatill måttliga. Ett förslag på våtmark anpassat till de förutsättningar som råder vid Hagareningsverk har tagits fram och presenteras i rapporten. Våtmarken föreslås innehålla tvåsektioner med först en översilningsäng för att reducera den höga andelen ammoniumkväveoch därefter ett damm och kanalsystem för att reducera nitratkvävet. Under hela processensker avskiljning av fosfor samt reducering av bakterier och en viss nedbrytning avläkemedelsrester. Förväntade resultat för det utgående vattnet från våtmarken är att P-totkan reduceras till 0,10–0,11 mg/l, N-tot kan reduceras till 11–14 mg/l, en reducering av E.coli, fekala streptokocker och intestinala streptokocker med 70-99 % samt att en vissminskning sker av läkemedelsrester tack vare syresättning och solens UV-bestrålning avvattnet.

  • 10.
    Chen, Yushun
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China.
    Zhang, Shuanghu
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China .
    Huang, Desheng
    Ministry of Environmental Protection of People's Republic of China, Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy, Beijing, China .
    Li, Bailian
    University of California, Riverside, Riverside, United States .
    Liu, Junguo
    South University of Science and Technology of China, Shenzhen, China .
    Liu, Wenjin
    Orient Landscape Industry Group Ltd., Beijing, China.
    Ma, Jing
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Fang
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, Beijing, China .
    Wang, Yong
    Alabama A and M University, Huntsville, United States .
    Wu, Shengjun
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Wu, Yegang
    Shanghai BoDa Development Corporation, Shanghai, China .
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Guo, Chuanbo
    Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China .
    Xin, Wei
    Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan, China .
    Wang, Hao
    China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing, China .
    The development of China's Yangtze River Economic Belt: how to make it in a green way?2017Ingår i: Science Bulletin, ISSN 2095-9273, Vol. 62, nr 9, s. 648-651Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Danielsson, Maria
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Ekologiska livsmedel i kommunal verksamhet: Fallstudie över Ludvika kommuns satsning på ekologiska livsmedel inom skola och äldreomsorg2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic food is produced in a way that strives towards maintaining and improving natural resources. The welfare of both producers and consumers is central, also taking both animals and the environment into account. The Swedish government finds this important and in 2006 they made a resolution that the consumption of organic food should be stimulated. The goal was that 25 % of the municipalities’ consumption of food should be organic in 2010.

    The municipality of Ludvika reached the government's target in 2011 and is currently increasing their proportion of organic food by one new product every year.  Ludvika is a member of The National Association of Swedish Eco-municipalities and the town of Ludvika is also a Fairtrade city. These commitments have resulted in an increased focus on environmental and justice issues, where organic food is an important part.

    An analysis of Ludvika’s work with organic food was done throughout this thesis. The results were then compared to the leading municipality in the county, Borlänge, which is also the best in the nation. This was done to give a picture of how their work is done today and how it could evolve in the future. The municipality of Ludvika has a good diet policy and an ambitious theoretical basis for their climate policy. The membership of the The National Association of Swedish Eco-municipalities and the fact that Ludvika is a Fairtrade city is founded on certain commitments and strategies. The action taken in accordance with these strategies can be more clear and closer to the initial level of ambition.

    The importance of a holistic approach has been mentioned in this thesis. It has been suggested how the choice of organic food contribute to a better environment and health, relative to the use of taxes paid by the inhabitants.

    An important conclusion from the comparison with the leading municipality in organic foods is that it has not had to be more expensive to increase the share of organic food. Through good planning, innovation and an increased knowledge much can be done, even if a limited budget initially is perceived as a problem.

  • 12.
    Einarsson, Alex
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Miljökänslighetskartor: Hur man arbetar med dem i Umeå kommun2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    This thesis is about how Umea Municipality is working with environmental sensitivity maps. Surveys have been sent to the environmental office, fire department and Lantmäteriet. A literature study has been done in order to found out why it’s important for the fire department to take into account the environment. The starting point for this study has been the environmental sensitivity map that was made for the municipality of Umea in 1998 for accidents where firefighting water and chemicals are involved. Fires can cause many environmental problems. A substance that can spread in the environment when a fire happens is cadmium which can make it difficult for animals to absorb nutrients in the food they eat. The firewater can contain many substances that are harmful to the environment for ex. volatile organic compounds (VOC). A groundwater map from the geological survey of Sweden (SGU) and Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) for the fire department in Umea municipality was made in 2007. The groundwater map is used in the fire trucks in a GPS system. They can see directly on the GPS a map for the area where the accident has happened. It’s used when there is a chemical leaking for example from a truck that has gone off the road. The map that shows environmental sensitive areas is used by the fire department in Umea municipality and the environmental office. Firefighters have to call the fire station or the environmental office to get information from the map. The bad thing is that the map for environmentally sensitive areas is not updated.

     

  • 13.
    Farooq, U.
    et al.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Danish, M.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Lu, S.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Brusseau, M. L.
    The University of Arizona,Tucson, AZ, United States.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Fu, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Zhang, X.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Sui, Q.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Qiu, Z.
    East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai, China.
    Efficient transformation in characteristics of cations supported-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for the destruction of trichloroethane2017Ingår i: Applied Catalysis A: General, ISSN 0926-860X, E-ISSN 1873-3875, Vol. 544, s. 10-20Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the use of graphene-oxide supported metallic nanocomposites for improving the degradation of trichloroethane (TCA) by sodium percarbonate (SPC). Two methods of production, chemical reduction (CR) and solvo-thermal (ST), were tested for preparation of single (Fe) and binary (Fe-Cu) nanocomposites supported by reduced graphene oxide (rGO). A variety of analytical techniques including N2 adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier-transfrom infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmisison electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to characterize the physicochemical and microstructural properties of the synthesized nanocomposites. The characterization indicated that the CR method produced nanocomposites that comprised only mesoporous structure. Conversely, both micro and mesoporous structures were present for samples produced with the ST method. The synthesized single and bimetallic composites produced from the ST method showed higher surface areas, i.e. 93.6 m2/g and 119.2 m2/g as compared to the ones synthesized via the CR method, i.e. 13.8 m2/g and 38.0 m2/g respectively. The results of FTIR and XRD analyses confirmed that the ST method produced highly crystalline nanocomposites. SEM and TEM analysis validated that metallic particles with definite morphology well distributed on the surface of rGO. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the homogeneity nanocomposites and occurrence of variation in copper oxidation states during degradation process. EDS mapping validate the homogeneous distribution of Cu and Fe at reduced graphene oxide surface. The Fe-Cu/rGO (ST) activated SPC system effectively degraded TCA (92%) in 2.5 h at low nanocomposite dose compared to the Fe-Cu/rGO (CR) and only Fe, for which the maximum degradation efficiencies achieved were 81% and 34%. In conclusion, excellent catalytic characteristics were observed for the ST-synthesized single and bimetallic (Fe/rGO, Fe-Cu/rGO) catalysts. These catalysts were successful in improving the degradation of TCA via activated SPC. 

  • 14.
    Guo, Kun
    et al.
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yu, Zhixin
    Univ Stavanger, Norway.
    Metallic nanoparticles for enhanced heavy oil recovery: promises and challenges2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, s. 2068-2073Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing global energy demand, great attention has been focused on utilizing heavy oil and bitumen, which are potentially located ultra-deep underground and cannot be easily recovered. Numerous recovery approaches have been proposed for successful extraction of heavy hydrocarbons from ultra-deep reservoirs. However, these approached are often accompanied by high energy consumption, large amounts of wastewater generation, and undesirable environmental damage. Nanotechnology has appeared as one of the promising technologies for in-situ heavy oil recovery, e.g., employing metal-based nanoparticles. In this article, we provide a brief overview of metallic nanoparticles for in-situ enhanced recovery of heavy oil. It gives a general introduction of the potential advantages of nanoparticle catalysts for heavy oil recovery and illustrates the improved recovery mechanism. Some technology challenges related to this promising technology will also be pinpointed. These technology challenges need to be solved through further research and development before field applications. 

  • 15.
    Hakalehto, E.
    et al.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Heitto, A.
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Andersson, Henny
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Reijonen, T.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Suhonen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Jääskeläinen, A.
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Kuopio, Finland.
    Laatikainen, R.
    University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Klintenberg, Patrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Some remarks on processing of slaughterhouse wastes from ecological chicken abattoir and farm2016Ingår i: Microbiological Industrial Hygiene, Nova Science Publishers, Inc. , 2016, s. 271-293Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In the meat industries, it is always of high importance to follow up the zoonotic and other hazardous micro-organisms, and to prevent their risky distribution, emission and dissemination. Besides proper hygiene control, as well as organized exploitation of the side streams and slaughterhouse wastes helps in the hygienization of the biomasses, processes, and the entire industry. During this experimentation it turned out that it was possible to produce gases and chemical goods, not only from the carboxylates, but also from the more tedious protein and lipid containing wastes. Moreover, these promising results were obtained from a substrate mix with manure and wood chips. These results implied to the high versatility and flexibility of the bioprocess during Pilot A tests within the European Union Baltic Sea region project ABOWE. In Sweden these tests were carried out using the combined wastes from the ecological chicken farm and abattoir as the raw materials. This is a report of the practical set up during intensive experimentation conducted jointly by the Swedish and Finnish personnel. The report of the runs in Sweden is presented also in the public report of the European Union funded project (www.abowe.eu).

  • 16.
    Halléhn, Lisa
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Alternativ till plast i storkök: Nuläge och utbytesförslag för kommunala storkök inom Eskilstuna kommun2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this degree project was to study the use and presence of plastic in municipal large-scale catering establishments from preschool to high school and in geriatric care. It was also to get a deeper knowledge about the substance BPA and the plastic PVC and their connection with food. The third aim was to lay forward some suggestions for Eskilstuna about continued work and substitution in their municipal large-scale kitchens. The means for data gathering was databases, websites, scientific reports, on site visits, interviews, online survey and communication by phone and email. The result from the case study was that plastic articles as containers, disposable materials, utensils and food packages for storing food were used in hot, ambient, cold and freezing temperatures. Nine types of plastic were found: PP, PE, PC, PVC, PA, PS, PET, melanin and SAN. All large-scale kitchens had disposable gloves, plastic films and plastic bags. In the first two examples, some brands were made of PVC-plastic. PC-plastic was found in some drinking glasses, plastic food pans, utensils, bowls and jugs. BPA is a common additive in production of PC-plastic and therefore these articles may contain BPA. Between all ten municipal large-scale kitchens, there are some differences and similarities. Of all the kitchens, no one had exactly the same articles or methods, and some had also special routines that differed from the others. The suggestions to Eskilstuna municipality were to remove those articles that contained BPA or chlorinated plastics (especially those products that already had an alternative on the procurement contract), contact the suppliers and wholesalers and ask which products that both are made of PC and contain BPA or other bisphenols, develop a exchange plan for products that do not fulfil the future regulations of KRAV and finally demand in procurement that the product do not contain BPA, PVC or other chlorinated plastics.

  • 17.
    Holm, Jonathan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Sammanställning över förekomst av klorerade kolväten inom Västerås kommun: En sammanställning med fastigheter och verksamheter där TRI har använts2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated Solvents has been widely used in industries with degreased work tasks. It became popular in the beginning of the 19th century when the industry was developing fast. The most popular chlorinated solvent has been trichloroethylene (TRI). Because of the common use of the agent, soil and groundwater contamination with TRI has been one of the most occurred contaminations around industrial sites. TRI has some special abilities that make it a difficult contamination compound. It is hard to imagine its distribution pathways and it is a carcinogenic compound with many other hazardous properties. Because of its abilities the environmental and health department of Vasteras wanted to have a compilation over the companies in Vasteras that have been using TRI and that is the subject of this study. This compilation was based on a so called TRI list that had been assembled by the county  administration of Varmland who had get facts from the Swedish producer of TRI Uddeholm AB. This list tells some of the costumers that Uddeholm AB have had through the years. Additionally to this list this study was based on a initial inventory made by the county administration of Vastmanland. The study was made through an archive investigation at the environmental and health department in Vasteras. The investigation showed that most of the companies that had used TRI were known by the environmental, health and safety management. The companies have gone through an environmental investigation and therefore the TRI use was known. There were a few company properties that had a confirmed TRI contamination. This had been confirmed by soil samples that had been taken and analysed. There were some companies that had used TRI according to the TRI list but the information about the company was too thin to find the location of the company. The result of this study shows that there are many properties that have had a company with TRI use during the 1900th century. This study will help the future environmental work at these properties if there is a change in a property use for example.

  • 18.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Odelström, Tommy
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik.
    Dagvattenkvaliteten i anslutning till Hamnområdet i Västerås2006Ingår i: Vatten: Tidskrift för vattenvård, ISSN 0042-2886, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 149-159Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Dagvattenkvaliteten i hamnområden är ofta svår att definiera på grund av att hamnen ofta ligger inom industriområden med flera angränsande verksamheter och aktörer sammankopplade i samma avlopp och dagvattensystemet. Eftersom hamnen ligger närmast recipienten påverkas mätresultatet i hamnens provtagningspunkt av samtliga i avlopps- och dagvattensystemets tillförda föroreningar, vilket utgör svårigheter att få en tydlig bild av enbart hamnverksamhetens miljöpåverkan av vattnet. Bedömningsgrunder för vattenkvalitet i dagvatten och avloppsvatten är svårdefinierbara. De bedömningsgrunder som finns bygger på ett statistiskt material som utgår från olika provtagningar gjord i dag- och avloppsvatten system runt om i Sverige.

    Däremot i naturvatten finns goda underlag till vattenkvalitetsbedömningar i form av gränsvärden och normer vilka är vedertagna i litteraturen.

    I Västerås har hamnbolaget under några års tid haft hela ansvaret för mätning av förorenat vattnet i områdets dagvattensystem. Detta gäller även de föroreningar som inte härstammar från hamnens egen verksamhet, utan även från den omkringliggande. Juridiskt sett strider detta mot de allmänna hänsynsreglerna om att förorenaren betalar som beskrivs i miljöbalken. Kostnaderna har lagts på en enskild aktör för ett helt avlopps och dagvattensystem, där flera aktörer bidrar till miljöbelastningen. Detta har skett med förevändningen att hamnen är enskilt största verksamhet som bidrar med de största utsläppen av föroreningar till vattnet, vilket denna studie visar vara det motsatta förhållandet.

  • 19.
    Jensen, Charlotte
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Nyberg, Therese
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    A FEASIBILITY STUDY FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE TRANSFER- AND RECYCLING STATION IN GABORONE, BOTSWANA2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 20.
    Johansson, Lena
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Removal of phosphorus from wastewater in constructed wetlands1996Ingår i: Proceedings of the Sino-Swedish Seminar on Sustainable USe of Water Resources - with Special Emphasis on Recharge and Protection of Groundwater / [ed] Castensson R. och Gustafsson J-E, 1996Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 21.
    Karlsson, Andreas
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Avfallshantering på byggarbetsplatser: Potential för en miljöeffektiv avfallshantering2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns waste management on construction sites and was conducted on behalf of ICA Fastigheter.

    Areas of concern:

    • How can an environmentally-efficient waste management system on construction sites be defined? 
    • What potential exists for exploiting the waste resources that are generated?
    • How can the waste management be optimised by reducing the quantity of waste and by optimal sorting?
    • How can the client of a project influence the waste management?

    The purpose of the work was to investigate sustainable waste management in the building and construction sector and to highlight waste as a resource from an environmental and economic perspective.The aim of the work was to define an environmentally-efficient waste management system, to analyse the potential that exists in waste management and to draw up guidelines for optimal waste management.The method consisted of a literature study, two visits to construction sites and four interviews.An environmentally-efficient waste management system means that the waste is managed in the following order of priority:

    1. Prevention     
    2. Reuse  
    3. Recycling     
    4. Energy recovery
    5. Landfill     

    The prevention of waste is an important area that has not been adequately explored by the building and construction industry. The quantities of waste could decrease with the implementation of measures such as ordering materials in the dimensions required, prefabricated components, logistics centres with Just-In-Time deliveries, less and improved packaging and less wrapping. The reuse of waste materials and temporary apparatus as well as the use of a return pallet system are examples of reuse that reduces the quantities of waste.

    In most cases the source sorting work is a matter of course and the proportion going to landfill is down at a low level. The source sorting can be optimised by sorting all materials that can be reused and recycled to use them as a resource. The client of a project has great opportunities to influence the waste management in a sustainable direction by placing demands on the contractor. Demands can be placed on measures to reduce the quantities of waste, on a specific level of source sorting and on the reporting and monitoring of statistics.

  • 22.
    Khokhotva, O. P.
    et al.
    National Technical University of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine.
    Westholm, Lena Johansson
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    The impact of surface properties of modified pine bark on the mechanism of sorption of heavy metals from aqueous media2017Ingår i: Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 1063-455X, Vol. 39, nr 3, s. 148-154Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The surface properties of pine bark before and after the treatment with urea solution and the adsorption of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) from aqueous solutions at different pH values have been studied. Types of active sorption sites, their surface concentration and change after the bark treatment with urea solution were determined. The results of potentiometric titration were processed by using ProtoFit and FITEQL software programs. The data obtained make it possible to conclude that in the extraction mechanism of heavy metals from water the share of ion exchange decreases and the share of complexation increases. The impact of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the range of their concentrations up to 3000 mg/dm3 on Cu(II) extraction from model aqueous solutions was also investigated. 

  • 23.
    Khokhotva, Oleksandr
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Sylvia
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Urea treated pine bark -a low cost sorbent with improved metal sorption characteristics2009Ingår i: Ogolnopolska Konferencja naukowa inzynieria ekologiczna / [ed] Hanna Obarska Pempkowiak, Gdansk: Polish Academy of Science , 2009, s. 188-198Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 24.
    Kjelleros, Fredrik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Tjärsandsindustrins miljöpåverkan: Alberta, Kanada2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In Alberta, Canada, amongst its mixture of sand, clay, water and other minerals, the tar sand’s heavy and viscous component bitumen, a thick, sticky form of crude oil is extracted through two methods; open-pit mining for shallower deposits (<75 m), and in situ for deeper deposits (>75 m). This degree project consists of a comparison between these two extraction methods impact on air, nature and water, which all have been evaluated by reviewing and analyzing literature. Studies showed that in situ methods cause a higher impact on air than open-pit mining, through higher emissions of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and will surpass the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions caused by the open-pit mines when the shallower, more accessible tar sands dwindle. Open-pit mining causes a higher impact on water due to its large tailing ponds that causes leakage of processing water and fine tailings, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: s) and these 13 following elements considered priority pollutants (PPE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), silver (Ag), thallium (Tl) and zinc (Zn). However studies remain unclear whether or not in situ methods are worse due to underground tailing ponds. Finally, when it comes to nature, open-pit mining causes a more direct environmental impact through deforestation, drainage of peat and wetland, and blasting of rock. In situ methods however, seem to cause more of a long term environmental impact through fragmentation. Dividing the landscape into smaller units through roads, wells, pipelines and seismic lines, leads to domestic biodiversity and homogenization of flora and fauna as unfavorable conditions is created for the nature’s wildlife. In conclusion, in situ methods causes a bigger impact on air than open-pit mining, while open-pit mining causes a bigger impact on water. Due to lack of time and resources, more research about the direct impact on nature is needed to fully evaluate which of the two extraction methods causes the least environmental impact.

  • 25.
    Koskinen, Sonja
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Affärsutveckling ur ett psykosocialt perspektiv: Mälarhamnar AB:s förutsättningar att lyckas2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The psychosocial work environment in hard professions is hardly studied and this study was implemented to observe port workers psychosocial work environment in ports of Västerås and Köping. There are two purposes with this study: firstly, to examine how ports of Västerås and Köping, Mälarhamnar AB, can improve and develop their business by using psychosocial methods. To do this, a questionnaire study and three interviews with workers were done and the results were used in a SWOT- analysis. Secondly, the aim is to be able to use the results and make a difference in the business development by adjusting the psychosocial work environment. The results show that the employees are happy at work and are happy with their work colleagues. The feeling of demand and control is higher for officials than for dockers. The feeling of being involved in decision making varies from interviews and survey. The interviews show that dockers are involved in decision making, while the survey shows low involvement. Generally the employees have good relationship to the immediate supervisor. To improve the business development Mälarhamnar AB need to identify which factors motivate their employees and which factors they use to motivate their employees. They also have to focus on the communication from foremen to employees and the communication should include feedback and recognition for well performed work.

  • 26.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Diaz, J G
    Faculty of Science, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria de Cantoblanco, Madrid, Spain.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Algae biomass cultivation in nitrogen rich biogas digestate.2015Ingår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 72, nr 10, s. 1723-1729Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because microalgae are known for quick biomass growth and nutrient uptake, there has been much interest in their use in research on wastewater treatment methods. While many studies have concentrated on the algal treatment of wastewaters with low to medium ammonium concentrations, there are several liquid waste streams with high ammonium concentrations that microalgae could potentially treat. The aim of this paper was to test ammonium tolerance of the indigenous algae community of Lake Malaren and to use this mixed consortia of algae to remove nutrients from biogas digestate. Algae from Lake Malaren were cultivated in Jaworski's Medium containing a range of ammonium concentrations and the resulting algal growth was determined. The algae were able to grow at NH4-N concentrations of up to 200 mg L(-1) after which there was significant inhibition. To test the effectiveness of the lake water algae on the treatment of biogas digestate, different pre-cultivation set-ups and biogas digestate concentrations were tested. It was determined that mixing pre-cultivated suspension algae with 25% of biogas digestate by volume, resulting in an ammonium concentration of around 300 mg L(-1), produced the highest algal growth. The algae were effective in removing 72.8 ± 2.2% of NH4-N and 41.4 ± 41.4% of PO4-P.

  • 27.
    Krustok, Ivo
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Diaz, Juan Guillermo
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Shabiimam, MA
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India.
    ALGAE BIOMASS CULTIVATION WITH AMMONIUM RICH WASTEWATERS AS SUBSTRATE: THE POTENTIAL FOR SIMULTANEOUS WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND ENERGY RECOVERY2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonia rich wastewaters pose risk to recipient waters and the atmosphere, and can be difficult to treat in wastewater treatment plants (WTTP) due to toxicity to the microbes in conventional biological treatment systems. This article presents an idea on how to use a combination of bacteria and microalgae for efficient treatment of wastewaters with high ammonia concentrations (200-1400 mg/L). The challenge in this research is that most algae species are sensitive to high ammonia concentrations (>1 mM)(Abalde and Mezzamo, 2009). Despite the numerous wastewaters that contain high ammonia concentrations, i.e. landfill leachate, piggery manure, reject water and biogas digestate, the progress in finding sustainable treatment methods is taking time. This despite the fact that climate change, eutrophication and eco-toxicity is negatively affected by this commonly occurring component. Further, nitrogen is a valuable nutrient that in conventional WWTP is just released into the air without any recycling or recovery.

    In this article, we present a study where algae were cultivated as a mean for treatment of wastewater reject water and swine manure from a piggery farm. The algae inoculum was pretreated from lake water, sampled in mid Sweden during summer algae blooms. Lake Mälaren is a shallow lake with a rich algae consortia, optimized for the local climate. During seasonal algae blooms, the lake demonstrates the extremely rapid growth rate of the algae such as cyanobacteria, green algae and diatoms. Algae inoculum, wastewater substrate and dilution media (tap water) were mixed in various ranges of ammonium concentrations to evaluate the nutrient removal and algae biomass growth. During the algae cultivation experiment, chlorophyll, optical density and TS were used as indicators for algae biomass growth. Flow Injection System (FIA) was used for nutrient analysis.

    The two main findings in this research are that algae growth is inhibited by ammonia but that it is possible to grow algae in readily high ammonia concentrations. Moreover, significant amount of ammonium were removed by algae during the cultivation in the reactors.

  • 28.
    Kurdve, Martin
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Romvall, Karin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Bellgran, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik.
    Torstensson, Emma
    A systematic approach for identifying lean and green improvements related to packaging material in assembly2011Ingår i: Proceedings of the Swedish Production Symposium 2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One significant environmental impact from assembly operations includes packaging material use and subsequent waste generation. Although current practice involves reduction of unnecessary materials handling, there is potential to adapt packaging material in order to simultaneously improve the environmental performance and reduce cost in a “lean and green” mindset. Hence, with increased emphasis on sustainable and efficient production systems, there is a growing need for analysis and decision support tools to be used by operators and engineers as well as management. This paper approaches the gap by presenting an industrial application in the form of a set of simplistic analysis methods, as a systematic approach for identifying lean and green improvement potentials for packaging material in assembly. The methodology uses the advantages of eco-mapping, waste sorting analysis and material handling analysis and combines them with the systematic prioritisation of the five-step waste hierarchy and Bill of Material (BOM) structure. A pilot test indicates that a systematic use of these tools can be an efficient decision support for implementing focused improvements, providing cost reductions, productivity improvements and resource savings. Hence, the methodology adds to the general assembly optimisation toolbox, providing rapid answers for packaging decisions, including materials usage, handling and disposal processes.

  • 29. Nehrenheim, Emma
    Introduction to Renewable Energy2013Ingår i: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable energy is distinguished from fossil energy, or non-renewables, by the time it takes to form. Renewable energy uses energy from the sun, winds, waves and other direct energies or forces. Also bio-fuels are considered as renewable, even though there is no balance between the production and e.g. incineration of the material. Compared to fossil fuels, formed from the degradation of prehistoric organic material, biomass formed in modern times at least releases no ancient carbon (as CO2) to the atmosphere. The renewable energy sector is rapidly becoming more feasible due to the increased threat to our planet of global warming caused by burning of fossil fuels.

  • 30.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ribé, Veronica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Carlsson, Peter
    Structor Miljöteknik.
    Eneroth, Peder
    Flexiclean.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Treatment of heavily contaminated storm water from an industrial site area by filtration through an adsorbent barrier with pine bark (Pinus Silvestris), polonite and active carbon in a comparison study2011Ingår i: Water and Industry, IWA Specialist conference, 1-5 May 2011, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate a simple and robust filtration method for separation of of heavy metals from storm water. The storm water, collected at a metals manufacturing site, is heavily contaminated with heavy metals, A first analysis of a water sample collected from the site in mid Sweden showed exceptionally high concentrations of especially Zn, which was present in concentrations exceeding 200 mgL-1. The basic idea is to filter the water as it flows out of the industry area through a passive barrier in the storm water well pipeline. The advantages with using pine bark are many,  it is, for instance, a waste material that can be recycled into a new life cycle step and it has been shown to be a promising materia in previous studies l for capturing  heavy metal contaminants . Pine bark was in this study compared to two other materials; polonite and the conventional adsorbent active carbon. The forestry by-product pine bark (Pinus silvestris) consists of approximately 85-90 % dried and granulated pine bark and 10-15 % wood fibres. Polonite is a manufactured product originating from the cretaceous rock opoka. A laboratory  experiment was  set up, where  the storm water from the industrial site was filtered through all three filter materials in a pilot-scale model of the proposed installation. The filter cartridge model could be filled with approximately 2.2 L filter material. 3 L of the storm water was poured through the material through natural percolation, approximately 0.35 Lmin-1. Treated and untreated storm water was analyzed for heavy metals, suspended solids, electric conductivity and pH. Active carbon showed the highest level of adsorption, with nearly 100 % of all metals adsorbing to the filter. However, significant concentrations of As was desorbed from the material into the filtered water. Pine bark retained 90 % of the metals, even the Zn which was present in high concentrations. Polonite could only adsorb 70 % of the heavy metals and released Cr from the material.

  • 31.
    Nilsson, My
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Lindberg, Anna
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Förnybar energi från biogasproduktion genom algodlingar i deponilakvatten.: En studie av algodlingar i sju olika deponilakvatten.2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 32.
    Nizami, A. S.
    et al.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Rehan, M.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Waqas, M.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Naqvi, Muhammad
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ouda, O. K. M.
    Prince Mohamed Bin Fahd Univ, Al Khobar, Saudi Arabia.
    Shahzad, K.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Miandad, R.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Khan, M. Z.
    Aligarh Muslim Univ, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Syamsiro, M.
    Janabadra Univ, Indonesia.
    Ismail, I. M. I.
    King Abdulaziz Univ, CEES, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Pant, Deepak
    Flemish Inst Technol Res VITO, Mol, Belgium.
    Waste biorefineries: Enabling circular economies in developing countries2017Ingår i: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 241, s. 1101-1117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to examine the potential of waste biorefineries in developing countries as a solution to current waste disposal problems and as facilities to produce fuels, power, heat, and value-added products. The waste in developing countries represents a significant source of biomass, recycled materials, chemicals, energy, and revenue if wisely managed and used as a potential feedstock in various biorefinery technologies such as fermentation, anaerobic digestion (AD), pyrolysis, incineration, and gasification. However, the selection or integration of biorefinery technologies in any developing country should be based on its waste characterization. Waste biorefineries if developed in developing countries could provide energy generation, land savings, new businesses and consequent job creation, savings of landfills costs, GHG emissions reduction, and savings of natural resources of land, soil, and groundwater. The challenges in route to successful implementation of biorefinery concept in the developing countries are also presented using life cycle assessment (LCA) studies.

  • 33.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Tan, Yuting
    Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Sensitivity study of thermo-physical properties of gas phase on absorber design for CO2 capture using monoethanolamine2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2305-2310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Absorption of CO2 with aqueous amines in post-combustion capture is characterized as mass transfer process with chemical reaction. Hydrodynamics and mass transfer in gas and liquid phases in a packed column have significant influences on absorber design especially for the design of packing height. In this paper, the sensitivity study has been conducted to investigate the impacts of gas phase density, viscosity and diffusivity on the hydrodynamics and mass transfer and further the total packing height of a countercurrent flow with random packing column, using reactive absorption process and integral rate-based models. Results show that density and diffusivity have opposite effect to viscosity. Amongst various properties, diffusivity has the most significant effect on the packing height compared to density and viscosity. Overestimation of diffusivity of 5% may result in decrease of 3.2% of packing height. Moreover, developing more accurate diffusivity model should be prioritized for more accurate absorber design. 

  • 34.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Ericsson, Anders
    Brunnby Farm, HS Konsult, Västerås, Sweden.
    Pell, Mikael
    Swedish Univ Agr Sc, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Use of organic wastes in agriculture2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, s. 2472-2476Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As the number of biogas plants and wastewater treatment plants continues to grow, there is an urgent need to find sustainable usage of the organic wastes produced in these facilities Recycling of organic wastes within agriculture can reduce the need for mineral fertilizer and restore organic carbon deficiency in the soil. The results from a 16-year long field experiment, where agricultural lands have been amended using sewage sludge and biogas residue is presented in this paper. Plant nutrients, organic contaminants and metals have been analyzed in order to evaluate the impact of the wastes on soil and crop quality. The results show that only small differences in plant uptake of metals and organic pollutants appear after 16 years. In addition, biogas residues performed well as a fertilizers, although not as well as mineral fertilizers.

  • 35.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Microbiological degradation of explosives in bioreactor2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Odlare, Monica
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Microbiological degradation of explosives in bioreactor2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Olsson, A.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Grönkvist, S.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Lind, Mårten
    ZeroMission, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    The elephant in the room - A comparative study of uncertainties in carbon offsets2016Ingår i: Environmental Science and Policy, ISSN 1462-9011, E-ISSN 1873-6416, Vol. 56, s. 32-38Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The clean development mechanism (CDM) is a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol, which makes it possible for developed countries to offset their emissions of greenhouse gases through investing in climate change mitigation projects in developing countries. When the mitigation benefit of a CDM project is quantified, measurable uncertainties arise that can be minimised using established statistical methods. In addition, some unmeasurable uncertainties arise, such as the rebound effect of demand-side energy efficiency projects. Many project types related to land use, land-use change and forestry (LULUCF) have been excluded from the CDM in part because of the high degree of statistical uncertainty in measurements of the carbon sink and risk of non-permanence. However, recent discussions within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have opened up for the possibility of including more LULUCF activities in the future. In the light of this discussion, we highlight different aspects of uncertainties in LULUCF projects (e.g. the risk of non-permanence and the size of the carbon sink) in relation to other CDM project categories such as renewables and demand-side energy efficiency. We quantify the uncertainties, compare the magnitudes of the uncertainties in different project categories and conclude that uncertainties could be just as significant in CDM project categories such as renewables as in LULUCF projects. The CDM is a useful way of including and engaging developing countries in climate change mitigation and could be a good source of financial support for LULUCF mitigation activities. Given their enormous mitigation potential, we argue that additional LULUCF activities should be included in the CDM and other future climate policy instruments. Furthermore, we note that Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) are currently being submitted to the UNFCCC by developing countries. Unfortunately, the under-representation of LULUCF in comparison to its potential is evident in the NAMAs submitted so far, just as it has been in the CDM. Capacity building under the CDM may influence NAMAs and there is a risk of transferring the view on uncertainties to NAMAs. 

  • 38.
    Olsson, Jesper
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Mesophilic and thermophilic co-digestion of microalgal-based activated sludge and primary sludgeIngår i: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 39. Sivertun, Åke
    et al.
    Le Duc, Michael
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    A Systems Analysis of Pollutants Flow in an Area and their Environmental Impact Modelled by a Geographic Information System (GIS)1998Ingår i: Systems engineering models for waste management, 1998Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Stigson, B.
    et al.
    Stigson and Partners AB, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    A future resource and pollution constrained world-An agenda for a new partnership between business, governments and academia2015Ingår i: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 98, s. 255-259Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The world will undergo rapid and profound developments during the coming decades. This is due to a number of global mega trends, such as population growth, poverty alleviation and urbanisation. The result is a future that will be both resource and pollution constrained. Following the development of the past decades, this future also includes increased systems complexity and an interconnected world. To deal with these challenges, the global society must move towards a more collaborative approach that builds on a grand coalition of stakeholders. Building on experiences from global business, international policy advisory positions and research, this opinion-piece discusses items on an agenda to deal with the challenges in creating a sustainable future. 

  • 41.
    Stigson, Peter
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    The Resource Nexus: Linkages Between Resource Systems2013Ingår i: Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, Elsevier, 2013Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Resources are basic elements in building and operating our societies. Some are more fundamental than others, such as energy, water and food. These resources cannot however be viewed in isolation, as linkages between them mean that scarcity in one resource system can affect other systems. Moreover, competition and prices of resources are expected to increase. Planning and research on resources should thus consider such linkages and the status of ecosystems when analyzing how resources can be supplied both sustainably and resiliently.

  • 42.
    Svensson, Kalle
    et al.
    SLU, Sweden.
    Odlare, Monica
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Pell, Mikael
    SLU, Sweden.
    The fertilizing effect of compost and anaerobic digestion residues from source separated household waste.2003Ingår i: Biological Processing of Organics: Advances for a Sustainable Society., 2003Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 43.
    Svensson, Sandra
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Förenklad riskbedömning av byggvaruprodukter innehållande kemiska ämnen: För anställdas hälsa på kommunalägda Bostads AB Mimer2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is about chemical products from the construction industry which are being used by the company Bostads AB Mimer (Mimer), owned by the municipality Västerås in Sweden. The company owns apartments and houses around the city. The aim of this bachelor thesis is to do a simplified risk assessment of the chemical products from a health and  environmental point. The report also gives suggestions of substitutional products. The thesis work consists of a literature study, an analysis of how other companies within the housing sector are working with chemical products and a case study, in addition to the simplified risk assessment. The case study contains a selection of Mimer's chemical products. In order to succeed with the simplified risk assessment, the chemical product’s risks and hazards has been identified through safety data sheets (SDS). Different aspects have been taken into account in the simplified risk assessment. The selection of the chemical products were made after existence frequency and legislative product labeling. The report's results gave 16 selected chemical products, that are risk assessed. Of the 16 chemical products, eight products have a high risk score from a heath point. Suggestions of less hazardous chemical products are given to nine chemical products. The essay's conclusions are that some of the selected chemical products are hazardous to the health and the environment, due to their chemical substances. The staff at Mimer's has a high frequency of use of the chemical products in general. Most of the other companies in the housing sector that  were investigated in the analysis, had a systematic work on chemicals.

  • 44.
    Söderbaum, Peter
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, Sweden.
    Economics, Ethics and Environmental Problems1986Ingår i: Journal of Interdisciplinary Economics, ISSN 0260-1079, E-ISSN 2321-5305, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 139-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The relevance and usefulness of mainstream or neoclassical economics has been questioned more in some fields of inquiry than in others. Against the background of an attempt to characterize environmental problems, the fruitfulness of conventional ideas of economic analysis, as carried out inpractice in the form of cost-benefit analysis is questioned. Alternative approaches judged to be more compatible with environmental problems are indicated.

    It is argued that cost-benefit analysis represents a closed ethic or ideology and that approaches which open the way for various possible ethical or ideological standpoints are more promising. Different principles of resource allocation or housekeeping should be considered and the idea of only one "scientifically correct" or "true" principle abandoned. Non-monetary principles of housekeeping, such as specific versions of ecological ethics, are not "less economic" than the now dominant monetary principles.

  • 45.
    Tan, Sieting
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Univ Teknol Malaysia, Johor, Malaysia.
    Yang, Jin
    Beijing Normal Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Development of the Low-carbon City Indicator (LCCI) Framework2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2516-2522Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a 3-layer top-down indicator framework for the evaluation, implementation and standardization of low carbon cities (LCC). Layer 1 accounts for city carbon emission related indicators. Layer 2 expands the scope of layer 1 and probes into factors closely related to carbon emissions. Layer 3 focus on the implementation pathways. Specifically, we laid the focus on Layer 2 in this paper. An indicator system for the evaluation of LCC was established from the perspectives of economic, energy pattern, technology, social and living, carbon & environment, urban accessibility and waste. A comprehensive evaluation method was employed for city ranking in terms of low carbon level. The framework was then applied to 10 global cities to rank their low carbon levels. Results showed that the low carbon level of cities in Europe is much higher than that in Asia (Beijing) and America (New York) due to better environmental performance and infrastructure supports caused by less human activities. 

  • 46.
    Tan, Yuting
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Nookuea, Worrada
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Li, Hailong
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Zhao, Li
    Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi. Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Property impacts on performance of CO2 pipeline transport2015Ingår i: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, s. 2261-2267Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is one of the most potential technologies to mitigate climate change. Using pipelines to transport CO2 from emission sources to storage sites is one of common and mature technologies. The design and operation of pipeline transport process requires careful considerations of thermo-physical properties. This paper studied the impact of properties, including density, viscosity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, on the performance of CO2 pipeline transport. The pressure loss and temperature drop in steady state were calculated by using homogenous friction model and Sukhof temperature drop theory, respectively. The results of sensitivity study show that over-estimating density and viscosity increases the pressure loss while under-estimating of density and viscosity decreases it. Over-estimating density and heat capacity leads to lower temperature drop while underestimating of density and heat capacity result in higher temperature drop. This study suggests that the accuracy of property models for example, more accurate density model, should be developed for the CO2 transport design. 

  • 47.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Ek, Mats
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Fridolfson, Magnus
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Hazard assessment of untreated and biologically treated landfill leachate using toxicity tests - lessons learnt from some Swedish case studies2009Ingår i: Ogolnopolska Konferencja naukowa inzynieria ekologiczna. Polish Academy of Science Monography Nr. 56 / [ed] Hanna Obarska Pempkowiak, Gdansk: Polish Academy of Science , 2009, s. 381-392Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 48.
    Waara, Sylvia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Institutionen för samhällsteknik. Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Waara, Karl-Otto
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Forsberg, Åke
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för hållbar samhälls- och teknikutveckling.
    Fridolfsson, Magnus
    Performance of a constructed wetland system for treatment of landfill leachate.2008Ingår i: Waste 2008. Waste and Resource management-A shared responsibility, 2008, s. 655-667Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a constructed wetland for treatment of landfill leachate has been evaluated based upon data obtained during 4 years (2003-2006). It consists of a series of 10 ponds with a total capacity of 52.000 m3 covering 8 ha. Using univariate and multivariate statistics (PCA) the reduction pattern of a large number of chemical parameters including heavy metals has been investigated in 3 parts of the wetland with equal volume. Analyses show that many parameters are removed to the greatest extent in the first part of the system (e.g. many heavy metals, total suspended solids) or the second part of the system (N-NH4) while other parameters such as total nitrogen are more gradually reduced (10 ton/year removed).  Toxicity testing with 5 bioassays showed that toxicity was sometimes observed at the inlet but no toxicity was observed at the outlet for 4 of the test species. The data presented will be used for optimizing the treatment process as well as to improve the monitoring program.

  • 49.
    Wredh, Gustav
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Kohlin, John
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    En fallstudie över miljömålsarbetet på fyra länsstyrelser: Beskrivning och analys av det regionala miljömålsarbetet i Mellansverige.2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Miljömålssystemet är något som involverar hela samhället, från riksdag och regering, till den medborgare som via sina vardagsbeslut kan påverka om miljökvalitetsmålen nås. Länsstyrelserna är de som ansvarar för det regionala arbetet med miljömålssystemet och de ska verka för att målen nås i respektive län och svara för regional uppföljning. Länsstyrelsen har i sin roll som regional miljömyndighet även en övergripande och samordnade funktion i miljömålsarbetet, tillsammans med kommuner, näringsliv och frivilliga organisationer. På Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands län är det miljöenheten som har hand om miljömålsarbetet och de har önskat undersöka hur miljömålsarbetet kan effektiviseras och förbättras internt och externt. För närvarande arbetar inte länsstyrelsen efter någon arbetsplanering. För att underlätta för Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands läns arbete att ta fram förslag till förbättringar och effektiviseringar i sitt interna och externa miljömålsarbete har studiens huvudsakliga syften och mål varit att presentera arbetsmetoder samt situationer på andra län i Mellansverige samt att kartlägga externa intressenters meningar om hur Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands län bör verka i sin samordnande roll. Detta genomfördes som en fallstudie över fyra länsstyrelsers miljömålsarbete, där miljömålssamordnarna på respektive länsstyrelse fick svara på frågor utifrån fyra problemkategorier; resurser, prioritet, struktur och målsättning. De externa intressenterna, (kommuner, företag och en intresseorganisation) blev även de intervjuade för att undersöka deras åsikter om hur de vill att länsstyrelsen bör verka i sin samordnande roll.

    En övergripande inblick över Sveriges miljöbudget utfördes där effekter av budgetnedskärningar belystes. Sveriges miljöbudget för år 2013 ligger på 4,9 miljarder kronor vilket är en minskning mot det föregående året. Miljöbudgeten beräknas även bli lägre i framtiden än beräknat. Vissa projekt som syftar till att förbättra kvaliteten på den svenska miljön har drabbats negativt av detta på grund av minskade finansiella resurser.

    För att få en fördjupad förståelse i miljömålssystemet och dess möjliga brister genomfördes även en litteraturstudie. Denna visade att miljömålssystemet är ett så kallat MBO, Management By Objective, eller på svenska, målstyrning. Det är ett system som bygger på målsättning för att styra en organisation åt en önskad riktning, eller som i detta fall samhället, mot en hållbar ekologisk utveckling. Miljömålssystemet är uppbyggd som en hierarki, där generationsmålet befinner sig i toppen och har en övergripande vision och de 16 miljökvalitetsmålen befinner sig på botten och har en mer specifik utformning. För att kunna uppnå generationsmålet och miljökvalitetsmålen finns etappmål som anger steg på vägen till måluppfyllelsen av dessa. Systemet involverar hela samhället, där några särskilt viktiga aktörer, förutom riksdag och regering, beslutar om målen, bland annat Naturvårdsverket, länsstyrelserna, kommunerna samt näringslivet.

    MBO eller målstyrning anses ha en rad positiva effekter, men kräver emellertid att vissa villkor är uppfyllda för att tekniken ska fungera ändamålsenligt. Enligt litteraturen så tycks dessa villkor inte vara uppfyllda och därmed är fallet så att målstyrning inte att kan anses vara att föredra som ett sätt att styra. Även vid formulering av miljömål finns det särskilda krav som bör uppfyllas för att målen ska verka önskvärda. Dessa ska heller inte krocka med andra mål. När det gäller svenska miljökvalitetsmål anses vissa inte uppfylla kraven. Vid uppföljning av miljökvalitetsmålen används en rad indikatorer för att kontinuerligt undersöka och följa tillståndet i miljön. Dock har fokus legat på kvantifierbar data och gör det därmed svårt att mäta estetiska värden som vissa av miljökvalitetsmålen uttrycker, exempelvis storslagenheten i miljökvalitetsmålet ”Storslagen fjällmiljö”. Det finns även en rad målkonflikter kopplat till miljömålssystemet, både externa konflikter som är de mest vanliga och allvarligast förekommande, samt interna målkonflikter som är mer sällsynta.

    Antalet personer som är direkt involverade i miljömålsarbete varierar mellan länsstyrelserna. Två av länsstyrelserna har en heltidstjänst, medan de två andra har en halvtidstjänst för miljömålssamordning. Även antalet miljömålsansvariga samt dagar avsatta för miljömålsarbete varierar mellan länsstyrelserna. Men tiden för miljömålssamordnare eller miljömålsansvariga uppges som otillräcklig för ålagda uppgifter.  Även de neddragningar som sker i miljöbudgeten kan märkas av på länsstyrelserna både i det allmänna miljöarbetet och i direkta miljömålsmedel.

    Det är ett fåtal av miljömålssamordnarna som upplever att miljömålsarbetet är klart prioriterat på sin respektive länsstyrelse och detta kan bero på att ledningen på länsstyrelserna inte anser att det är en del av den ordinarie verksamheten utan en aktivitet på sidan, som i och med detta lätt kan bli nedprioriterat. Just ledningen, anser samtliga miljösamordnare, spelar en stor roll för hur miljömålsarbetet prioriteras.  Om miljömålsarbetet nedprioriteras kan det bli svårare att nå miljömålen. För att undvika detta och istället få miljömålsarbetet prioriterat krävs det, enligt miljömålssamordnarna, klara riktlinjer, politiska åtgärder, ständig förnyelse och nya idéer.  Men för detta behövs det resurser och detta verkar det vara brist på inom miljöområdet i stort, förutom i vissa prioriterade områden, som exempelvis klimatarbete.

    Gällande strukturen för länsstyrelserna, så uppger ingen av de fyra miljösamordnarna att det bedrivs någon form av utbildning om miljömålssystemet för länsstyrelsernas anställda, dock finns planer på att införa det hos några. Samtliga miljösamordnare uppger att det sker samordning med externa intressenter inom deras län, men att det är mer indirekt kopplat mot miljömålen. Någon uppföljning av åtgärdsprogrammen förekommer inte eftersom länsstyrelserna eftersom de antingen inte har några aktuella åtgärdsprogram eller att det inte är fastställt hur programmen ska följas upp.

    Miljömålssamordnarna anser att målsättningen rörande de nationella miljökvalitetsmålen är för visionära och behövs konkretiseras mer, men de täcker in relevanta områden där miljöproblemen finns. Alla länsstyrelser har kommit i kontakt med målkonflikter i sitt arbete, bland annat när områdena jakt och biologisk mångfald ställs mot varandra. Ingen av länsstyrelserna har uppdaterade regionala mål då det anses vara för tidskrävande att regionalisera de nationella målen och samtidigt hålla dem uppdaterade.

    Samtliga av de externa intressenter vi intervjuat i denna studie arbetar på något sätt med miljöfrågor. Samverkan mellan Länsstyrelsen Västmanlands län och intressenterna gällande miljömålsarbete sker, även om det mestadels är indirekt. De externa intressenterna anser inte att länsstyrelsens samordning är märkbar och önskar en förbättring inom detta område, även att länsstyrelsen ska etablera en större kontakt utåt mot både kommuner och företag.

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