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  • 1.
    Cronstrand, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jansik, B.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jonsson, D.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Luo, Y.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ågren, H.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Density functional theory calculations of three-photon absorption2004In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, Vol. 121, no 19, p. 9239-9246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-photon absorption probabilities delta(3PA) have been calculated through application of a recently derived method for cubic response functions within density functional theory (DFT). Calculations are compared with Hartree-Fock (HF) and with a coupled cluster hierarchy of models in a benchmarking procedure. Except for cases having intermediate states near resonance, density functional theory is demonstrated to be in sufficient agreement with the highly correlated methods in order to qualify for predictions of delta(3PA). For the larger systems addressed, a set of acceptor A and donor D substituted pi-conjugated systems formed by trans-stilbene and dithienothiophene (DTT), we find noticeable differences in the magnitude of delta(3PA) between HF and DFT, although similar trends are followed. It is shown that the dipolar structures, TS-AD and DTT-AD, have substantially larger delta(3PA) than other types of modifications which is in accordance with observations for two-photon absorption. This is the first application of density functional theory to three-photon absorption beyond the use of few-state models.

  • 2.
    Cronstrand, P.
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norman, P.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Luo, Y.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ågren, H
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Few-states models for three-photon absorption2004In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 2020-2029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Few-states models are derived for the calculation of three-photon absorption matrix elements. Together with earlier derived few-states models for two-photon absorption, the models are evaluated against results from response theory calculations that provide the full sum-over-states values. It is demonstrated that not even for systems with charge-transfer character, where few-states models for two-photon absorption are in excellent agreement with response theory, do the models provide a quantitatively correct description for three-photon absorption. The convergence behavior, merits, and shortcomings of the models are elucidated in some detail. The role of various characteristics of the electronic structure, such as symmetry, charge transfer, and conjugation-important for the formation of a large three-photon cross section-is analyzed. As for two-photon absorption cross sections, it is essential to consider generalized few-states models also for three-photon absorption, that is, to account for dipolar directions and laser beam polarization. Despite their poor quantitative performance, it is argued that few-states models at times can be useful for interpretation purposes when applied to three-photon absorption. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics.

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