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  • 1.
    Adobah-Otchey, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Risk-Efficient Portfolios; Estimation Error In Essence2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis primarily looks at estimation error problems and other related issues arising in connection with portfolio optimization. With some available assets, a portfolio program or optimizer seeks to distribute a fixed amount of capital among these available assets to optimize some cost function. In this regard, Markowitz portfolio selection basis defines the variance of the portfolio return to being that of the portfolio risk and tries to find an allocation that reduces or minimizes the risk subject to a target mean or expected return. Should the mean return vector and the covariance matrix of returns for the underlying assets be known, the Markowitz problem is said to have a closed-form solution.

    In practice, however, an estimation is made from historical data for unknown expected returns and the covariance matrix of the returns, and this brings into the domain several problems such as estimation problems and renders the Markowitz theory impracticable in real-life portfolio applications. Estimators necessary to remedy these problems would be made bare to show how possible it is to tackle such issues.

    In the concept demonstration sections, the analysis starts with the price data of 40 stocks and the S\&P index. The efficient frontier is introduced and used to show how the estimators take effect.

    Finally, implementation is made possible using the R Programming Language to demonstrate the necessary concepts with the conclusion presented at the end.

  • 2.
    Allahviranloo, Tofigh
    et al.
    Azad University, Teheran, Iran.
    Arjan, Skuka
    Izmir University, Izmir, Turkey.
    Tahvili, Sahar
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    On the global solution of a fuzzy linear system2014In: Journal of Fuzzy Set Valued Analysis, ISSN 2193-4169, article id jfsva-00190Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The global solution of a fuzzy linear system contains the crisp vector solution of a real linear system. So discussion about the global solution of a  fuzzy linear system  with a fuzzy number vector  in the right hand side and crisp a coefficient matrix  is considered. The advantage of the paper is developing a new algorithm to find the solution of such system by considering a global solution based upon the concept of a convex fuzzy numbers. At first the existence and uniqueness of the solution are introduced and then the related theorems and properties about the solution are proved in details. Finally the method is illustrated by solving some numerical examples.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Fredrik K.
    et al.
    WorldLight.com AB, Sweden.
    Silvestrov, Sergei
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    The mathematics of internet search engines2008In: Acta Applicandae Mathematicae - An International Survey Journal on Applying Mathematics and Mathematical Applications, ISSN 0167-8019, E-ISSN 1572-9036, Vol. 104, no 2, p. 211-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a survey of techniques for ranking results in search engines, with emphasis on link-based ranking methods and the PageRank algorithm. The problem of selecting, in relation to a user search query, the most relevant documents from an unstructured source such as the WWW is discussed in detail. The need for extending classical information retrieval techniques such as boolean searching and vector space models with link-based ranking methods is demonstrated. The PageRank algorithm is introduced, and its numerical and spectral properties are discussed. The article concludes with an alternative means of computing PageRank, along with some example applications of this new method.

  • 4.
    Armas, Ivan
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Multiplikationstabellen: Multiplikationstabellen2010Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med mitt arbete är att belysa vilka metoder som finns för att eleven ska lära sig multiplikationstabellen, och vikten av utantill kunnande av multiplikationstabellen för eleven. Arbetet tar upp viktiga faktorer som påverkar kunnandet av multiplikationstabellen t.ex. miniräknaren och forskning om minnet. För att kunna uppfylla mitt syfte intervjuade jag tre erfarna pedagoger som uttalar sig om detta. Jag studerade vad pedagogerna anser om utantill kunnande av multiplikationstabellen, vilka metoder de använder för att lära ut tabellerna och vad de anser om miniräknaren som hjälpmedel. Jag har också använt mig av litteratur som handlar om minnet och vad som finns för grund inom forskningen för inlärningen av multiplikationstabellerna. Genom en kvalitativ analys av mitt resultat har jag kommit fram till att utantill kunnande av multiplikationstabellen förenklar och underlättar för eleven. Det ger ett bra verktyg för eleven för en fortsatt utveckling inom matematik.

  • 5.
    Arnlind, Joakim
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (AEI), Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Golm, Germany.
    Makhlouf, Abdenacer
    Université de Haute Alsace, Lab. de Mathématiques Informatique et Applications, 4, rue des Frères Lumière, F-68093 Mulhouse, France.
    Silvestrov, Sergei
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Construction of n-Lie algebras and n-ary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras2011In: Journal of Mathematical Physics, ISSN 0022-2488, E-ISSN 1089-7658, Vol. 52, no 12, p. 123502-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As n-ary operations, generalizing Lie and Poisson algebras, arise in many different physical contexts, it is interesting to study general ways of constructing explicit realizations of such multilinear structures. Generically, they describe the dynamics of a physical system, and there is a need of understanding their quantization. Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras provide a framework that might be an appropriate setting in which n-Lie algebras (n-ary Nambu-Lie algebras) can be deformed, and their quantization studied. We present a procedure to construct (n + 1)-ary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras from n-ary Hom-Nambu-Lie algebras equipped with a generalized trace function. It turns out that the implications of the compatibility conditions, that are necessary for this construction, can be understood in terms of the kernel of the trace function and the range of the twisting maps. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of defining (n + k)-Lie algebras from n-Lie algebras and a k-form satisfying certain conditions. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3653197]

  • 6.
    Björkström, Angela
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Is it all in their heads?: A study of the strategies used in mental arithmetic by Swedish pupils in their last years of the obligatory school and in the upper secondary school2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competence in mental arithmetic is recognised by many as essential to be active participants in the fast flowing, high technological society we live in today.  Many have noticed pupils’ unwillingness to set their calculators aside and practice this aspect of mathematics when possible.  Furthermore, some studies show that pupils’ ability to compute mentally deteriorates as they pass through the school system.  Through testing classes in a Swedish obligatory school and an upper secondary school, the aim of this thesis is to see if the goals set by The National [Swedish] Agency for Education regarding mental arithmetic, are being fulfilled.  Through using questionnaires to collect the strategies and ideas of the pupils, a wide range of problematic mathematical misconceptions became evident.  These are highlighted since they are important aspects teachers should be aware of.  The results of this study show that the obligatory school classes are far from reaching the goals set for them whereas the upper secondary classes show good results.  Furthermore, there is an apparent improvement in their progression, resulting in a fulfilment the official goals.  Many pupils however, seem reluctant to rely on their mental arithmetic capabilities and resort to algorithmic strategies.  Other problems to emerge are in carrying out table calculations and in a lack of number sense when deeming if the answers are reasonable.   

  • 7.
    Blom, Veronica
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Gelius-Lundberg, Ulrika
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Samband mellan de fyra räknesätten- en läromedelsanalys2012Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sambandet mellan de fyra räknesätten är en del i utvecklingen av den matematiska förståelsen. Syftet med denna studie är att analysera hur ett antal olika läromedel i matematik riktade till årskurs 1-3 tar upp dessa samband. Med läromedel menas då läroböcker, samt tillhörande lärarhandledningar. Resultatet visar att flertalet av de analyserade läromedlen inte tar upp alla samband, medan ett fåtal tar upp alla samband men i olika stor omfattning. Dessutom visar analysen hur viktig lärarhandledningen är för att ge eleverna fler övningstillfällen i att träna de fyra sambanden, eftersom en stor del av dessa tillfällen förekommer i lärarhandledningen och inte i läroböckerna. Lärare som endast följer ett enskilt läromedel i sin undervisning kan alltså gå miste om mycket när det gäller sambandet mellan de fyra räknesätten.

  • 8.
    Bonner, Richard
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Operators that coerce the surjectivity of convolution2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Considered are operators that leave the set of non-invertible (in the sense of Ehrenpreis) distributions stable. They simultaneously generalise the operation of convolution by a distribution with compact support and the operation of multiplication by a real analytic function; they are here called pseudo-convolutions since they also generalise pseudo-differential operators. (It is shown that the elliptic real analytic pseudo-differential operators leave both the non-invertible and the invertible distributions invariant.) But when the condition of real-analyticity is relaxed, such operators may map a non-invertible distribution to one invertible -- given that the invertibility in both cases concerns the same function space. By varying the space, however, one can measure the 'loss of non-invertibily' that a non-analytic perturbation may introduce. This phenomenon is here studied using the Beurling classes of functions and measuring the regularity of operator symbols in the Denjoy-Carleman sense; the Gevrey case turns out particularly simple.

  • 9.
    Bonner, Richard F.
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Mamchych, Tetyana I.
    RFB Consulting, Sweden.
    Classifying Households by the (Sobolev) Norms of their Electricity Consumption2014In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 61, p. 1870-1873Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical time series, but especially periodic such, are characterized up to pertinent symmetries by families of norms. The electricity consumption by a household, recorded daily during a month’s time, say, may then be encoded in a sequence of numbers; for example, as follows: the mean daily consumption, the mean daily variation of the consumption, the variation of the variation, the variation of the variation of the variation, etc. Now, replacing each of these numbers by the digits 0, 1, or 2, to say that a number is “low”, “medium”, or “high”, in relation to a collection of households, one naturally partitions the collection by the strings of these three digits; the household labeled 102   has then medium daily consumption, low daily variation, but high variation of variation, etc. We generally discuss this innocent idea and examine it in three ways: by way of toy examples, through its mathematical model (in detail presented elsewhere) and by accordingly classifying some actual electricity consumption data.

  • 10.
    Bonner, Richard
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Mamchych, T.
    Malchuk, I.
    On the problem of mining the Web – for a curriculum2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bursell, Moa
    et al.
    Inst Futures Study, Box 591, SE-10131 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Ctr Cultural Evolut, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Diversity preferences among employees and ethnoracial workplace segregation2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 74, p. 62-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethno-racial workplace segregation increases already existing ethno-racial inequality. While previous research has identified discriminatory employers as drivers of workplace segregation, this study addresses the role of the employees. Sociological and social psychological theory suggest that people prefer to surround themselves with people who positively confirm their social identity or who contribute with higher group status. Through web-based surveys, we measure employee attitudes and preferences concerning ethno-racial workplace diversity, to what extent they differ by ethnicity/race, and if they contain intersectional patterns. Thereafter, we use simulation models to analyze the consequences for workplace segregation that these preferences would have, if realized. The main survey results showed that all ethno-racial groups favored their own in-group as colleagues, especially European Americans. As a secondary choice, the respondents preferred the out-group with the highest labor market status. Intersectional patterns were identified, as minority women were preferred as colleagues over minority men. Our simulation model, based on the results of two surveys on stated vs. indirectly revealed preferences, showed that employee preferences were at best not diverse enough to desegregate workplaces. When based on the most common preferences (i.e. excluding a few outliers), the simulations even suggested that these preferences can cause segregation. We relate these findings to Schelling's model of segregation.

  • 12.
    Carrasco, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Konkret material i matematik: Hur ser elever på det?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att studera vilken syn sju elever i årskurs fyra och fem har på konkret material i matematikundervisningen. Metoden som användes för att samla in data var sju semistrukturerade elevintervjuer. Resultatet visar att elevernas syn på användning av konkret material är att det ska ge dem ett visuellt stöd för konkretisering av abstrakt matematik där siffror och symboler dominerar. Resultatet visar även att eleverna tycker att konkret material ska ingå i undervisningen. Slutsatser som kan dras från den här studien stämmer överens med det teoretiska ramverk som används i tolkning av data, om eleverna lär sig med hjälp av modeller eller om elever använder sina kunskaper till att konstruera modeller. En konsekvens av denna studie kan vara att lärare behöver utveckla sin ämnesdidaktiska kompetens så att undervisningen harmonierar med centralt innehåll för årskurs fyra till sex i den rådande läroplanen för skolan.

  • 13.
    Cownden, Daniel
    et al.
    University of St Andrews, Scotland.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The implications of learning across perceptually and strategically distinct situations2018In: Synthese, ISSN 0039-7857, E-ISSN 1573-0964, Vol. 195, no 2, p. 511-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Game theory is a formal approach to behavior that focuses on the strategic aspect of situations. The game theoretic approach originates in economics but has been embraced by scholars across disciplines, including many philosophers and biologists. This approach has an important weakness: the strategic aspect of a situation, which is its defining quality in game theory, is often not its most salient quality in human (or animal) cognition. Evidence from a wide range of experiments highlights this shortcoming. Previous theoretical and empirical work has sought to address this weakness by considering learning across an ensemble of multiple games simultaneously. Here we extend this framework, incorporating artificial neural networks, to allow for an investigation of the interaction between the perceptual and functional similarity of the games composing the larger ensemble. Using this framework, we conduct a theoretical investigation of a population that encounters both stag hunts and prisoner's dilemmas, two situations that are strategically different but which may or may not be perceptually similar.

  • 14.
    de Barra, Mícheál
    et al.
    Centre for Culture and Evolution, Brunel University, London.
    Cownden, Daniel
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Aversive medical treatments signal a need for support: a mathematical model2019In: Evolutionary Human Sciences, E-ISSN 2513-843X, Vol. 1, p. 1-15, article id e4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ineffective, aversive and harmful medical treatments are common cross-culturally, historically and today. Using evolutionary game theory, we develop the following model to explain their persistence. Humans are often incapacitated by illness and injury, and are unusually dependent on care from others during convalescence. However, such caregiving is vulnerable to exploitation via illness deception, whereby people feign or exaggerate illness in order to gain access to care. Our model demonstrates that aversive treatments can counter-intuitively increase the range of conditions where caregiving is evolutionarily viable, because only individuals who stand to gain substantially from care will accept the treatment. Thus, contemporary and historical “ineffective” treatments may be solutions to the problem of allocating care to people whose true need is difficult to discern.

  • 15.
    de Barra, Mícheál
    et al.
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution, Stockholm, Sweden.
    How feedback biases give ineffective medical treatments a good reputation.2014In: Journal of medical Internet research, ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 16, no 8, p. e193-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Medical treatments with no direct effect (like homeopathy) or that cause harm (like bloodletting) are common across cultures and throughout history. How do such treatments spread and persist? Most medical treatments result in a range of outcomes: some people improve while others deteriorate. If the people who improve are more inclined to tell others about their experiences than the people who deteriorate, ineffective or even harmful treatments can maintain a good reputation.

    OBJECTIVE: The intent of this study was to test the hypothesis that positive outcomes are overrepresented in online medical product reviews, to examine if this reputational distortion is large enough to bias people's decisions, and to explore the implications of this bias for the cultural evolution of medical treatments.

    METHODS: We compared outcomes of weight loss treatments and fertility treatments in clinical trials to outcomes reported in 1901 reviews on Amazon. Then, in a series of experiments, we evaluated people's choice of weight loss diet after reading different reviews. Finally, a mathematical model was used to examine if this bias could result in less effective treatments having a better reputation than more effective treatments.

    RESULTS: Data are consistent with the hypothesis that people with better outcomes are more inclined to write reviews. After 6 months on the diet, 93% (64/69) of online reviewers reported a weight loss of 10 kg or more while just 27% (19/71) of clinical trial participants experienced this level of weight change. A similar positive distortion was found in fertility treatment reviews. In a series of experiments, we show that people are more inclined to begin a diet with many positive reviews, than a diet with reviews that are representative of the diet's true effect. A mathematical model of medical cultural evolution shows that the size of the positive distortion critically depends on the shape of the outcome distribution.

    CONCLUSIONS: Online reviews overestimate the benefits of medical treatments, probably because people with negative outcomes are less inclined to tell others about their experiences. This bias can enable ineffective medical treatments to maintain a good reputation.

  • 16.
    Dupuch, Marie
    et al.
    CNRS UMR 8163 STL, Universit´e Lille 3, 59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.
    Engström, Christopher
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Silvestrov, Sergei
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Hamon, Thierry
    LIM&BIO UFR SMBH Universit´e Paris 13, France.
    Grabar, Natalia
    CNRS UMR 8163 STL, Universit´e Lille 3, 59653 Villeneuve d’Ascq, France.
    Comparison of Clustering Approaches through Their Application to Pharmacovigilance Terms2013In: Artificial Intelligence in Medicine. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 7885 / [ed] Niels Peek, Roque Marín Morales, Mor Peleg, Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, p. 58-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In different applications (i.e., information retrieval, filteringor analysis), it is useful to detect similar terms and to provide the possibilityto use them jointly. Clustering of terms is one of the methods whichcan be exploited for this. In our study, we propose to test three methodsdedicated to the clustering of terms (hierarchical ascendant classification,Radius and maximum), to combine them with the semantic distance algorithmsand to compare them through the results they provide whenapplied to terms from the pharmacovigilance area. The comparison indicatesthat the non disjoint clustering (Radius and maximum) outperformthe disjoint clusters by 10 to up to 20 points in all the experiments.

  • 17.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Modeling Specialization and Division of Labor in Cultural Evolution2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Division of labor and division of knowledge are so important and common in society today that it is difficult to imagine a functional society where everyone knows the same things and performs the same tasks. In such a society everyone grows, or gathers, and prepares their own food, makes their own tools, builds their own house, and so on.

    Cultural evolution is the field of research that studies the creation and diffusion of ideas and societies. It is very uncommon for these studies to take into account the effects of specialization. This thesis will show that specialization is of great importance to cultural evolution.

    The thesis is divided into two parts: The first is an introduction to studies of specialization and division of labor. The thesis begins with an interdisciplinary survey of the research on division of labor and specialization, including both theoretic and empirical studies. Next is an introduction to modeling specialization and division of labor. This includes a general framework and a number of basic models of different aspects of specialization and division of labor.

    Part two consists of four papers. The first paper studies the interaction between specialization and cultural cumulation. The second and third papers examine cultural cumulation, specifically the circumstances under which cultural knowledge increases and how cultural knowledge is distributed in the population. The last paper is a mathematical model of how specialization of knowledge (i.e. higher education) leads to social stratification.

  • 18.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Specialization leads to feedback cycles in cultural evolutionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the interaction between specialization and cul-tural evolution. Four key components are identified from publishedempirical studies: Culture, Specialization, Production and Popula-tion. Mathematical models are used to investigate the interactionsbetween the components and the behavior of the entire system. Theresults show that specialization is both a cause and an outcome of cul-tural cumulation, which creates feedback cycles in cultural evolution.The feedback cycles can explain the drastic increase in innovation ratewe have observed throughout human history. Specialization is there-fore argued to be an integral part in understanding cultural evolution.

  • 19.
    Ehn, Micael
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Temporal Discounting Leads to Social StratificationManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social stratification is present in all modern societies. Do income dif-ferences simply reflect inherited differences in individual abilities and re-sources? If not, why does not everyone choose strategies that lead to highincome? This paper shows that the psychological phenomenon known astemporal discounting will lead to differences in educational attainmentand therefore social stratification in any society where the demand forworkers with a higher level of education is higher than for those witha lower level. The model is used to predict income differences betweenpeople with and without college education in seven developed countries,based only on official statistics of the cost and length of college education.The model explains 93 percent of the variance, strongly suggesting thattemporal discounting is a major factor behind income differences.

  • 20.
    Ehn, Micael
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Laland, Kevin
    University of St Andrews.
    Adaptive Strategies for Cumulative Cultural LearningManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demographic and ecological success of our species is frequently attributed to our capacity for cumulative culture. However, it is not yet known how humans combine social and asocial learning to generate effective strategies for learning in a cumulative cultural context. Here we explore how cumulative culture influences therelative merits of various pure and conditional learning strategies, including pure asocial and social learning, critical social learning, conditional social learning and individual refiner strategies. We replicate the Rogers’ paradox in the cumulative setting. However, our analysis suggests that strategies that resolved Rogers’ Paradoxin a non-cumulative setting may not necessarily evolve in a cumulative setting, thus different strategies will optimize cumulative and non-cumulative cultural learning.

  • 21.
    Eldstål, Linda
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Fröberg, Camilla
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Matte med attityd: Hur påverkar lärarnas attityd och undervisningsmetod elevernas inställning till matematik?2008Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med vårt examensarbete är att söka samband mellan lärares inställning och undervisningsmetoder och elevernas inställning till ämnet matematik. Vi använde oss av både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder i vår undersökning. Vi genomförde en enkätundersökning bland elever i år tre och år fyra vid två olika skolor samt intervjuade deras lärare.

     

    Resultatet av undersökningen visade att där läraren inte är bekväm i ämnet utan bara använder sig av matematikboken i undervisningen, tycker inte eleverna att matematik är särskilt roligt. Däremot i de klasser där läraren inser vikten av en varierande matematikundervisning och ett varierat arbetssätt, tycker eleverna att matematik är roligt. Detta visar att det är viktigt att variera undervisningen och behålla en pedagogisk professionalism där man förbiser sina egna åsikter för elevernas bästa.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Autism-spectrum traits predict humor styles in the general population2013In: Humor: An International Journal of Humor Research, ISSN 0933-1719, E-ISSN 1613-3722, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 461-475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that individuals with Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism tend to have impaired processing of humor and laugh at things that are not commonly found funny. Here the relationship between humor styles and the broader autism phenotype was investigated in a sample of the general population. The autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) and the humor styles questionnaire (HSQ) were administered to six hundred US participants recruited through an Internet-based service. On the whole, high scores on AQ were negatively related to positive humor styles and unrelated to negative humor styles. However, AQ subscales representing different autism-spectrum traits exhibited different patterns. In particular, the factor "poor mind-reading" was associated with higher scores on negative humor styles and the factor "attention to detail" was associated with higher scores on all humor styles, suggesting a more nuanced picture of the relationship between autism-spectrum traits and humor.

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Comment on “The Evolution of Cultural Complexity: Not by the Treadmill Alone” by Andersson & Read2016In: Current Anthropology, ISSN 0011-3204, E-ISSN 1537-5382, Vol. 57, p. 275-276Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of their thoughtful target article, Andersson and Read conclude that formal models of cultural evolution are “useful but must be kept in perspective.” As a mathematician with a great interest in social science, I have some experience of working with such models. Based on this experience, I very much agree with the “but” part of the above conclusion. I see a clear tendency in the cultural evolution literature to put too much trust in the value of formal models.

  • 24.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Andersson, P. A.
    Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Strimling, P.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    When is it appropriate to reprimand a norm violation?: The roles of anger, behavioral consequences, violation severity, and social distance2017In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 396-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on economic games typically fail to find positive reputational effects of using peer punishment of selfish behavior in social dilemmas. Theorists had expected positive reputational effects because of the potentially beneficial consequences that punishment may have on norm violators’ behavior. Going beyond the game-theoretic paradigm, we used vignettes to study how various social factors influence approval ratings of a peer who reprimands a violator of a group-beneficial norm. We found that ratings declined when punishers showed anger, and this effect was mediated by perceived aggressiveness. Thus the same emotions that motivate peer punishers may make them come across as aggressive, to the detriment of their reputation. However, the negative effect of showing anger disappeared when the norm violation was sufficiently severe. Ratings of punishers were also influenced by social distance, such that it is less appropriate for a stranger than a friend to reprimand a violator. In sum, peer punisher ratings were very high for a friend reprimanding a severe norm violation, but particularly poor for a stranger showing anger at a mild norm violation. We found no effect on ratings of whether the reprimand had the beneficial consequence of changing the violator’s behavior. Our findings provide insight into how peer punishers can avoid negative reputational effects. They also point to the importance of going beyond economic games when studying peer punishment. 

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Coultas, Julie C.
    Stockholm University.
    Corpses, maggots, poodles and rats: Emotional selection operating in three phases of cultural transmission of urban legends2014In: Journal of Cognition and Culture, ISSN 1567-7095, E-ISSN 1568-5373, Vol. 14, no 1-2, p. 1-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In one conception of cultural evolution, the evolutionary success of cultural units that are transmitted from individual to individual is determined by forces of cultural selection. Here we argue that it is helpful to distinguish between several distinct phases of the transmission process in which cultural selection can operate, such as a choose-toreceive phase, an encode-and-retrieve phase, and a choose-to-transmit phase. Here we focus on emotional selection in cultural transmission of urban legends, which has previously been shown to operate in the choose-to-transmit phase. In a series of experiments we studied serial transmission of stories based on urban legends manipulated to be either high or low on disgusting content. Results supported emotional selection operating in all three phases of cultural transmission. Thus, the prevalence of disgusting urban legends in North America may be explained by emotional selection through a multitude of pathways. 

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Humble Self-Enhancement: Religiosity and the Better-Than-Average Effect2014In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research has linked religiosity to certain forms of self-enhancement. We extend this literature by three studies linking religiosity to the well-established better-than-average effect (BAE). First, a reanalysis of self-judgments of desirable characteristics in 15 nations showed that the BAE was stronger in more religious countries, even taking into account gross domestic product, interdependence, and economic inequality. Second, in two online surveys totaling 1,000 Americans, the BAE was stronger among more religious individuals. Several observations indicated that this relation was due to individuals self-stereotyping with respect to their religious in-groups. In particular, the relation was restricted to characteristics on the warmth dimension, consistent with the religious stereotype, and the average religious in-group member tended to be judged even more favorably than self. The latter phenomenon, which we term humble self-enhancement, is consistent with other studies linking stronger religiosity to greater favoritism of the religious in-group and greater derogation of religious out-groups. 

  • 27.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Gavel, Hillevi
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Berglund, Lasse
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Tal och Rum: NT kurs AB2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Gavel, Hillevi
    Mälardalen University, Department of Mathematics and Physics. Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Berglund, Lasse
    Jonsson, Mikael
    Tal och Rum: S kurs A2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; SIMSEG, Institute for Analytical Sociology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Procedural priming of a numerical cognitive illusion2016In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy activated in one task may be transferred to subsequent tasks and prevent activation of other strategies that would otherwise come to mind, a mechanism referred to as procedural priming. In a novel application of procedural priming we show that it can make or break cognitive illusions. Our test case is the 1/k illusion, which is based on the same unwarranted mathematical shortcut as the MPG illusion and the time-saving bias. The task is to estimate distances between values of fractions on the form 1/k. Most people given this task intuitively base their estimates on the distances between the denominators (i.e., the reciprocals of the fractions), which may yield very poor estimations of the true distances between the fractions. As expected, the tendency to fall for this illusion is related to cognitive style (Study 1). In order to apply procedural priming we constructed versions of the task in which the illusion is weak, in the sense that most people do not fall for it anymore. We then gave participants both “strong illusion” and “weak illusion” versions of the task (Studies 2 and 3). Participants who first did the task in the weak illusion version would often persist with the correct strategy even in the strong illusion version, thus breaking the otherwise strong illusion in the latter task. Conversely, participants who took the strong illusion version first would then often fall for the illusion even in the weak illusion version, thus strengthening the otherwise weak illusion in the latter task.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kazemi, A.
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Törnblom, K.
    ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    A New Look at Individual Differences in Perceptions of Unfairness: The Theory of Maximally Unfair Allocations in Multiparty Situations2015In: Social Justice Research, ISSN 0885-7466, E-ISSN 1573-6725, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 401-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has demonstrated that unfairness judgments of resource allocations become more complex when there are more than two recipients. In order to explain some of this complexity, we propose a set of psychological mechanisms that may underlie four different choices of maximally unfair resource allocations (MUA): Self-Single-Loser, Self-One-Loser-of-Many, Self-Single-Winner, and Self-One-Winner-of-Many. From this psychological theory, several predictions are derived and tested in vignette studies involving a total of 708 participants recruited online using MTurk. As predicted by our theory, (1) choices of MUA where there is a single loser were much more common when the allocated resource was of negative rather than positive valence, and (2) the amount of egoistic bias individuals exhibited when judging the unfairness in receiving a small rather than a large share in a non-extreme multi-party allocation was predicted by their choices of MUA. These findings suggest that an individual’s choice of MUA reveals some generally relevant principles of how unfairness is perceived in multi-party allocations. This opens up new lines of inquiry, especially regarding research on social dilemmas and social value orientation.

  • 31.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Lindskog, Marcus
    Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Encoding of Numerical Information in Memory: Magnitude or Nominal?2017In: Journal of Numerical Cognition, ISSN 2363-8761, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 58-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In studies of long-term memory of multi-digit numbers the leading digit tends to be recalled correctly more often than less significant digits, which has been interpreted as evidence for an analog magnitude encoding of the numbers. However, upon closer examination of data from one of these studies we found that the distribution of recall errors does not fit a model based on analog encoding. Rather, the data suggested an alternative hypothesis that each digit of a number is encoded separately in long-term memory, and that encoding of one or more digits sometimes fails due to insufficient attention in which case they are simply guessed when recall is requested, with no regard for the presented value. To test this hypothesis of nominal encoding with value-independent mistakes, we conducted two studies with a total of 1,080 adults who were asked to recall a single piece of numerical information that had been presented in a story they had read earlier. The information was a three-digit number, manipulated between subjects with respect to its value (between 193 and 975), format (Arabic digits or words), and what it counted (baseball caps or grains of sand). Results were consistent with our hypothesis. Further, the leading digit was recalled correctly more often than less significant digits when the number was presented in Arabic digits but not when the number was presented in words; our interpretation of this finding is that the latter format does not focus readers’ attention on the leading digit.

  • 32.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pontus, Strimling
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Injunctive Versus Functional Inferences From Descriptive Norms: Comment on Gelfand and Harrington2015In: Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, ISSN 0022-0221, E-ISSN 1552-5422, Vol. 46, no 10, p. 1330-1332Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Simpson, B.
    University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, United States .
    Poverty Prefers Company2014In: Social Psychology and Personality Science, ISSN 1948-5506, E-ISSN 1948-5514, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 319-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In three web-based experiments, we show that both actual poverty and experimentally induced (imagined) poverty create a preference for greater inequality. Study 1, a cross-national comparison between Americans and Swedes, showed that respondents who were actually poor and those who were experimentally induced to imagine that they were poor tended to express a heightened preference for greater inequality, and for a higher proportion of poor citizens. Study 2 replicated the effects using different procedures. Study 3 showed that imagining oneself being poor increases preferences for a greater proportion of poor people, but imagining oneself being rich does not increase preferences for a greater proportion of rich people. This poverty prefers company effect might affect support for policies aiming at reducing the number of poor people.

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Vartanova, Irina
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Institutet för framtidsstudier.
    Simpson, Brent
    University of South Carolina, USA.
    Generosity Pays: Selfish People Have Fewer Children and Earn Less MoneyIn: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-3514, E-ISSN 1939-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does selfishness pay in the long term? Previous research has indicated that being otherish rather than selfish has positive consequences for psychological well-being, physical health, and relationships. Here we instead examine the consequences for individuals’ income and number of children, as these are the currencies that matter most in theories that emphasize the power of self-interest, namely economics and evolutionary thinking. Drawing on both cross-sectional (Studies 1 and 2) and panel data (Studies 3 and 4), we find that otherish individuals tend to have more children and higher income than selfish individuals. An additional survey (Study 5) of lay beliefs about how self-interest impacts income and fertility gives an indication of why selfish people persist in their behaviour even though it leads to poorer outcomes: people generally expect selfish individuals to have higher incomes. Our findings have implications for lay decisions about the allocation of scarce resources, as well as for economic and evolutionary theories of human behavior.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm Univ, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Republicans Value Agency, Democrats Value Communion2018In: Social psychology quarterly, ISSN 0190-2725, E-ISSN 1939-8999, Vol. 81, no 2, p. 173-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing on the theory of the Big Two content dimensions of social judgmentagency and communionthe author proposes that several findings about partisan differences in the United States can be integrated into one hypothesis: Republicans tend to put greater value on agency, while Democrats put greater value on communion. Moreover, on the basis of these values, Republicans and Democrats should judge their own groups as particularly superior on agency and communion, respectively. These hypotheses gained support in three studies on partisan values and ingroup bias, suggesting that the agency-communion framework may be useful for researchers studying how political groups differ in their worldviews, biases, and attitudes.

  • 36.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Instilling norms in a turmoil of spilloversManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Making empathy obsoleteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University.
    Mathematical models of social norms and petty corruption2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corruption is a problem all around the world, but the extent of the problem varies between countries and situations. In this thesis, I focus on how corruption levels can change when they are culturally determined. For this reason, I study the dynamics of the cultural underpinnings: social norms and conventions.

    The dissertation consists of six papers. In the first paper, I expand a common definition of social norms. The aim of the extension is to capture the fact that the scope of a social norm may be larger than just a single specific situation. I introduce a similarity measure and develop a mathematical model according to which all situations' social norms are interconnected, and affect each other, but those situations that are most similar and most recent have the greatest normative effect on a current situation. Given this model I test the effect of bringing about norm change by temporarily dismantling institutions and then reestablishing them.

    In the second paper, I show in a mathematical model how it is possible to design fine and reward mechanisms that make it superfluous for individuals to form beliefs about how others will act. Through this mechanism, it should be possible to circumvent the problem that norm change typically will be successful only if it is synchronized across a large part of the population.

    In the third paper, I and my co-authors, first conducted a survey. The results of which demonstrate that there is a general tendency among people to consider themselves to be less prone to corrupt behavior than the average person. Such an "everyone-is-better-than-average" effect is a well-established phenomenon in social psychology but not previously demonstrated in the corruption domain. We then show in a mathematical model that such systematic biases in estimation of own versus others' corruption make it more difficult to achieve norm change in the direction of less corruption.

    In the fourth and fifth paper we again consider the "everyone-is-better-than-average" effect and see how in certain value based groups the effect can be reversed. This changes the insight from the third paper slightly.

    The last paper considers a classic question of how a collective can succeed in collective action when it is risky to be among the first individuals to act. I and my co-author investigate how the collective can benefit from access to a set of signal acts that signal an individual's level of commitment to the collective cause. The problem is modeled as a threshold model where an individual's inclination to conduct a specific act depends on the previous commitment level in the population.

  • 39.
    Funcke, Alexander
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication. Stockholm University.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Institutet för Framtidsstudier.
    Biased perception may trump rational intention: Most people think they are less corrupt than averageManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Funcke, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, United States .
    Franke, Ulrik
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science, Sweden.
    Partial participation towards collective action: To stifle or instigate2016In: Rationality and Society, ISSN 1043-4631, E-ISSN 1461-7358, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 453-467Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend the Granovetter threshold model with partial participation towards a collective action. That is, agents may partake by conducting an action that is less costly than the ultimate collective action, but costly enough to signal a commitment to the cause. We show that it is not just the exact distribution of thresholds, but also the distribution of available actions that determines whether a collective action will be achieved. We suggest and prove propositions for how both an inventive activist and a dictator may strategically change the signaling value of existing actions, or introduce new ones, in order to either instigate or stifle collective action. Applying the theory to revolutions, we argue that new technology can play a role beyond that of communication and synchronization, viz. that of adding modes of partial, less arduous, participation.

  • 41.
    Funcke, Alexander
    et al.
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, USA.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Biased perception may trump rational intention: Most people think they are less corrupt than average2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From a game theoretic point of view, a social norm can sometimes be considered as a Nash equilibrium in a coordination game. Here we point out a psychological reason why such a social norm might erode, even if it is beneficial and agents have rational intentions. The reason is a well-established bias in interpersonal perception, the better-than-average effect. Psychological research on this bias has mainly focused on skills and personality attributes, rather than normative behavior. In a series of online surveys, we demonstrate that the better-than-average effect applies also to judgments of the likelihood to engage in petty corruption, a very important domain of social norms. We conclude that this psychological bias may be a factor that contributes to the difficulty of establishing noncorruption.

  • 42.
    Gavel, Hillevi
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Grundlig matematik: Inledande matematik för ingenjörer, naturvetare och andra problemlösare2017 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hamon, Thierry
    et al.
    LIMSI-CNRS, Orsay, France.
    Engström, Christopher
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Silvestrov, Sergei
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Term Ranking Adaptation to the Domain: Genetic Algorithm-Based Optimisation of the C-Value2014In: Advances in Natural Language Processing: 9th International Conference on NLP, PolTAL 2014, Warsaw, Poland, September 17-19, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing , 2014, Vol. 8686, p. 71-83Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Term extraction methods based on linguistic rules have been proposed to help the terminology building from corpora. As they face the difficulty of identifying the relevant terms among the noun phrases extracted, statistical measures have been proposed. However, the term selection results may depend on corpus and strong assumptions reflecting specific terminological practice. We tackle this problem by proposing a parametrised C-Value which optimally considers the length and the syntactic roles of the nested terms thanks to a genetic algorithm. We compare its impact on the ranking of terms extracted from three corpora. Results show average precision increased by 9% above the frequency-based ranking and by 12% above the C-Value-based ranking.

  • 44.
    Hellsten, Therese
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Björk, Patrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Individualiseringens dilemma: Hur uppnås ett fungerande samspel mellan individualisering och gemensam undervisning i matematik?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Hemmi, Kirsti
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Kryzwacki, Heidi
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Koljonen, Tuula
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics.
    Investigating Finnish teacher guides as a resource for mathematics teaching2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 911-928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most commonly used Finnish mathematics teacher guides (Grades 1–6) are investigated so as to determine what kind of resource they constitute for teachers in planning and enacting mathematics teaching and what kind of mathematics classroom they promote. The structure and the main contents of the guides were found to be quite homogeneous. The nature of communication was mostly descriptive, but the separate activities suggested for each lesson were quite explicitly described. Suggested activities, such as mental calculation tasks and homework assignment, were typically motivated by nonspecific rationales, and many activities seemed to be taken for granted in the Finnish mathematics classroom culture. The results add both to knowledge about how to analyse teacher guides and to knowledge about Finnish educational features.

  • 46.
    Henningson, Ann-Sofie
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    Hur ser lärarna på relationen mellan arbetsformer, ämnesområden och elevers matematiska kompetenser?2009Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka lärares syn på relation mellan arbetsformer, ämnesområden och elevers matematiska kompetenser när det gäller matematikundervisningen, inom grundskolans tidigare år. Jag ville även ta reda på hur enkäter med öppna frågor fungerar som insamlingsmetod för tidspressade lärare som undervisar inom grundskolans tidigare år. Jag har valt den kvalitativa arbetsmetoden med en öppen enkät och semistrukturerade intervjuer. Resultaten visar att lärarna i liten eller ingen utsträckning anpassar arbetsformerna till de olika ämnesområdena. Lärarna gör inte heller någon koppling mellan vilka kompetenser de önskar att eleverna utvecklar till något speciellt ämnesområde. Lärarna tycker att det är svårt att hinna med att besvara enkäter med öppna frågor på ett bra sätt, om de ens anser att de har tid att besvara dem över huvudtaget.

  • 47.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Pitfalls in Spatial Modelling of Ethnocentrism: A Simulation Analysis of the Model of Hammond and Axelrod2013In: JASSS: Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, ISSN 1460-7425, E-ISSN 1460-7425, Vol. 16, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnocentrism refers to the tendency to behave differently towards strangers based only on whether they belong to the ingroup or the outgroup. It is a widespread phenomenon that can be triggered by arbitrary cues, but the origins of which is not clearly understood. In a recent simulation model by Hammond and Axelrod, an ingroup bias evolves in the prisoners’ dilemma game. However, it will be argued here that the model does little to advance our understanding of ethnocentrism. The model assumes a spatial structure in which agents interact only with their immediate neighbourhood, populated mostly by clones, and the marker becomes an approximate cue of whether the partner is one. It will be shown that agents with an ingroup bias are successful compared to unconditional cooperators since they only exclude non-clones, but are outcompeted by less error-prone kin identifiers. Thus, the results of the simulations can be explained by a simple form of kin selection. These findings illustrate how spatial assumptions can alter a model to the extent that it no longer describes the phenomenon under study.

  • 48.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; SIMSEG, Institute for Analytical Sociology, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Using register data to deduce patterns of social exchange2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 17_suppl, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method for deducting propensities for social exchange between individuals based on the choices they make, and based on factors such as country of origin, sex, school grades and socioeconomic background. The objective here is to disentangle the effect of social ties from the other factors, in order to find patterns of social exchange. This is done through a control-treatment design on analysing available data, where the 'treatment' is similarity of choices between socially connected individuals, and the control is similarity of choices between non-connected individuals. Structural dependencies are controlled for and effects from different classes are pooled through a mix of methods from network and meta-analysis. The method is demonstrated and tested on Swedish register data on students at upper secondary school. The results show that having similar grades is a predictor of social exchange. Also, previous results from Norwegian data are replicated, showing that students cluster based on country of origin. 

  • 49.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication.
    What Strategic Structures Support the Evolution of Ethnocentrism?Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Game theory deals with the impact of strategic structure on interactions. It is of course not known what strategic structures (i.e., games) dominated interactions in the evolutionary past of humans. Evolutionary models often uncritically assume some game, typically some kind of the prisoners’ dilemma, to investigate the effects of some other feature of the model. Here, another approach is suggested: What can be said about the likely strategic structure of interactions, given the features of human evolved psychology? The feature considered in this paper is ethnocentrism (also known as ingroup bias), which refers to the tendency to behave differently to different strangers simply depending on whether they seem to belong to the ingroup or the outgroup. Analysis and simulations of simple evolutionary models indicate that only some strategic structures are conducive to the evolution of ethnocentrism. In particular, this class does not contain the prisoners’ dilemma, but it does contain anti-coordination and coordination games, with socially optimal strategies being more frequent in ingroup interactions in the latter, especially if the other strategy is risk dominant, which applies to a class of games known as the stag hunt. This indicates that the strategic structure of coordination games, such as the stag hunt, and anti-coordination games, such as hawk-dove, may have been more common than games of cooperation and defection in human’s evolutionary past.

  • 50.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Centre for Cultural Evolution, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Bursell, Moa
    Institute for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Social consensus influences ethnic diversity preferences2018In: Social influence, ISSN 1553-4510, E-ISSN 1553-4529, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread segregation between workplaces along ethnic lines. We expand upon previous research on segregation and social influence by testing the effect of the latter on personal diversity preferences, specifically in employees' selection into hypothetical workplaces. In a survey study with 364 European American respondents in three waves, participants complied with social consensus preferences for either more or less workplace diversity. The new preference was sufficiently internalized to be retained largely unaltered a week later. Simulations suggest a self-reinforcing effect, where accurate social consensus information may be sufficient to change preferences. Given that initial choices were polarized, perceived social consensus can vary highly between people in society, and influencing this perception may feed back into greater acceptance of minorities.

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