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Becoming a Thai teenage parent
Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5399-9545
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the understanding of Thai teenage parents’ experiences of becoming a parent as well as to examine healthcare providers’ reflections on their experiences of caring for teenage parents.

The findings are based on three studies using mixed methods and resulting in four papers. The empirical data were collected in western Thailand between 2013 and 2015, in a province with a high incidence of teenage pregnancy. Paper I: Empirical data were based on three self-reported validated questionnaires. The sample consisted of 70 teenage and 70 adult fathers. Descriptive statistics, Mann-Whitney U-test, and Chi-square test were used for the analysis. Papers II and III: A heterogeneous group of 25 teenage couples (n=50) were interviewed before and after the birth of their first child, using grounded theory methodology. Paper IV: Four focus-group discussions were conducted with 21 healthcare providers; latent content analysis was used for analysis.

Teenage fathers scored lower than adult fathers on scales measuring the father’s sense of competence, the father’s childrearing behavior, and the father-child relationship (paper I). The teenage mothers reported how they struggled with physical and social changes, for example bodily changes, breastfeeding and having to leave school, while the teenage fathers gave examples of coping with their future responsibility by working hard to save money for future family needs (paper III). The teenagers’ own parents were an important source of support all the way from pregnancy to childrearing, and their provision of childcare, advice, and instructions helped the teenage parents to cope with their duties. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father (papers II–III). The healthcare providers were concerned about the young parents, viewed themselves as providing comprehensive care, and suggested access to reproductive health care and improved sex education as ways to improve quality (paper IV).

The young couples’ stories describe how they struggled and coped with life changes when becoming unintentionally pregnant, accepting their parenthood, and finally becoming parents. A supportive family played a vital role in the transition to parenthood.

Health promotion efforts for this particular group should be undertaken continuously to improve the quality of care for teenage parents and to promote the infants’ well-being and future development.

Keywords: childrearing, fatherhood, focus-group discussions, grounded theory, healthcare providers, teenage fathers, teenage parents, Thai teenagers

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2016. , 92 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 209
National Category
Nursing
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33180ISBN: 978-91-7485-283-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-33180DiVA: diva2:971196
Public defence
2016-10-28, Beta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-09-15 Created: 2016-09-15 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Father role: A comparison between teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Father role: A comparison between teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand
2015 (English)In: Nursing and Health Sciences, ISSN 1441-0745, E-ISSN 1442-2018, Vol. 17, no 3, 377-386 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, we compared perceived father roles among teenage and adult first-time fathers in Thailand. The design was cross-sectional and comparative, and the sample involved 70 teenage and 70 adult fathers, whose children were 2-6 months old. The fathers were recruited from 32 primary healthcare centers in the western region of Thailand. Three validated, self-reported questionnaires with multiple-choice questions were used for data collection. Differences between the two groups were analyzed using χ2-test and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The results revealed differences between teenage and adult fathers concerning income, educational level, and intention to have a baby. The teenage father group had a lower sense of competence, and scored lower on childrearing behavior and father-child relationship than the adult father group. These findings provide healthcare professionals with increased knowledge and understanding of teenage fathers' needs in preparing for parenthood. Given that we now know the importance of positive father roles in children's lives, health authorities should be expected to provide resources to help support these fathers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Keyword
Child, Childrearing, Competence, Father, Relationship, Teenage pregnancy
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27744 (URN)10.1111/nhs.12200 (DOI)000363323900015 ()2-s2.0-84938206887 (Scopus ID)
Note

Correspondence Address: Sriyasak, A.

Available from: 2015-03-26 Created: 2015-03-26 Last updated: 2016-12-27Bibliographically approved
2. The New Generation of Thai Fathers: Breadwinners involved in Parenting
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The New Generation of Thai Fathers: Breadwinners involved in Parenting
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(English)In: American Journal of Men's Health, ISSN 1557-9883, E-ISSN 1557-9891Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Becoming a father for the first time might cause great changes in a man’s identity and lifestyle. Teenage fathers must strive to balance two competing roles: the teenage role and the father role. The current study design followed grounded theory methodology to gain a deeper understanding of how Thai teenage fathers reason about becoming and being a father from a gender equality perspective. Participants were selected from a heterogeneous group of fathers until saturation was reached (n = 25). Most of the fathers were cohabiting with their partner in an extended family. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the baby was 5 to 6 months old. The core category, “Male breadwinners involved in parenting,” encompassed persons making the transition from being solely a teenager to being a teenage father. Most of the fathers accepted the unintended pregnancy and took on the expected breadwinning responsibility of a father. They prepared for fatherhood and changed their lifestyle. Their families provided support. Nevertheless, the fathers sought to avoid further unplanned parenthood by learning about family planning. The teenage fathers emphasized breadwinning first, then involved himself in the child and the housework. These findings provide an increased understanding of Thai teenage fathers.

Keyword
fatherhood; grounded theory; teenage fathers; Thailand
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31707 (URN)10.1177/1557988316651062 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-06-03 Created: 2016-06-03 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved
3. Struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood: A grounded theory study among Thai teenagers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood: A grounded theory study among Thai teenagers
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2016 (English)In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, ISSN 0266-6138, Vol. 42, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective to gain a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents’ perspectives, experiences and reasoning about becoming and being a teenage parent from a gender perspective. Design an exploratory design using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 5–6 months old. Setting a province in the western part of Thailand. Participants the selection of a heterogeneous group of teenage parents-to-be continued until saturation was reached, as describe by Glaser and Strauss (1967), in all n=50. Inclusion criteria for participants were that they were heterosexual couples, under 20 years of age, cohabiting, and expecting their first child. Findings the core category ‘struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood’ comprises descriptions of the process from when the teenagers first learned about the pregnancy until the child was six months old. The teenagers had failed to use contraceptives which led to an unintended parenthood. Their parenthood became a turning point as the teenagers started to change their behaviours and lifestyle during pregnancy, and adapted their relationships to partner and family. Family commitments was a facilitator, through support given by their families. Finally, becoming a parent describes ways of dealing with the parental role, by engaging in parental activities and reestablishing goals in life. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father respectively. Key conclusions ‘struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood’ referred to the parents’ stories about how they struggled and coped with life changes and their parental role when they became unintentionally pregnant, accepted their parenting, and finally became parents. After becoming parents, the main concerns of most of the teenage parents were being a caring mother and a breadwinning father. Implications for practice this study contributes a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents’ experiences of becoming and being a parent and might improve health care professionals’ adaptation of care for teentranatanage parents and inspire them to tailor their care specifically to teenager's needs from early pregnancy to parenthood.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Coping with fatherhood, grounded theory, struggling with motherhood, teen parent, thai teenagers
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Health Sciences
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33326 (URN)10.1016/j.midw.2016.09.005 (DOI)000390548000001 ()2-s2.0-84988354946 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Becoming a Thai teenage parent
Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2017-01-19Bibliographically approved
4. Healthcare providers’ experiences of caring for teenage parents in Thailand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthcare providers’ experiences of caring for teenage parents in Thailand
(English)In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33363 (URN)
Available from: 2016-10-07 Created: 2016-10-07 Last updated: 2016-10-07Bibliographically approved

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