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Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3630-663X
Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
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2016 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2016. Vol. 177, p. 108-116
Keywords [en]
Air heat recovery, District heating, Heat pump, LCC, Low-temperature heating, Primary energy, Air conditioning, Carbon dioxide, Climate control, Cost reduction, Economic analysis, Energy conservation, Energy utilization, Environmental impact, Heat pump systems, Heating, Houses, Insulation, Investments, Life cycle, Pumps, Roofs, Temperature, Ventilation, Ventilation exhausts, Waste heat, Electricity-consumption, Energy-saving measures, Heat pumps, Low temperature heating, Mechanical ventilation, Primary energies, Primary energy consumption, Techno-Economic analysis, Energy efficiency
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31791DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.05.104ISI: 000380623900010Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84969776538OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31791DiVA, id: diva2:934595
Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-09 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Heating of buildings from a system perspective
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heating of buildings from a system perspective
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy efficiency measures in buildings are considered to have great potential for reducing total energy use, and contribute to a reduced climate and environmental impact. In Sweden, however, there is a focus on bought energy, which does not always reflect the environmental and climate impact. Focusing on bought energy means that a house owner may choose an electricity based heat pump instead of district heating (DH), since heat pumps result in less bought energy compared to DH.

The energy system surrounding the buildings is affected by the choice of energy carriers used for heating. This thesis uses three different methods to study how the energy system is affected. In the first part, primary energy use has been calculated for a simulated building with different heating systems, resulting in different electricity and DH demands. The second part studies the impact on peak demand and annual consumption in the power grid and DH system due to different market shares of electricity based heating and DH. In the third part, the life cycle cost is calculated for different heating solutions from both a building and a socio-economic perspective, for 100 % renewable energy system scenarios.

The results show that the choice of energy carrier has a great influence on primary energy use. However, this depends even more on the calculation method used. Which heating solution, and thus which energy carrier, gives the lowest primary energy use varies with the different methods.

The power grid and DH system are affected by the choice of energy carrier. There is a potential to lower peak demand in the power grid by more efficient heat pumps. But an even greater potential is shown by using DH instead of electricity based heating. A larger share of DH also allows the production of more electricity with the use of combined heat and power.

The life cycle cost for different heating solutions also depends on the method used. From a building owner’s perspective, with current electricity and DH prices, electricity based heating is more economical. However, from a socio-economic perspective, with increasing electricity system costs due to a larger share of variable electricity production in a 100 % renewable system, DH becomes more economically profitable in several scenarios.

The choice of energy carrier for heating in buildings affects the energy system to a high degree. A system perspective is therefore important in local, national and global energy efficiency policies and projects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2019
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 297
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-45230 (URN)978-91-7485-439-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, Sal 320, Högskolan Dalarna, Borlänge, 13:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-16 Last updated: 2019-09-30Bibliographically approved

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