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Intake and dietary sources of haem and non-haem iron among European adolescents and their association with iron status and different lifestyle and socio-economic factors
Scientific Institute of Public Health, Department of Public Health and Surveillance, Brussels, Belgium.
Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Gent, Belgium.
Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Gent, Belgium.
INRAN-National Research Institute for Food and Nutrition, Rome, Italy.
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2013 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 67, no 7, 765-772 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
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Abstract [en]

Background/Objectives:Adolescents are at risk of iron deficiency because of their high iron requirements. The aims of this study were: (1) to assess iron intake, its determinants and its most important food sources and; (2) to evaluate the relation of iron intake and status in European adolescents. Subjects/Methods:Two non-consecutive 24-h recalls were completed by a computerised tool. The socio-demographic and socio-economic data were collected by a self-reported questionnaire. Weight and height were measured. A distinction was made between haem and non-haem iron.Results:The total iron intake was significantly higher among boys (13.8 mg/day; n=1077) than girls (11.0 mg/day; n=1253). About 97.3% of the boys and 87.8% of the girls met the estimated average requirement, and 72.4% of the boys and 13.7% of the girls met the recommendation for bio-available iron intake. The ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake was lower for girls than boys. Meat (19.2; 76%) and bread and rolls (12.6;3.9%) contributed most to total and haem iron intake. Bread and rolls (13.8%) and meat (10.8%) contributed most to non-haem iron intake. Age, sex and body mass index were associated with iron intake. Only red blood cell concentration was significantly negatively associated with total, haem and non-haem iron intake.Conclusion:Girls had lower iron intakes and ratio of haem/non-haem iron intake than boys. The main total iron and haem iron source was meat, while the main non-haem iron source was bread and rolls. Adolescent girls may be a group at risk for iron deficiency. Consequently, special attention and strategies are needed in order to improve iron intakes during adolescence.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 67, no 7, 765-772 p.
Keyword [en]
adolescents, dietary sources, iron intake, iron status, heme, iron, adolescent, age, article, body height, body mass, body weight, bread, child, controlled study, erythrocyte concentrate, ethnic group, European, female, fruit juice, human, human cell, lifestyle modification, male, meat, nutritional assessment, nutritional requirement, nutritional status, outcome assessment, prediction, questionnaire, school child, self report, sex difference, socioeconomics, vegetable, Body Mass Index, Cluster Analysis, Cross-Sectional Studies, Diet, Energy Intake, Europe, Humans, Iron, Dietary, Life Style, Linear Models, Motor Activity, Nutrition Assessment, Questionnaires, Socioeconomic Factors
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Health Sciences
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URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31636DOI: 10.1038/ejcn.2013.100ISI: 000321539800014Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84880136931OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31636DiVA: diva2:930430
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2016-11-01Bibliographically approved

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