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From Passive to Active Electric Distribution Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. (Simulation & Modelling)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1001-2489
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large penetration of distributed generation from variable renewable energy sources, increased consumption flexibility on the demand side and the electrification of transportation pose great challenges to existing and future electric distribution networks. This thesis studies the roles of several actors involved in electric distribution systems through electricity consumption data analysis and simulation models. Results show that real-time electricity pricing adoption in the residential sector offers economic benefits for end consumers. This occurs even without the adoption of demand-side management strategies, while real-time pricing also brings new opportunities for increasing consumption flexibility. This flexibility will play a critical role in the electrification of transportation, where scheduled charging will be required to allow large penetration of EVs without compromising the network's reliability and to minimize upgrades on the existing grid. All these issues add significant complexity to the existing infrastructure and conventional passive components are no longer sufficient to guarantee safe and reliable network operation. Active distribution networks are therefore required, and consequently robust and flexible modelling and simulation computational tools are needed for their optimal design and control. The modelling approach presented in this thesis offers a viable solution by using an equation-based object-oriented language that allows developing open source network component models that can be shared and used unambiguously across different simulation environments. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University Press , 2016.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 202
Keywords [en]
Active distribution networks, smart grids, smart Meters, real-time pricing, demand-side management, electric vehicles, power systems
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31592ISBN: 978-91-7485-271-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31592DiVA, id: diva2:928460
Public defence
2016-06-17, Paros, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-05-16 Created: 2016-05-15 Last updated: 2016-05-30Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Electricity Demand Impact from Increased use of Ground Sourced Heat Pumps
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electricity Demand Impact from Increased use of Ground Sourced Heat Pumps
2012 (English)In: IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference Europe, 2012, p. Artnr. 6465876-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of ground-sourced heat pumps as main heating systems has increased in Sweden in the last fifteen years to the point that it is the country with the highest amount of GSHP in Europe. Heat pumps are chosen by many households due to their economic savings value; In contrast, electricity prices in Sweden have almost doubled since 2006, threatening their economic benefits. It is therefore, essential to understand GSHPs impact on the user´s electricity consumption and provide suitable demand-response programs that could help develop a model capable of forecasting consumption and provide decision support information to make the best use of the technology. This paper analyses questionnaire surveys and consumption patterns were evaluated for 322 households with installed GSHPs and different pricing schemes in order to increase the understanding of mass use of this type of heating system.

Keywords
Demand forecasting, Energy Consumption, Heat Pumps, Power Systems, Smart Grids, Electricity Demand
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17533 (URN)10.1109/ISGTEurope.2012.6465876 (DOI)000316564100272 ()2-s2.0-84874751627 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-2595-0 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 3rd IEEE PES Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Europe, ISGT Europe 2012; Berlin, 14-17 October
Available from: 2013-01-08 Created: 2013-01-08 Last updated: 2016-05-16Bibliographically approved
2. Beyond the building–understanding building renovations in relation to urban energy systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beyond the building–understanding building renovations in relation to urban energy systems
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning, ISSN 2069-3419, Vol. 2016, no Spec. Iss. 5, p. 31-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

About 35% of Europe’s building stock is over 50 years old and consumes about 175 kWh/m2 for heating, between 3-5 times the amount required by the newly constructed buildings. Annually, between1 and 1.5% new buildings are built and only between 0.2 and 0.5% are removed, therefore the focus needs to be put on the renovation of the existing building stock. The implementation of energy conservation measures (ECMs) in the residential sector becomes a very important strategy to meet the EU´s 20% energy consumption reduction of the 20-20-20 goals. The main challenge, however, is to determine which of the ECMs strategies are the best to provide not just with the best energy consumption reduction, but also with the best environmental impact and economic benefits. This paper addresses this issue and analyses the impact of different ECMs by focusing not only on the buildings themselves, but on the energy supply network and the overall energy system as a whole. To achieve this, we review five case studies in Sweden that use different ECMs as well as other alternatives, such as: distributed generation (DG) and energy storage. Results suggest that although there is no standard protocol that would fit all renovation projects, the existing methodologies fall short to provide the best overall impact on the energy system and that a broader analysis of the local conditions should be carried out before performing large building renovation projects.

Keywords
Case studies, ECMs, Energy system, From building to city, Review, Sweden
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31237 (URN)000408238100004 ()2-s2.0-84958776541 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-09-07Bibliographically approved
3. Open-Source Modelling and Simulation of Microgrids and Active Distribution Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open-Source Modelling and Simulation of Microgrids and Active Distribution Networks
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Sustainable Places 2015, Conference Proceedings, Sigma Orionis , 2015, p. 91-99Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Distributed generation, and active distribution networks constitute an economic and technically viable alternative for reducing green house gases emissions and increase the use of renewable energy sources in local distribution grids. These active networks allow replacing large generators, usually located far from the consumption loads, thus considerably minimizing distribution losses and increase renewable energy penetration. However, designing and successfully controlling these complex networks, becomes a great engineering challenge; most computational modeling and simulation tools available for these systems are either focused on the individual generation components themselves, or the economic dispatch of multiple generators. Moreover, these tools often rely on closed source commercial software that use manufacturers' data for predefining the parameters of the models' components. This approach does not provide enough flexibility to users, since often is not possible to adjust these parameters. This paper presents object- oriented, component-based, open software components for simulating and optimizing the operation of active distribution networks, including multiple distributed generators and energy using the Modelica open-source modeling language. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sigma Orionis, 2015
Keywords
Modelling and Simulation, Distributed generation, Microturbines, Open Source, Smart Grid.
National Category
Energy Systems
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29347 (URN)979-10-95345-00-8 (ISBN)
Conference
The 3rd edition of Sustainable Places 2015, September 16-18, Savona, Italy
Projects
PLEEC, RESILENT
Available from: 2015-10-15 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2016-12-27Bibliographically approved

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Campillo, Javier

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