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An analysis on how the proposed Swedish requirements for near zero energy buildings manages PV electricity in combination with two different types of heat pumps.
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8287-8735
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an in-depth analysis on how exhaust air- and ground source- heat pumps in combination with PV-systems affects the specific energy demand of buildings with the proposed new Swedish near zero energy building definition. It also present a method on how to estimate the contribution from the photovoltaic-system on the reduction of the specific energy demand of the building.

A challenge with the proposed near zero energy building definition is that it is not clearly defined how it manages photovoltaic electricity as a mean to reduce the specific energy demand of buildings. The size of the specific energy demand reduction is, amongst other things, depending on the number of loads in the building and in which assumed sequence the different loads utilizes the photovoltaic electricity.

The results suggest that the building with the ground source heat pump has the lowest specific energy demand. In terms of self-consumption fraction the two heat pump types is fairly equal but the ground source heat pump has a larger solar energy fraction.

The difference between the two photovoltaic electricity usage assumptions used in this article is 6 kWh/m2 for both the GSHP and EAHP Buildings.

Keyword [en]
Heat pump; photovoltaics; near zero energy building; self-consumption
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31311OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31311DiVA: diva2:912822
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2016-04-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Low energy buildings equipped with heat pumps for high self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low energy buildings equipped with heat pumps for high self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The building sector is a prioritized area in the European Unions (EU) ambition to reduce the total final energy use by 20 %; lower the emission of greenhouse gases by 20 % and using energy 20 % more efficient by 2020. The residential sector in the European Union accounts for 27% of the un-ion’s final energy use and the EU views decentralized energy generation and heat pumps as important measures in reducing the energy demand in the building sector.

In recent years a rapid decrease in photovoltaic system prices has led to a growing popularity in Sweden. This fact in combination with a large in-crease of heat pump systems in residential buildings the last decade makes a combination of heat pumps and solar energy systems an interesting sys-tem configuration to analyze. In addition, the electricity price structure in Sweden and the uncertainty of the sustainability of the Swedish solar energy support schemes makes the topic of self-consumption an important research area.

Different solar energy systems for residential buildings and two different storage technologies, batteries and hot water storage tanks, have been analyzed with regards to profitability, solar energy fraction and self-consumption levels.

The results suggest that the system with a heat pump in combination with a photovoltaic system can be profitable and have high solar energy fractions and high levels of self-consumption and that the systems with storage are not profitable but give high levels of self-consumption and relatively high solar energy fractions. The hot water storage gives almost as high level of self-consumption as batteries but have half of the batteries levelized cost of electricity.

A system with a ground source heat pump and a solar thermal system are ineffective, unprofitable and give low solar energy fractions.

A system with a weather forecast controller gives a small increase in self-consumption and is unprofitable.

The proposed near energy zero building definition proposed by the Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning in 2015 is unclear in terms of what electrical load the PV electricity reduces in the building. This has a fairly large impact on the building specific energy demand.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2016. 59 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 200
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31314 (URN)978-91-7485-255-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-04-29, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-18 Created: 2016-03-18 Last updated: 2016-04-04Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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