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Contradiction of separation through virtualization and inter virtual machine communication in automotive scenarios
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6020-1785
Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, University of Applied Sciences, Karlsruhe, Germany.
2015 (English)In: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2015, article id Article number a4Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Resource type
Text
Abstract [en]

A trend in automotive infotainment software is to create a separation of components based on di-erent domains (e.g. Navigation, Radio, etc.). This intends to limit susceptibility to errors, simplify maintainability and to organize development based on domains. Multi-OS environments create another layer of separation through hardware/software virtualization. Using a hypervisor for virtualization allows the development of mixed critical systems. However, we see a contradiction in current architectures, which on one side aim to separate everything into virtual machines (VMs), while on the other side allow inter-VM-connectivity. In the end all applications are composited into one homogeneous UI and the previous intent of separation is disregarded. In this paper we investigate current architectures for invehicle infotainment systems (IVIS), i.e. mixed critical systems for automotive purposes, and show that regulations and/or requirements break the previous intents of the architecture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. article id Article number a4
Keywords [en]
Composition, Heterogeneous Platforms, Hypervisor, Ubiquitous Interoperability, User Interface, Virtualization
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31243DOI: 10.1145/2797433.2797437Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84958527563ISBN: 9781450333931 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31243DiVA, id: diva2:908761
Conference
European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops, ECSAW 2015, 7 September 2015 through 11 September 2015
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2016-12-22Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Towards a Multi-OS Architecture for Consistent User Interface Experience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a Multi-OS Architecture for Consistent User Interface Experience
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
På väg mot en Multi-OS arkitektur för konsekvent användarupplevelse
Abstract [en]

Vehicles have greatly changed over the last decades. Originally, they were used as a means of transportation, and their drivers were solely engaged in the driving task. In modern cars the user, i.e. the former driver, has to interact with many different systems, which provide access to different domains, such as vehicle functions (monitoring speed, fuel consumption), safety related features, comfort and infotainment. Advancements in technologies make it possible to cope with the increasing amount of features, as for example the introduction of input and output modalities that allow new ways of interaction, such as touch(-screens), voice control or gesture recognition. In the end a user has to interact with all systems through the overall user-interface. This requires a high usability and a consistent look and feel in order to provide a consistent user experience.

On the technology side, developers have to cope with rising complexity, dependencies and inter-connections of about 80 different embedded systems in a premium car. The introduction of multi-core systems opened the way for new approaches, like Multi-OS environments. There multiple operating systems are consolidated onto a single hardware platform by the use of hardware/software virtualization. This allows for example to run real-time operating systems (RTOS) for safety critical cluster applications next to a general purpose operating system (GPOS) for infotainment applications. This also poses new challenges, such as the contradiction between a clear separation meant to reduce complexity, dependencies and to mitigate the risk of interferences, and interconnections that are required to create a composited user-interface.

In this thesis, the challenges of compositing heterogeneous systems in an automotive context are explored. Current approaches are studied and the contradiction of separation and interconnection is explained. Based on this, concepts are introduced and software architectures are proposed, which can be used to implement composited user interfaces for Multi-OS environments. Furthermore, an application prototype that is used to verify the proposed software architecture in regard of graphical user-interfaces, called HTML-UI-Compositor, has been implemented. The HTML-UI-Compositor also provides a simple way of compositing graphical user-interfaces through the adaptation of a web browser engine, which allows well-known standard web development tools and languages to be used to create composited user-interfaces. Those are the first steps towards a Multi-OS architecture that supports a consistent user interface experience.

Abstract [sv]

Bilen har förändrats mycket under de senaste decennierna. Ursprungligen användes den som ett transportmedel och dess förare var enbart engagerad i att köra fordonet. I moderna bilar måste användaren, det vill säga den tidigare omnämnde föraren, interagera med många olika system, som ger tillgång till olika domäner, såsom fordonsfunktioner (exempelvis övervakning av hastighet och bränsleförbrukning), säkerhetsrelaterade funktioner, komfort funktioner samt information och underhållningssystem (infotainment). Tekniska framsteg gör det möjligt att hantera den ökande mängden funktioner, exempelvis införandet inmatnings- och presentationsmodeller som möjliggör nya sätt att interagera, såsom pek (-skärmar), röststyrning eller rörelsedetektering. Användaren får slutligen interagera med de olika systemen via ett övergripande användargränssnitt . Detta kräver en hög användbarhet samt en enhetlighet i utseende och känsla för att ge en konsistent användarupplevelse.

På den tekniska sidan måste utvecklare klara av ökande komplexitet, beroenden och sammanlänkning av olika inbyggda system, cirka 80 i en premiumbil. Införandet av multi-core system öppnade vägen för nya metoder, som Multi-OS miljöer. I dessa miljöer har flera operativsystem konsoliderats till en enda hårdvaruplattform med hjälp av hårdvaru- och mjukvaru-virtualisering. Detta gör det exempelvis möjligt att exekvera realtidsoperativsystem (RTOS) för säkerhetskritiska klusterapplikationer parallellt med ett generellt operativsystem (GPOS) för infotainmentapplikationer. Det innebär också nya utmaningar, såsom motsättningen emellan en tydlig separation, tänkt att minska komplexiteten och risken för störningar, samt de beroenden och sammankopplingar som krävs för att skapa ett sammansatt användargränssnitt.

Denna avhandling utforskar utmaningarna för sammansatta heterogena system i en fordonsmiljö. Nuvarande metoder studeras och motsättningen mellan separation och sammankoppling förtydligas. Baserat på detta introduceras koncept samt förslag på mjukvaruarkitekturer som kan användas för att implementera sammansatta användargränssnitt för Multi-OS-miljöer. Vidare har en prototyp, kallad HTML-UI-Compositor, utvecklats för att verifiera den föreslagna mjukvaruarkitekturen, med avseende på grafiska användargränssnitt. Genom en anpassad webbläsarmotor tillhandahåller HTML-UI-Compositor dessutom ett enkelt sätt att sammanfoga grafiska användargränssnitt, vilket gör det möjligt att använda välkända standardverktyg och språk för webbutveckling för att skapa sammansatta användargränssnitt. Dessa är de första stegen mot en Multi-OS arkitektur med stöd för en konsekvent användarupplevelse.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västeras: Mälardalen University Press, 2016
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 248
National Category
Software Engineering Human Computer Interaction
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-33538 (URN)978-91-7485-303-2 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-12-16, Paros, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved

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