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Incorporating Functional Safety in Model-based Development of Product Lines
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. Volvo Construction Equipment. (CES)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4756-7285
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Product lines in industry are often based on an engineer’s focus on fast and feasible product instantiation rather than a precise product line development method and process as described in literature. When considering functional safety, we need a precise model that includes evidence for the safety of each variant of the product.Functional safety standards provide guidance to develop safety critical products and require that evidence is collected to prove the safety of the product. But today’s functional safety standards do not provide guidance on how to achieve functional safety in product lines. At the same time arguments need to be collected during development so that each product configuration is safe and is fulfilling the requirements of the standards. Providing these arguments requires tracing safety-related requirements and dependencies through the development process taking the impact of variability in different development artifacts into consideration.

In this thesis, we study the challenges of developing safety critical products in product lines. We explore industrial practices to achieve functional safety standard compliance in product lines by interviewing practitioners from different companies and by collecting the reported challenges and practices. This information helps us to identify improvement areas and we derive requirements that a product line engineering method needs to fulfill. Based on these findings we analyze variability management methods from the software product line engineering research domain to identify potential candidate solutions that can be adapted to support safety critical products. We provide an approach for capturing functional safety related characteristics in a model-based product line engineering method. We apply our method in an industrial case demonstrating the applicability.

Abstract [sv]

Produktlinjer inom industrin är oftast baserade på ingenjörernas vilja att snabbt och enkelt utveckla nya varianter, snarare än på någon precis utvecklingsmodell för produktlinjer beskriven i litteraturen. För att visa på funktionssäkerhet krävs en precis modell som innehåller argumenten för att påvisa säkerheten hos alla varianter av produkten. Funktionssäkerhetsstandarder ger en vägledning för att utveckla säkerhetskritiska produkter och kräver att belägg samlas för att bevisa produktens säkerhet. Men dagens funktionssäkerhetsstandarder beskriver inte hur man uppnå funktionssäkerhet i produkt linjer. Argument behöver samlas under utveckling som bevisar att varje produktkonfiguration är säker och uppfyller kraven i standarden. Detta kräver i sin tur att spåra beroenden till säkerhetsrelaterade krav genom utvecklingsprocessen och visa hur de påverkas av variabilitet. I denna avhandling studerar vi utmaningarna med att utveckla säkerhetskritiska produkter i produktlinjer. Vi undersöker industrins metoder för att uppnå funktionssäkerhet genom att intervjua experter från olika företag och sammanställa utmaningar och praxis. Denna information hjälper oss att identifiera förbättringsområden och vi beskriver de krav som en tilltänkt produktlinjeteknik måste uppfylla. Baserat på dessa resultat vi analyserar varianthanteringsmetoder som beskrivs inom området produktlinjemetoder (eng: product line engineering), för att identifiera potentiella kandidatlösningar vilka kunde anpassas för att stödja säkerhetskritiska produkter. Vi presenterar en metod för att hantera funktionssäkerhetsrelaterade egenskaper i en modellbaserad metod för att hantera produktlinjer. Vi tillämpar vår metod i ett industriellt fall för att demonstrera tillämpligheten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2016.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 227
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-31131ISBN: 978-91-7485-253-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-31131DiVA: diva2:906392
Presentation
2016-04-22, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-02-24 Last updated: 2016-03-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Graphical Approach for Modeling of Safety and Variability in Product Lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Graphical Approach for Modeling of Safety and Variability in Product Lines
2015 (English)In: 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA15, 2015, 410-417 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Reuse of already developed parts and concepts is a common approach in industry to reduce the time to market and reduce the development efforts. Industrial product lines are often grown over time and structured approaches to support decision-making and manage the complexity are lacking. When developing safety-critical products through product lines, evidence must be provided for all possible product configurations. The lack of a structured product line approach taking the functional safety dimension into consideration makes it challenging for practitioners to provide the required evidence. In this paper we (1) identify requirements that a variability management approach will need to fulfill, (2) discuss existing approaches and their limitations, (3) propose potential extension, (4) apply our approach in an industrial use case and (5) discuss its applicability and future work.

Keyword
Product Line Engineering, Functional Safety, VariabilityManagement, Model-based Development
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30442 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2015.74 (DOI)000380478300059 ()2-s2.0-84958258283 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-7585-6 (ISBN)
External cooperation:
Conference
41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA15, 26-28 Aug 2015, Funchal, Portugal
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSafeCer - Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems with Reusable Components
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2016-09-01Bibliographically approved
2. Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial Challenges to Achieve Functional Safety Compliance in Product Lines
2014 (English)In: 2014 40TH EUROMICRO CONFERENCE SERIES ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING AND ADVANCED APPLICATIONS (SEAA 2014), 2014, 356-360 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Developing safety critical products demands a clear safety argumentation for each product in spite of whether it has been derived from a product line or not. The functional safety standards do not explain how to develop safety critical products in product lines, and the product line concept is lacking specific approaches to develop safety critical products. Nonetheless, product lines are well-established concepts even in companies developing safety critical products. In this paper we present the results of an exploratory study interviewing 15 practitioners from 6 different companies. We identify typical challenges and approaches from industry and discuss their suitability. The challenges and approaches brought out by this study help us to identify and enhance applicable methods from the product line engineering domain that can meet the challenges in the safety critical domain as well.

Series
EUROMICRO Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1089-6503
Keyword
Functional Safety, Software Product Line Engineering, Qualitative Study, Safety-Critical Software
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28745 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2014.81 (DOI)000358153200054 ()2-s2.0-84916607620 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-5795-8 (ISBN)
Conference
40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA), AUG 27-29, 2014, Verona, ITALY
Available from: 2015-08-21 Created: 2015-08-21 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
3. Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing Model-Based Engineering of Product Lines by Adding Functional Safety
2015 (English)In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, vol. 1487, 2015, 53-62 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today's industrial product lines in the automotive and construction equipment domain face the challenge to show functional safety standard compliance and argue for the absence of failures for all derived product variants. The product line approaches are not su cient to support practitioners to trace safety-related characteristics through development. We aim to provide aid in creating a safety case for a certain con guration in a product line such that overall less e ort is necessary for each con guration. In this paper we 1) discuss the impact of functional safety on product line development, 2) propose a model-based approach to capture safety-related characteristics during concept phase for product lines and 3) analyze the usefulness of our proposal.

Series
CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN 1613-0073 ; 1487
Keyword
Product Line Engineering, Functional Safety, Model-based, Systems Engineering, ISO 26262
National Category
Computer Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30443 (URN)2-s2.0-84955292376 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Workshop on Modelling in Automotive Software Engineering MASE'15, 27 Sep 2015, Ottawa, Canada
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsSafeCer - Safety Certification of Software-Intensive Systems with Reusable Components
Available from: 2015-12-21 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
4. Towards Efficient Functional Safety Certification of Construction Machinery using a Component-based Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Efficient Functional Safety Certification of Construction Machinery using a Component-based Approach
2012 (English)In: 2012 3rd International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, PLEASE 2012 - Proceedings, 2012, 1-4 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Electronic systems in the automotive domain implement safety critical functionality in vehicles and the safety certification process according to a functional safety standard is time consuming and a big part of the expenses of a development project. We describe the functional safety certification of electronic automotive systems by presenting a use case from the construction equipment industry. In this context, we highlight some of the major challenges we foresee, while using a product-line approach to achieve efficient functional safety certification of vehicle variants. We further elaborate on the impact of functional safety certification when applying the component-based approach on developing safety critical product variants and discuss the implications by cost modeling and analysis.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17245 (URN)10.1109/PLEASE.2012.6229763 (DOI)2-s2.0-84864528199 (Scopus ID)978-146731751-1 (ISBN)
Conference
2012 3rd International Workshop on Product LinE Approaches in Software Engineering, PLEASE 2012; Zurich; 4 June 2012 through 4 June 2012
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved
5. Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variability management in product lines of safety critical embedded systems
2014 (English)In: International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014, 2014, 98-103 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The product line engineering approach is a promising concept to identify and manage reuse in a structured and efficient way and is even applied for the development of safety critical embedded systems. Managing the complexity of variability and addressing functional safety at the same time is challenging and is not yet solved. Variability management is an enabler to both establish traceability and making necessary information visible for safety engineers. We identify a set of requirements for such a method and evaluate existing variability management methods. We apply the most promising method to an industrial case and study its suitability for developing safety critical product family members. This study provides positive feedback on the potential of the model-based method PLUS in supporting the development of functional safety critical embedded systems in product lines. As a result of our analysis we suggest potential improvements for it.

Series
International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014
Keyword
Commonality and Variability, Embedded Systems, Functional Safety, Model-Based Development, Product Lines, Accident prevention, Feedback, Model based development, Model-based method, Product line engineering, Product-lines, Safety-critical embedded systems, Variability management
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26946 (URN)10.1109/EmbeddedSys.2014.6953098 (DOI)2-s2.0-84915747214 (Scopus ID)9781479950263 (ISBN)
Conference
2014 International Conference on Embedded Systems, ICES 2014; Coimbatore; India; 3 July 2014 through 5 July 2014
Available from: 2014-12-19 Created: 2014-12-19 Last updated: 2016-03-04Bibliographically approved

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Citation style
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