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Unobtrusive breath alcohol sensing system
Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.
Autoliv Development AB, Sweden .
Hök Instrument AB, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3286-2572
2015 (English)In: The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, 2015, Vol. Paper Number 15-0458Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Although the vast majority of vehicle drivers are sober, drunk driving remains to be a major contributor to fatal accidents. Massive deployment of unobtrusive breath alcohol sensing systems could potentially save tens of thousands of lives worldwide every year by preventing drunk driving [1]. The work reported here is ultimately aiming at such a system. The technical performance of the present sensing system with respect to automotive requirements is summarized, and new results towards unobtrusive breath alcohol determination within vehicle compartments are presented. Breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) can be determined unobtrusively if (i) the sensing system provides real-time signals with adequate accuracy corresponding to the local concentrations of both alcohol and a tracer gas, e g CO2, (ii) the dilution of the breath is not excessive in relation to background concentrations, (iii) the sensor location can be seamlessly integrated into the interior of a vehicle cabin. All three of these aspects are addressed in the present paper. More than a hundred prototypes based on infrared spectroscopy were fabricated and subjected to automotive qualification tests in the full temperature range -40 … +85?C. In the majority of tests, adequate performance was noted. Measures are now being taken to fill remaining performance gaps. Test results with human subjects were positive and in accordance with expectations with respect to physiological variations. In-vehicle tests showed that for the best sensor position, passive breath samples allowed BrAC to be determined at a resolution of 2-4% of the US legal limit, providing proof-of-principle for unobtrusive testing. Nevertheless, vehicle integration remains to be the major technological challenge to the objective of deployment on a large scale of unobtrusive driver breath alcohol determination. The feasibility of unobtrusive breath alcohol determination in vehicles, and adequate performance of a sensor system based on infrared spectroscopy have been experimentally demonstrated. The alcohol sensing system may advantageously be integrated into vehicles, and may also be combined with other technologies to monitor driver impairment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. Paper Number 15-0458
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29658OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-29658DiVA, id: diva2:876476
Conference
The 24th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles ESV2015, 8-11 Jun 2015, Gothenburg, Sweden
Projects
ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsAvailable from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-10-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. High Performance Breath Analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Performance Breath Analysis
2016 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol breath testing on a larger scale will save lives. Alcohol abuse is a major contributor to death and disease. Alcohol intake affects the human body by significantly longer response time to external stimuli. In situations where the senses need to be on alert this delay can be the difference between life and death. To make the alcohol breath test more available in everyday use, the mouthpiece has been removed. Instead, the exhaled alcohol is measured directly in a diluted sample. The dilution can be accounted for by simultaneous measurement of an endogenous tracer gas. Because of the lack of a mouthpiece several additional factors influence the alcohol measurement, e.g. the obvious lower abundance of analyte gas, shorter time of analysis and physiological aspects of the tracer gas. My studies include sensor development and validation through laboratory experiments as well as human subject studies. Several sensor parameters are crucial for the functionality of the alcohol detection system and are in need of careful investigation. Human behaviour and physiology also needs further understanding. A better understanding of the system provides vital knowledge for the design of smarter algorithms. Planning, conducting and evaluation of these studies lie within the scope of the licentiate thesis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2016. p. 87
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 225
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-29883 (URN)978-91-7485-249-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2016-01-28, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Available from: 2015-12-11 Created: 2015-12-09 Last updated: 2017-01-03Bibliographically approved
2. High performance breath alcohol analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High performance breath alcohol analysis
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Alcohol breath testing on a larger scale will save lives. Alcohol intake affects the human body by significantly longer response time to external stimuli. In demanding situations where the senses need to be on alert a prolonged reaction time can be the difference between life and death, both for the intoxicated subject and for surrounding  individuals.

The aims of this thesis include investigations of a new type of breath alcohol sensor, designed for operation without a mouthpiece, both with regards to sensor performance as well as usability in relation to various breath  alcohol  screening applications.

In many situations where breath alcohol screening is suitable, there is a need for quick and easy use. The instrument should interfere as little as possible with the regular routines and procedures. One such task is driving. To accommodate for these needs in an in-vehicle application, the breath alcohol sensing system must be seamlessly installed in the vehicle and not interfere with the normal behavior of the sober driver. Driving is also a task requiring high level of concentration over a prolonged period of time. In the U.S. alone thousands of lives are annually lost in accidents where the driver was under the influence of  alcohol.  Similar numbers have been recorded for Europe. The potential for a system handling the needs for ease-of-use is huge and may result in successful products.

The results presented within this thesis provide experimental evidence of sufficient sensor performance for screening applications with an instrument operating without a mouthpiece. Smarter calculation methods were also shown to be a feasible path to improved measurement reliability. Important steps towards an even more passive solution for in-vehicle screening is also presented. Experiments showed that given enough time and sensor resolution, passive alcohol detection systems are feasible.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Malardalen University Press, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 240
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-36634 (URN)978-91-7485-350-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-11-15, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved

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