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Younger children's (three to five years) perceptions of being in a health-care situation
Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. (CHIP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-5254-6983
Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. (Barn och Unga i Skola och Samhälle)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9475-2497
Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Health and Welfare. (CHIP)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6163-9690
2015 (English)In: Early Child Development and Care, ISSN 0300-4430, E-ISSN 1476-8275, Vol. 186, no 5, p. 832-844Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Younger children are common users of health-care services. Their perspective on a health-care situation and their ways of communication differ from that of adults. There is a shortness of research of younger children's perceptions of health-care situations. The knowledge that exists indicates the importance of involving the child's perspective to enable understanding and to offer appropriate support. This paper aimed to describe how younger children perceive to be in a health-care situation. Semi-structured interviews, analysed phenomenographically, were used. The main findings revealed that children view themselves as actors, as either main or co-actors, in a health-care situation. Parents and professionals are also understood as actors. The children's perceptions enable professionals to create a mutual understanding which will give openings for increased involvement of the children and an improved level of the children's health literacy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2015. Vol. 186, no 5, p. 832-844
Keyword [en]
children, health care, social actor, interviews, phenomenography, health literacy
National Category
Health Sciences
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28811DOI: 10.1080/03004430.2015.1064405ISI: 000374778700011Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84937144969OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-28811DiVA: diva2:850412
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Facilitating participation: A joint use of an interactive communication tool by children and professionals in healthcare situations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Facilitating participation: A joint use of an interactive communication tool by children and professionals in healthcare situations
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Children’s right to participation in situations that matter to them is stated in law and convention texts and is emphasized by the children themselves in research studies, too. When actively involved, their perspective is visualized. Children’s use of interactive technology has increased considerably during the last decade. The use of applications and web sites are becoming a regular occurrence in paediatric healthcare.

The overall aim was to develop and test, together with children, an interactive communication tool meant to facilitate young children’s participation in healthcare situations.

To understand children’s varied perceptions of their involvement in healthcare situations, interviews, drawings and vignettes were used in a phenomenographic approach (I). A participatory design iteratively evaluated evolving prototypes of an application (II). Video observations and hermeneutics captured the meanings of the participation cues that the children demonstrated when they used the application in healthcare situations (III). A quantitative approach was used to identify patterns in the children’s cue use (IV). In total, 114 children in two clinical settings and in a preschool were involved.

The result showed that the children perceived themselves, their parents and the professionals as actors in a healthcare situation, although all were perceived to act differently (I). The children contributed important information on age-appropriateness, usability and likeability in the iterative evaluating phases that eventually ended up in the application (II). When using the application in healthcare situations, the cues they demonstrated were understood as representing a curious, thoughtful or affirmative meaning (III). Curious cues were demonstrated to the highest extent. The three-year-olds and the children with the least experience of healthcare situations demonstrated the highest numbers of cues (IV).

Conclusion: when using the application, the children demonstrated a situated participation which was influenced by their perspective of the situation and their inter-inter-action with the application as well as the health professional. The children’s situated participation provided the professionals’ with additional ways of guiding the children based on their perspectives.

Abstract [sv]

I lag- och konventionstexter, liksom i forskning, som använder barnens egna uttryck betonas deras rättighet att vara delaktiga i situationer av betydelse för dem. Genom att delta kan de göra sitt perspektiv synligt. Under det senaste årtiondet har barns användning av interaktiv teknik ökat kraftigt. Applikationer och web-sidor används nuförtiden även flitigt inom barnsjukvården.

Avhandlingens övergripande syfte var att utveckla och pröva, tillsammans med barn, ett interaktivt kommunikationsverktyg avsett att möjliggöra yngre barns delaktighet i vårdsituationer.

Intervjuer, teckningar och vignetter användes för att, fenomenografiskt, förstå barnens uppfattningar av att vara i en vårdsituation (I). En iterativ deltagarbaserad design användes för att utveckla en prototyp av en applikation. En hermeneutisk tolkning av video-observationer fångade meningen i barnens sätt att visa sin delaktighet (hintar) vid användningen av applikationen i vårdsituationer (III). En deduktiv, kvantitativ ansats användes för att identifiera mönster i barnens sätt att visa sin delaktighet när de använde applikationen (IV).

Resultatet visade att barnen uppfattade sig själva, föräldrarna och vårdpersonalen som aktörer i situationen, även om alla uppfattades agera på olika sätt (I). Barnen bidrog i den iterativa processen med viktig information gällande aspekter som åldersanpassning, användbarhet och hur väl den tilltalar dem, vilket slutligen ledde fram till den färdiga applikationen (II). Barnens sätt att visa sin delaktighet när de använde applikationen förstods ha en nyfiken, tankfull och självbekräftande mening (III). Nyfikenheten visades mest vid användningen av applikationen. Treåringarna samt barnen med minst vårderfarenhet använde applikationen i störst utsträckning (IV).

Sammanfattning: när applikationen användes i vårdsituationen visade barnen en situerad delaktighet vilken byggde på deras perspektiv på den aktuella situationen samt på deras inter-inter-aktion med applikationen och vårdpersonalen. Genom detta erbjöds vårdpersonalen ytterligare ett sätt att guida barnet utifrån barnets eget perspektiv.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2017
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 229
Keyword
children, child’ perspective, participation, phenomenography, interactive technology, participatory design approach, application, video observations, cues, hermeneutics, barn, barnets perspektiv, delaktighet, fenomenografi, interaktiv teknik, deltagarbaserad design, applikation, video-observationer, hint, hermeneutik
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Health Sciences
Research subject
Care Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-35178 (URN)978-91-7485-328-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-16, Beta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-04-28 Created: 2017-04-13 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03004430.2015.1064405#abstract

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Stålberg, AnnaSandberg, AnetteSöderbäck, Maja

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