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Wireless measurement systems for health and safety
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This licentiate thesis presents an advanced wireless system, built on a single hardware platform, for applications in medicine and health. In order to design a single system, adaptable for different context, an accurate system specification is required.

The technical requirements are authenticated by actual tests in the environment where the system is intended to be used. The results of these measurements give an understanding of the possibilities of designing a real system but also acts as a base for deriving the empirical formulas to be used as the basis of the development and verification.

In summary, this work has included a larger measurement campaign and a verification of subsystems to support the development of wireless systems on a single hardware platform. This can be used for different measurements in medical healthcare and rescue work.

Previous systems for endurance tests have limitations in that they are not adapted to different sizes of mammals and they also have shortcomings in the quantification of data and scalability.

The developed system was validated on mice and humans. On mice the measurement parameters was the hormone dopamine and locomotion. For humans it was measured time for given distances. Both validation tests showed high correlation with the respective reference methods. The correlation coefficients of mice between the developed system and the former system ranged from 0.916 to 0.967. In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system clock and a manual stop watch. The lowest correlation coefficient was 0.864. Advantages with the developed system is that it is scalable and measures the activity level quantitatively in the unit meters and it can also be used for different sizes of mammals in different environments.

In tracking devices for rescue it is important that the transmitted signal can be detected at distances as large as possible. A support in the design work is to simulate path loss. This requires a path loss exponent, which was calculated after the measurement campaign. The results showed that the exponent of the height dependency decreases with antenna height above water. For the frequency 200 MHz, the exponent for the antenna height is 0.4 (vertical polarization) and 1.5 (horizontal polarization). For the distance dependency, the exponent was 3.59 (vertical polarization) and 3.22 (horizontal polarization). The path loss exponent is 2 for both the free space- and the ground reflection model.

An antenna’s physical dimension is to a large extent dependent on the lowest frequency. The research’s aim was to reduce the physical size by introducing a resonance frequency. The physical length was from the beginning 0.43 meter given by the lowest frequency used (0.7 GHz) and the antenna was reduced in size to 0.22 meter. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2015.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 216
National Category
Medical Engineering
Research subject
Electronics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28765ISBN: 978-91-7485-224-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-28765DiVA: diva2:848610
Presentation
2015-10-02, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 14:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-25 Last updated: 2015-09-10Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Experimental study of path loss for UHF band communication near water surface
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of path loss for UHF band communication near water surface
2012 (English)In: International Journal on Communications Antenna and Propagation, ISSN 2039-5086, Vol. 2, no 3, 215-219 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The UHF band is often used for communication over water. Presented work quantifies path loss for this scenario. Experimental results are presented within 200 MHz to 1000 MHz, with the antennas positioned up to 2 m above the water surface. Path loss models are created from the measured data.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28767 (URN)2-s2.0-84906544839 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2015-08-26Bibliographically approved
2. Vivaldi antenna with low frequency resonance for reduced dimensions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vivaldi antenna with low frequency resonance for reduced dimensions
2013 (English)In: 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2013, 2013, 2457-2459 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper describes a broadband antenna with a design similar to a Vivaldi antenna. The difference is that a resonance is added to get a widerfrequency range, which is used to reduce the dimensions of the antenna. The antenna is built and characterized by S11, radiation patterns, and gain.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28768 (URN)2-s2.0-84881308097 (Scopus ID)9788890701832 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2013; Gothenburg; Sweden; 8 April 2013 through 12 April 2013
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2015-08-26Bibliographically approved
3. Development and Validation of a Universal Measurement System for Measuring the Performance of Mammals
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development and Validation of a Universal Measurement System for Measuring the Performance of Mammals
Show others...
2014 (English)In: International journal of system dynamics applications, ISSN 2160-9772, Vol. 3, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Exercise wheels for mammals are commonly used as test systems in many medical research areas. Studies may be related to many different areas such as vitamins, hormones (as dopamine), and physical endurance. As research develops the scope and size of the studies increase and the requirements of the test system might change. In order to conduct the experiments effectively, there is a need to increase the number of test stations, and the test station may also be required to handle physically larger mammals. This study presents and validates a wireless system for endurance tests. The system was validated on mice and humans. It is scalable, and can be expandable up to 254 test stations. In the case of the exercise wheel with mice, the ADEA system was used as a reference. The initial validation was done by comparing the activity measured by both systems in mice with different hormone dopamine levels. The correlation coefficients between the systems estimated activity levels were in the range from 0.916 to 0.967. The new system enables quantitative measurements of the activity level using standard SI units (meters and seconds, respectively). In the validation with humans, runners were clocked by the system and manually. The lowest correlation coefficient obtained during these measurements was 0.864. Thus, both applications showed a high correlation with conventional methods.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28769 (URN)10.4018/ijsda.2014040102 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-08-26 Created: 2015-08-26 Last updated: 2016-12-27Bibliographically approved

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