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Preservation of Extra-Functional Properties in Embedded Systems Development
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1512-0844
2015 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The interaction of embedded systems with their environments and their resource limitations make it important to take into account properties such as timing, security, and resource consumption in designing such systems. These so-called Extra-Functional Properties (EFPs) capture and describe the quality and characteristics of a system, and they need to be taken into account from early phases of development and throughout the system's lifecycle. An important challenge in this context is to ensure that the EFPs that are defined at early design phases are actually preserved throughout detailed design phases as well as during the execution of the system on its platform. In this thesis, we provide solutions to help with the preservation of EFPs; targeting both system design phases and system execution on the platform. Starting from requirements, which form the constraints of EFPs, we propose an approach for modeling Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs) and evaluating different design alternatives with respect to the satisfaction of the NFRs. Considering the relationship and trade-off among EFPs, an approach for balancing timing versus security properties is introduced. Our approach enables balancing in two ways: in a static way resulting in a fixed set of components in the design model that are analyzed and thus verified to be balanced with respect to the timing and security properties, and also in a dynamic way during the execution of the system through runtime adaptation. Considering the role of the platform in preservation of EFPs and mitigating possible violations of them, an approach is suggested to enrich the platform with necessary mechanisms to enable monitoring and enforcement of timing properties. In the thesis, we also identify and demonstrate the issues related to accuracy in monitoring EFPs, how accuracy can affect the decisions that are made based on the collected information, and propose a technique to tackle this problem. As another contribution, we also show how runtime monitoring information collected about EFPs can be used to fine-tune design models until a desired set of EFPs are achieved. We have also developed a testing framework which enables automatic generation of test cases in order verify the actual behavior of a system against its desired behavior. On a high level, the contributions of the thesis are thus twofold: proposing methods and techniques to 1) improve maintenance of EFPs within their correct range of values during system design, 2) identify and mitigate possible violations of EFPs at runtime.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2015.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 171
Keyword [en]
Software Engineering, Embedded Systems, Non-Functional Requirements, Extra-Functional Properties, Model-Driven Development, Trade-off analysis
National Category
Computer Systems Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-27300ISBN: 978-91-7485-182-3 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-27300DiVA: diva2:779172
Public defence
2015-02-24, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
CHESSMBATITS-EASY
Available from: 2015-01-12 Created: 2015-01-12 Last updated: 2015-02-02Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Model-Based Trade-off Analysis of Non-Functional Requirements: An Automated UML-Based Approach
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model-Based Trade-off Analysis of Non-Functional Requirements: An Automated UML-Based Approach
2013 (English)In: International Journal of Advanced Computer Science IJACSci, ISSN 2251-6379, Vol. 3, no 11, 575-588 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

One common goal followed by software engineers is to deliver a product which satisfies the requirements of different stakeholders. Software requirements are generally categorized into functional and Non-Functional Requirements (NFRs). While NFRs may not be the main focus in developing some applications, there are systems and domains where the satisfaction of NFRs is even critical and one of the main factors which can determine the success or failure of the delivered product, notably in embedded systems. While the satisfaction of functional requirements can be decomposed and determined locally, NFRs are interconnected and have impacts on each other. For this reason, they cannot be considered in isolation and a careful balance and trade-off among them needs to be established. We provide a generic model-based approach to evaluate the satisfaction of NFRs taking into account their mutual impacts and dependencies. By providing indicators regarding the satisfaction level of NFRs in the system, the approach enables to compare different system design models and also identify parts of the system which can be good candidates for modification in order to achieve better satisfaction levels.

Keyword
Non-Functional Requirements, Trade-off analysis, UML, Model-Based Development, Quality attributes, Non-Functional Properties, Extra-Functional Properties.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25126 (URN)2251-6379 (ISRN)
Projects
MBAT - Combined Model-based Analysis and Testing (Artemis/Vinnova)ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2014-06-05 Created: 2014-06-05 Last updated: 2015-01-12Bibliographically approved
2. Managing Timing Implications of Security Aspects in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Managing Timing Implications of Security Aspects in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Embedded Systems
2012 (English)In: International Journal On Advances in Security, ISSN 1942-2636, Vol. 5, no 3/4, 68-80 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considering security as an afterthought and addingsecurity aspects to a system late in the development processhas now been realized to be an inefficient and bad approach tosecurity. The trend is to bring security considerations as earlyas possible in the design of systems. This is especially criticalin certain domains such as real-time embedded systems. Due todifferent constraints and resource limitations that these systemshave, the costs and implications of security features should becarefully evaluated in order to find appropriate ones whichrespect the constraints of the system. Model-Driven Development(MDD) and Component-Based Development (CBD) are twosoftware engineering disciplines which help to cope with theincreasing complexity of real-time embedded systems. WhileCBD enables the reuse of functionality and analysis results bybuilding systems out of already existing components, MDD helpsto increase the abstraction level, perform analysis at earlierphases of development, and also promotes automatic codegeneration. By using these approaches and including securityaspects in the design models, it becomes possible to considersecurity from early phases of development and also identifythe implications of security features. Timing issues are one ofthe most important factors for successful design of real-timeembedded systems. In this paper, we provide an approach usingMDD and CBD methods to make it easier for system designersto include security aspects in the design of systems and identifyand manage their timing implications and costs. Among differentsecurity mechanisms to satisfy security requirements, our focusin this paper is mainly on using encryption and decryptionalgorithms and consideration of their timing costs to designsecure systems.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17422 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
3. Monitoring Capabilities of Schedulers in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring Capabilities of Schedulers in Model-Driven Development of Real-Time Systems
2012 (English)In: IEEE Symposium on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2012, 2012, Article number: 6489589- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Model-driven development has the potential to reduce the design complexity of real-time embedded systems by increasing the abstraction level, enabling analysis at earlier phases of development, and automatic generation of code from the models. In this context, capabilities of schedulers as part of the underlying platform play an important role. They can affect the complexity of code generators and how the model is implemented on the platform. Also, the way a scheduler monitors the timing behaviors of tasks and schedules them can facilitate the extraction of runtime information. This information can then be used as feedback to the original model in order to identify parts of the model that may need to be re-designed and modified. This is especially important in order to achieve round-trip support for model-driven development of real-time systems. In this paper, we describe our work in providing such monitoring features by introducing a second layer scheduler on top of the OSE real-time operating system's scheduler. The goal is to extend the monitoring capabilities of the scheduler without modifying the kernel. The approach can also contribute to the predictability of applications by bringing more awareness to the scheduler about the type of real-time tasks (i.e., periodic, sporadic, and aperiodic) that are to be scheduled and the information that should be monitored and logged for each type.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17297 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2012.6489589 (DOI)2-s2.0-84876359904 (Scopus ID)978-146734737-2 (ISBN)
Conference
17th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2012),September 17-20, 2012, Krakow, Poland
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
4. An automated round-trip support towards deployment assessment in component-based embedded systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An automated round-trip support towards deployment assessment in component-based embedded systems
2013 (English)In: CBSE 2013 - Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component Based Software Engineering, 2013, 2013, 179-188 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Synergies between model-driven and component-based software engineering have been indicated as promising to mitigate complexity in development of embedded systems. In this work we evaluate the usefulness of a model-driven round-trip approach to aid deployment optimization in the development of embedded component-based systems. The round-trip approach is composed of the following steps: modelling the system, generation of full code from the models, execution and monitoring the code execution, and finally back-propagation of monitored values to the models. We illustrate the usefulness of the round-trip approach exploiting an industrial case-study from the telecom-domain. We use a code-generator that can realise different deployment strategies, as well as special monitoring code injected into the generated code, and monitoring primitives defined at operating system level. Given this infrastructure we can evaluate extra-functional properties of the system and thus compare different deployment strategies. 

Keyword
Back propagation, Component-based software engineering, Deployment, Embedded systems, Model-driven engineering
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20818 (URN)10.1145/2465449.2465450 (DOI)2-s2.0-84880533266 (Scopus ID)9781450321228 (ISBN)
Conference
16th ACM SIGSOFT Symposium on Component Based Software Engineering, CBSE 2013, 17 June 2013 through 21 June 2013, Vancouver, BC
Projects
CHESSITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and SystemsRALF3 - Software for Embedded High Performance Architectures
Note

Sponsors: ACM SIGSOFT

Available from: 2013-08-02 Created: 2013-08-02 Last updated: 2015-11-04Bibliographically approved
5. Towards Accurate Monitoring of Extra-Functional Properties in Real-Time Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Accurate Monitoring of Extra-Functional Properties in Real-Time Embedded Systems
2012 (English)In: Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC: Proceedings, 2012, 338-341 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Management and preservation of Extra-Functional Properties (EFPs) is critical in real-time embedded systems to ensure their correct behavior. Deviation of these properties, such as timing and memory usage, from their acceptable and valid values can impair the functionality of the system. In this regard, monitoring is an important means to investigate the state of the system and identify such violations. The monitoring result is also used to make adaptation and re-configuration decisions in the system as well. Most of the works related to monitoring EFPs are based on the assumption that monitoring results accurately represent the true state of the system at the monitoring request time point. In some systems this assumption can be safe and valid. However, if in a system the value of an EFP changes frequently, the result of monitoring may not accurately represent the state of the system at the time point when the monitoring request has been issued. The consequences of such inaccuracies can be critical in certain systems and applications. In this paper, we mainly introduce and discuss this practical problem and also provide a solution to improve the monitoring accuracy of EFPs.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17357 (URN)10.1109/APSEC.2012.42 (DOI)000332765100045 ()2-s2.0-84874637365 (Scopus ID)978-076954922-4 (ISBN)
Conference
The 19th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC 2012, December 4-7, 2012, Hong Kong
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved
6. A Model-Based Testing Framework for Automotive Embedded Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Model-Based Testing Framework for Automotive Embedded Systems
Show others...
2014 (English)In: The 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2014, Verona, Italy, 2014Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Architectural models, such as those described in the EAST-ADL language, represent convenient abstractions to reason about automotive embedded software systems. To enjoy the fully-fledged advantages of reasoning, EAST-ADL models could benefit from a component-aware analysis framework that provides, ideally, both verification and model-based test-case generation capabilities. While different verification techniques have been developed for architectural models, only a few target EAST-ADL. In this paper, we present a methodology for code validation, starting from EAST-ADL artifacts. The methodology relies on: (i) automated model-based test-case generation for functional requirements criteria based on the EAST-ADL model extended with timed automata semantics, and (ii) validation of system implementation by generating Python test scripts based on the abstract test-cases, which represent concrete test-cases that are executable on the system implementation. We apply our methodology to analyze the ABS function implementation of a Brake-by-Wire system prototype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Verona, Italy: , 2014
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26419 (URN)10.1109/SEAA.2014.70 (DOI)000358153200006 ()2-s2.0-84916600878 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 40th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications SEAA 2014, 27-29 Aug 2014, Verona, Italy
Projects
MBAT - Combined Model-based Analysis and Testing (Artemis/Vinnova)ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2014-11-01 Created: 2014-10-31 Last updated: 2016-06-01Bibliographically approved
7. Testing of Timing Properties in Real-Time Systems: Verifying Clock Constraints
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Testing of Timing Properties in Real-Time Systems: Verifying Clock Constraints
2013 (English)In: Proceedings - Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference, APSEC, 2013, 152-152 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Ensuring that timing constraints in a real-time system are satisfied and met is of utmost importance. There are different static analysis methods that are introduced to statically evaluate the correctness of such systems in terms of timing properties, such as schedulability analysis techniques. Regardless of the fact that some of these techniques might be too pessimistic or hard to apply in practice, there are also situations that can still occur at runtime resulting in the violation of timing properties and thus invalidation of the static analyses' results. Therefore, it is important to be able to test the runtime behavior of a real-time system with respect to its timing properties. In this paper, we introduce an approach for testing the timing properties of real-time systems focusing on their internal clock constraints. For this purpose, test cases are generated from timed automata models that describe the timing behavior of real-time tasks. The ultimate goal is to verify that the actual timing behavior of the system at runtime matches the timed automata models. This is achieved by tracking and time-measuring of state transitions at runtime.

Keyword
Real-Time, Timing Properties, Testing, Runtime Verification, Temporal Correctness, Model-Based Testing
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-23290 (URN)10.1109/APSEC.2013.131 (DOI)000358735300029 ()2-s2.0-84897371829 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The 20th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC 2013) 2-5 December 2013, Bangkok, Thailand
Projects
MBAT - Combined Model-based Analysis and Testing (Artemis/Vinnova)ITS-EASY Post Graduate School for Embedded Software and Systems
Available from: 2013-12-14 Created: 2013-12-10 Last updated: 2015-02-04Bibliographically approved

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