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On Reliable and Deadline-Constrained Communication in Wireless Industrial Networks
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems.
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Along with the quick development of wireless communication technologies, industrial automation networks are also in unceasing evolution. Industrial wireless sensor and actuator networks (IWSAN) have been increasingly adopted in industrial automation systems. Although there are a number of advantages of replacing cables with wireless links, such as cost reduction, enhanced scalability and flexibility, the stringent requirements on communication reliability and meeting firm deadlines from industrial mission-critical applications must still be fulfilled. Also, transmissions over wireless channels in industrial environments are prone to noise and interferences, resulting in frequent erroneous packet deliveries. Although industrial automation systems are usually designed to be tolerant of certain communication errors, successive transmission failures may still cause downtime of industrial applications, which might lead to significant economic losses or even serious accidents. This thesis addresses the problems mentioned above and aims to provide reliable and deadline-constrained communication via IWSANs for industrial automation systems. On the MAC layer, existing IWSAN standards utilize automatic repeat request (ARQ) to improve reliability at the cost of additional transmission latency. An alternative method is to use Forward Error Correction (FEC) schemes to provide reliable communication by recovering erroneous data and avoiding unnecessary retransmissions. On the MAC layer, Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is usually applied in current IWSAN standards for collision-free and deterministic communication. An inappropriate scheduling scheme may introduce high transmission jitter and degrade the quality of control. On the network layer, routing protocols play an important role in both communication reliability and latency. Existing solutions are either hardly able to fulfill all stringent requirements from the mission-critical industrial applications, too complicated to be realized, or lack verification in reality. The contributions of this thesis consist of (i) the possibilities of using FEC schemes in IWSANs is explored under the requirements of existing standards on the MAC layer. A compatible and flexible FEC scheme on the MAC layer for IWSANs that does not violate the standard is proposed and evaluated by simulations. (ii) To guarantee an acceptable control quality, a TDMA scheduling scheme is presented aiming for low communication jitter, and it is compared to classic scheduling schemes. (iii) The advantages of exploiting flooding in IWSANs is discussed; a reliable controlled flooding-based routing protocol is proposed and compared to both traditional routing protocols and other flooding-based protocols. (iv) A complete IWSAN platform is built and the whole protocol stack is implemented. Measurements were conducted in a real industrial environment to verify the correctness of the proposed solution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2014.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 167
National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26165ISBN: 978-91-7485-171-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-26165DiVA: diva2:757617
Public defence
2014-12-08, Delta, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2014-11-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Reliable and Lightweight Communication in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
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2012 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we address the issues of timeliness and transmission reliability of existing industrial communication standards. We combine a Forward Error Correction coding schemeon the Medium Access Control layer with a lightweight routing protocol to form an IEEE 802.15.4-conformable solution, whichcan be implemented into already existing hardware without violating the standard. After laying the theoretical foundations,we conduct a performance evaluation of the proposed solution.The results show a substantial gain in reliability and reducedlatency, compared to the uncoded transmissions, as well ascommon Wireless Sensor Network routing protocols.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Beijing, China: , 2012
National Category
Communication Systems Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15215 (URN)10.1109/INDIN.2012.6300846 (DOI)2-s2.0-84868222720 (Scopus ID)978-146730311-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 10th International Conference on Industrial Informatics, INDIN 2012;Beijing;25 July 2012 through 27 July 2012
Note

This work has been submitted to the IEEE for possible publication. Copyright may be transferred without notice, after which this version may no longer be accessible.

Available from: 2012-09-04 Created: 2012-09-03 Last updated: 2014-10-23Bibliographically approved
2. Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reliable and Low Latency Transmission in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
2011 (English)In: Procedia Computer Science, ISSN 1877-0509, E-ISSN 1877-0509, Vol. 5, 866-873 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The major advantages with Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) in process automation are cable cost reduction, enhanced flexibility and enabling new emerging applications such as wireless control. However, transmission over the wireless channel is prone to noise and interference which causes packets to be erroneous received at the receiver node. To improve the link reliability in lossy channels, error correcting codes are commonly used. In this paper we discuss the use of forward error correction (FEC) codes in IWSN in order not only to improve the link reliability but also to reduce the number of retransmissions in harsh industrial environments. We propose a FEC scheme suitable for MAC level protection where the packet is divided into groups and encoded using systematic FEC codes. We have implemented different FEC codes in a typical IWSN chip to evaluate memory consumption and to ensure that we are not violating the strict timing rules for acknowledgment. Our results show that some FEC codes are suitable to be implemented in a typical IWSN node while several fails due to large memory footprint or to long encoding and decoding time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Niagara Falls, Canada: , 2011
National Category
Communication Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13623 (URN)10.1016/j.procs.2011.07.120 (DOI)2-s2.0-84856426250 (Scopus ID)
Conference
The First International Workshop on Wireless Networked Control Systems (WNCS)
Available from: 2012-09-06 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2016-06-02Bibliographically approved
3. Low Jitter Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Jitter Scheduling for Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks
2013 (English)In: 39TH ANNUAL CONFERENCE OF THE IEEE INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS SOCIETY (IECON 2013): 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 2013, 5594-5599 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Applying Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (IWSANs) in the industrial automation is a growing trend due to flexibility, mobility and low cost. According to the current standards, such as WirelessHART and ISA100.11a, multi-channel TDMA transmission is included for reliable and deterministic communication. In this paper, we clarify the dependence of TDMA scheduling for sensors and actuators and point out the low correlation between the scheduling delay and the overall quality of control, and focus on reducing jitter in scheduling for improving quality of control and system stability. We propose a scheduling algorithm, aiming for lowing jitter and compare it with two traditional real-time scheduling schemes. Our simulation results exhibit significantly lower jitters by applying our scheduling policy than those two traditional scheduling schemes.

Series
IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 1553-572X
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-22290 (URN)10.1109/IECON.2013.6700050 (DOI)000331149505074 ()2-s2.0-84893585069 (Scopus ID)978-1-4799-0224-8 (ISBN)
Conference
IECON 2013 - 39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, 10 Nov - 13 Nov 2013, Vienna
Available from: 2013-10-31 Created: 2013-10-31 Last updated: 2014-12-15Bibliographically approved
4. REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>REALFLOW: Reliable Real-Time Flooding-Based Routing Protocol for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks
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2014 (English)In: International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, ISSN 1550-1329, E-ISSN 1550-1477, art. nbr: 936379- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wireless technologies have been increasingly applied in industrial automation systems due to flexible installation, mobility, and cost reduction. Unlike traditional wireless sensor networks (WSNs), industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs), when expanding from wireless monitoring to wireless control, have more stringent requirements on reliability, real-time performance, and robustness in a number of industrial applications. Successive transmission failures or deadline misses in these applications may severely degrade the control quality and result in serious economic losses and safety problems. Therefore, when deploying IWSNs in harsh industrial environments, to achieve reliable and deterministic end-to-end transmissions is critically important. In this paper, we explain the primary challenges of designing appropriate routing protocols and present a reliable real-time flooding-based routing protocol for IWSNs (REALFLOW). Instead of traditional routing tables, related node lists are generated in a simple distributed manner, serving for packet forwarding. A controlled flooding mechanism is applied to improve both reliability and real-time performance. A seamless transition in the event of topology change can be achieved by REALFLOW. Performance evaluations via simulations verify that significant improvements of reliability, real-time performance, and network recovery time can be achieved by REALFLOW, compared with traditional routing protocols.

National Category
Computer Science Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25850 (URN)10.1155/2014/936379 (DOI)000339759200001 ()2-s2.0-84935035310 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-29 Created: 2014-08-29 Last updated: 2015-07-23Bibliographically approved
5. Performance Evaluation and Measurement of REALFLOW Routing Protocol in WirelessIndustrial Networks
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Evaluation and Measurement of REALFLOW Routing Protocol in WirelessIndustrial Networks
(English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Industrial Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks(IWSAN) offer significant advantages to industrial automationsystems. Requirements on reliability are highly demanding formany industrial applications. Due to multipath diversity andsimplicity, flooding is an promising approach to provide reliabletransmissions.

In this paper, a flooding-based routing protocol for IWSAN(REALFLOW) is upgraded based on previous research, aimingfor high reliability. To provide efficient and directionaltransmission, a controlled flooding-based mechanism is applied.Network management is further improved for better efficiencyand stability. REALFLOW is first compared with other fourflooding protocols via simulation. The results exhibit that REALFLOWoutperforms other advanced flooding protocols interms of reliability and consecutive transmission errors. Evencompared with pure flooding, REALFLOW achieves comparablereliability performance with decreased forwarding redundancy.To demonstrate the solution promising in reality, a workableIWSAN prototype is built, as well as the full implementation ofthe whole protocol stack including REALFLOW. A measurementconducted in a industrial manufacturing workshop reveals thathigh reliability and low application failure probability can beachieved, which brings more confidence of providing both reliablewireless sensing and actuating for industrial automation systems.

National Category
Communication Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-26164 (URN)
Available from: 2014-10-23 Created: 2014-10-23 Last updated: 2015-06-01Bibliographically approved

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