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Successful technology transfer: What does it take?
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-2189-0105
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4589-7045
Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3449-2253
2014 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 130, p. 807813-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Technology transfer from developed to developing countries is often problematic. Insufficient resources for operation and maintenance after project finalization are common challenges. Findings from assessments of two projects in rural Botswana and Namibia where different renewable energy technologies were introduced to improve access to electricity are presented. In Tsumkwe, a Namibian off-grid settlement with about 4000 inhabitants, a large solar-diesel hybrid system has been constructed. A smaller system using photovoltaic and biogas is piloted in the off-grid settlement Sekhutlane in Botswana. In Sekhutlane beneficiaries' ability to pay for services is addressed by supporting local entrepreneurs to establish electricity-based businesses. Functionality of installations was inspected and semi-structured interviews were held with key stakeholders. In Tsumkwe local service providers were unprepared to take charge of operations and maintenance after completion of the project and users have difficulties paying for the services. Too strong focus on technology and insufficient efforts made to involve local institutions and beneficiaries throughout the project are main causes. The promotion of local entrepreneurship in Sekhutlane has resulted in 17 local businesses being established, likely to strengthen the cash economy and improved ability to pay for services, and thereby contributing financial resources towards operation and maintenance of systems. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2014. Vol. 130, p. 807813-
Keywords [en]
Off-grid rural electrification, Renewable energy, Stakeholder involvement, Sub-Saharan Africa, Developing countries, Hybrid systems, Renewable energy resources, Rural areas, Operation and maintenance, Operations and maintenance, Renewable energies, Renewable energy technologies, Rural electrification, Semi structured interviews, Technology transfer
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25766DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.01.087ISI: 000340311500082Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84904785910OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-25766DiVA, id: diva2:736769
Available from: 2014-08-08 Created: 2014-08-08 Last updated: 2017-09-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Sustainability and development impacts of off-grid electrification in developing countries: An assessment of South Africa's rural electrification program
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability and development impacts of off-grid electrification in developing countries: An assessment of South Africa's rural electrification program
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Hållbarhet och utvecklingseffekter av off-grid elektrifiering i utvecklingsländer : En bedömning av Sydafrikas elektrifiering av landsbygden programmet
Abstract [en]

Previous studies have shown that provision of sustainable electricity supply to rural households is essential to bring development to off-grid populations. For this reason, most developing countries put large efforts into rural electrification programs to stimulate development and reduce poverty. However, to be sustainable these programs need to recover costs, which poses a challenge to remote low income populations.  This often forces governments and other institutions involved in rural electrification to subsidize the electricity production. It also affects the choice of technology and places a barrier on the level of energy provided in line with the ability to pay for services. As a result of this, most programs have failed to achieve the desired objectives, as the technologies used often do not support income generating activities that could increase the payment capabilities of the beneficiaries and contribute to development.

This thesis is focused on the rural electrification program of South Africa, the country in sub-Saharan Africa that has the highest access to electricity. It investigates the success elements that influence the sustainability of rural electrification programs and their contributions to socio-economic development. This was achieved by evaluating the South African program that provides solar home systems to off-grid communities, and a hybrid solar-wind mini-grid project in South Africa. The study also draw lessons from other rural electrification programs in neighbouring countries, i.e. an evaluation of a hybrid solar-diesel mini-grid system in Namibia, and a review of two systems, a hybrid solar-biomass mini-grid project in Botswana and a hydro mini-grid program in Lesotho. The study revealed that hydro based hybrid mini-grid systems provide the most cost effective way of bringing energy services to rural settlements. Regardless of technology, successful programs depend on adequate support from the government, implementation of a progressive tariff system that allows the high consuming high income earners and businesses, to cross subsidize the low consuming , low income users. It shows that it is more likely for rural electrification programs to survive if the design considers the existing businesses, population growth and the corresponding load increase. The thesis further shows that provision of sufficient energy to induce income generating activities is essential to decrease the need for subsidies and to ensure the sustainability of programs. In addition, availability of spare parts and a capable management team is essential for the successful operations and maintenance of these systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2016. p. 65
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 198
Keywords
Off-grid electrification, sustainability, solar home system, hybrid mini-grid, renewable energy, technical challenges
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-30762 (URN)978-91-7485-252-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2016-03-04, Gamma, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-19 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2016-02-01Bibliographically approved

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Klintenberg, PatrikWallin, FredrikAzimoh, Chukwuma Leonard

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