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Waste flow mapping to improve sustainability of waste management: A case study approach
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. Miljögiraff, Environmental Consultants, Gothenburg, Sweden.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9068-3527
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3390-938X
Miljögiraff, Environmental Consultants, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Volvo Group, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 304-315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Innovative, resource-efficient solutions and effective waste management systems capture value in business and contribute to sustainability. However, due to scattered waste management responsibilities in the vehicle industry and the orientation of operations management and lean tools, which mostly focus on lead-time and labour-time improvements, the requirement of a collaborative method to include material waste efficiency in operational development is identified. The main purpose of this research is to study how operations management and environmental management can be integrated on an operational level and include the waste management supply chain. Based on a literature review of environmental and operational improvement tools and principles, the gaps and needs in current practice were identified. A large case study implementing a waste flow mapping (WFM) method on a set of manufacturing sites revealed potentials in terms of reducing material losses and inefficiencies in the handling of materials and waste. Finally, the integrated WFM method was analysed with respect to the gaps and needs identified in the existing body of tools for operational and environmental improvement. The method combines lean manufacturing tools, such as value stream mapping with cleaner production and material flow cost accounting strategies. The empirical data showed that the WFM method is adequate for current state analysis of waste material efficiency potentials, especially when multiple organisations are involved. However, further development and specific methods are needed such as, for example, logistics inefficiencies, root cause analysis, implementation guidelines for best practice and systems for performance monitoring of actors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015. Vol. 98, no 1, p. 304-315
Keywords [en]
material efficiency;waste flow mapping; waste management services; manufacturing industry; environmental system analysis
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25265DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.076ISI: 000356194300031Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84929944699OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-25265DiVA, id: diva2:732719
Projects
MemimanXPRES
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchXPRES - Initiative for excellence in production researchAvailable from: 2014-07-05 Created: 2014-06-16 Last updated: 2018-02-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Development of collaborative green lean production systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of collaborative green lean production systems
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis deals with development of lean and green production systems from an action research point of view. The studies focus on Swedish-based automotive and vehicle industries and their aims to integrate sustainable thinking and environmental care into their operations management.

Starting from operations management in manufacturing and corporate sustainable development, the research is built on how to integrate these two views into one production system. The systematic structure of a multiple-target improvement process with methodologies and tools designed to achieve the sustainability vision has been studied. Since lean as well as green production is based on the entire value chain, the research has gone beyond legal company limits and included the collaborative efforts between suppliers and customers in the value chain.

The thesis includes six papers and describes approaches on how to implement integration, how to structure and integrate improvement management systems, how to set up an integrated monitoring and control system for the business and how to organise and redesign green lean tools and methodologies to support collaboration towards common targets.

The results can be used for exploration and hypothesis formulation for further studies and development of integrated production systems and collaboration systems. The thesis helps answering how to integrate and implement company-specific green lean production systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna/Västerås: Mälardalens Högskola, 2014
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 162
Keywords
Operations management, Lean manufacturing, Sustainable production, Environmental management, Swedish manufacturing
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-25605 (URN)978-91-7485-157-1 (ISBN)
Public defence
2014-09-19, Filen, Smedjegatan 37, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2014-07-16 Created: 2014-07-05 Last updated: 2014-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. MATERIAL EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MATERIAL EFFICIENCY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING
2015 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Material efficiency is a key solution to provide a reduction in the total environmental impact of global manufacturing, which contributes to avoid generating larger volumes of industrial waste, to reduce extracting and consuming ever more resources and to decrease energy demand and carbon emissions. However, the area of material efficiency in manufacturing has been under-researched and related knowledge is limited.

The research objective of this thesis is to contribute to the existing body of knowledge regarding material efficiency in manufacturing - to increase understanding, describe the existing situation and develop support for improvement. This thesis focuses on value of process and residual materials in material efficiency: to increase homogenous quality of generated waste with higher segregation rate, decreasing the amount of material becoming waste and reduce total virgin raw material consumption without influencing the function and quality of a product or process.

To achieve the objective, material efficiency strategies, existing state of material efficiency in manufacturing and barriers that avert higher material efficiency improvement have been investigated. The results are supported by four structured literature reviews and two [MW1] empirical multiple case studies at large global manufacturing companies in Sweden, mainly automotive. Empirical studies include observations, interviews, waste stream mapping, waste sorting analysis, environmental report reviews and walkthroughs in companies to determine the material efficiency and industrial waste management systems.

The empirical results revealed that material efficiency improvement potential of further waste segregation to gain economic and environmental benefits is still high. Determining different waste segments and relative fractions along with calculating material efficiency performance measurements facilitate improvements in material efficiency. In addition to attempts for waste generation reduction, avoiding blending and correct segregation of different waste fractions is an essential step towards material efficiency. The next step is to improve the value of waste fractions i.e. having more specific cost-effective fractions. Waste Flow Mapping proves to be an effective practical tool to be utilized at manufacturing companies in order to check and explore the improvement opportunities.

In addition, a number of barriers that hinder material efficiency was identified. The most influential material efficiency barriers are Budgetary, Information, Management and Employees. The majority of identified material efficiency barriers are internal, originate inside the company itself and are dependent upon the manufacturing companies’ characteristics. As a result, management and employees’ attitude, environmental knowledge and environmental motivation, as well as their internal communication and information sharing, and companies’ core value and vision are the enablers for material efficiency improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Eskilstuna: Mälardalen University, 2015
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 210
Keywords
Material efficiency, industrial waste management, manufacturing
National Category
Environmental Management Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-28004 (URN)978-91-7485-214-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2015-09-02, Filen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
MEMIMAN
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2015-08-24Bibliographically approved
3. Sustainable Manufacturing through Material Efficiency Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable Manufacturing through Material Efficiency Management
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Material efficiency contributes to reduced industrial waste volumes, reduced extraction and consumption of virgin raw materials, increased waste segregation, decreased energy demand, and reduced carbon emissions, thereby generally mitigating the environmental impact of the manufacturing industry. However, the area of material efficiency in manufacturing is under-researched, and related knowledge is limited particularly at individual manufacturing sites and lower levels. These levels are crucial to achieve improved material efficiency, as a great amount of material is consumed and waste flows are generated on manufacturing shop floors. There are still gaps in both literature and industrial practice regarding material efficiency in manufacturing, where materials are consumed to make products and great volumes of waste are generated simultaneously.

The research objective of this dissertation is to contribute to existing knowledge on management and improvement of material efficiency in manufacturing. To achieve this objective, three research questions were formulated to investigate material efficiency barriers, material efficiency tools and strategies, and material efficiency performance measurement. The results are supported by four structured and extensive literature reviews and also by five empirical case studies conducted at a total of fourteen Swedish global manufacturing companies. These empirical studies entail observations, interviews, waste stream mapping, waste sorting analyses, environmental report reviews, and company walkthroughs.

A number of material efficiency barriers in manufacturing were identified, categorized and clustered to facilitate an understanding of material efficiency to effectively mitigate the barriers. The clustered barriers cited most often in the literature are budgetary, information, technology, management, vision and culture, uncertainty, engineering, and employees. In the empirical studies, vision and culture, technology, and uncertainty were replaced by communication. Most of the material efficiency barriers identified appear to be internal and are dependent on the manufacturing company’s characteristics.

A number of tools and strategies were identified and some were used to assess, manage, and improve material efficiency in the manufacturing companies studied. Empirical studies indicated that certain criteria are necessary to select and use operational tools. These criteria include being hands-on, time efficient, based on lean principles, easy to use and learn, visualized, promoting engagement, and being connected to a predetermined goal. These criteria are essential for mutual understanding, intra-organizational communication, performance improvement, and becoming a learning organization.

A model for a material efficiency performance measurement system was proposed that included the most common material efficiency-related key performance indicators from literature and empirical findings. The model divides material and waste flows into four main categories: productive input materials, auxiliary input materials, products, and residual output materials. The four main categories should be measured equally to realize material efficiency performance improvements in an operation.

This research contributes to the research area of material efficiency and sheds light on different inter-connected aspects, which affect one another and contribute to assess, manage and improve material efficiency in a manufacturing context. The studied conducted and the results are presented in five appended papers. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2018
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 253
National Category
Environmental Management
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-38520 (URN)978-91-7485-373-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-16, Raspen, Mälardalens högskola, Eskilstuna, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-02-06 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved

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Publisher's full textScopushttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.06.076

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Kurdve, MartinShahbazi, SashaMagnus, Wiktorsson

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