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Communications-Oriented Modeling and Development of Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering. Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Embedded Systems. (IS (Model-Based Engineering of Embedded Systems))ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3242-6113
2014 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The model- and component-based development approach has emerged as an attractive option for the development of vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems. Within this context we target challenges related to modeling of legacy network communication, extraction of end-to-end timing models and support for end-to-end timing analysis.

We propose a novel approach for modeling legacy network communication in these systems. By introducing special-purpose components to encapsulate and abstract the communication protocols, we allow the use of legacy nodes and legacy protocols in a component- and model-based software engineering environment. Because an end-to-end timing model should be available to perform the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses, we present a method to extract the timing models from these systems. We also extend the method to various abstraction levels and parts of the development process for the systems. During the models extraction, we identify that the existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN), a widely used real-time network protocol in the vehicular domain, does not support mixed messages. These messages are partly periodic and partly sporadic. They are implemented by some higher-level protocols for CAN used in the industry. We extend the existing analysis which is now applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and/or mixed transmission.

In order to show the application of our modeling techniques, timing model extraction method and extended analyses; we provide a proof of concept by extending the Rubus Component Model, which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded real-time systems by several international companies. We also implement the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses along with the extended analysis for CAN in the existing industrial tool suite the Rubus-ICE. Moreover, we implement the extended analysis for CAN in a free tool MPS-CAN analyzer. Further, we conduct automotive-application case studies to validate our methods and techniques.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2014.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 160
Keyword [en]
Embedded systems; real-time systems; distributed embedded systems; component-based development; End-to-end timing analysis; response-time analysis; Controller Area Network; component model; timing model
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24969ISBN: 978-91-7485-151-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-24969DiVA: diva2:716187
Public defence
2014-06-16, U2-013, Mälardalens högskola, Västerås, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Projects
SynthSoftFEMMVAEEMDEF
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 16330
Available from: 2014-05-08 Created: 2014-05-08 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Communications-oriented development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Communications-oriented development of component-based vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems
2014 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 2, 207-220 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose a novel model- and component-based technique to support communications-oriented development of software for vehicular distributed real-time embedded systems. The proposed technique supports modeling of legacy nodes and communication protocols by encapsulating and abstracting the internal implementation details and protocols. It also allows modeling and performing timing analysis of the applications that contain network traffic originating from outside of the system such as vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and cloud-based applications. Furthermore, we present a method to extract end-to-end timing models to support end-to-end timing analysis. We also discuss and solve the issues involved during the extraction of these models. As a proof of concept, we implement our technique in the Rubus Component Model which is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We also conduct an application-case study to validate our approach.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24778 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2013.10.008 (DOI)000331858200006 ()2-s2.0-84894900492 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-03-28 Created: 2014-03-28 Last updated: 2015-11-19Bibliographically approved
2. Integrating Mixed Transmission and Practical Limitations with the Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Controller Area Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating Mixed Transmission and Practical Limitations with the Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Controller Area Network
2015 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 99, 66-84 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The existing worst-case response-time analysis for Controller Area Network (CAN) calculates upper bounds on the response times of messages that are queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, it does not support the analysis of mixed messages. These messages do not exhibit a periodic activation pattern and can be queued for transmission both periodically and sporadically. They are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysis to support worst-case response-time calculations for periodic and sporadic as well as mixed messages. Moreover, we integrate the effect of hardware and software limitations in the CAN controllers and device drivers such as abortable and non-abortable transmit buffers with the extended analysis. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24971 (URN)10.1016/j.jss.2014.09.005 (DOI)000347131600005 ()2-s2.0-84912523115 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2015-11-16Bibliographically approved
3. Extending Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network with Priority and FIFO Queues
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending Worst-Case Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network with Priority and FIFO Queues
2014 (English)In: IEEE Access, ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 2, 365-380 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The existing worst case response-time analysis for controller area network (CAN) with nodesimplementing priority and First In First Out (FIFO) queues does not support mixed messages. It assumesthat a message is queued for transmission either periodically or sporadically. However, a message canalso be queued both periodically and sporadically using mixed transmission mode implemented by severalhigher level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. We extend the existing analysisfor CAN to support any higher level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic, and mixed transmissionof messages in the systems where some nodes implement priority queues, whereas others implement FIFOqueues. In order to provide a proof of concept, we implement the extended analysis in a free tool, conductan automotive-application case study, and perform comparative evaluation of the extended analysis with theexisting analysis.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24972 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2014.2319255 (DOI)000209653800027 ()2-s2.0-84923317925 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2017-02-15Bibliographically approved
4. Extending Offset-Based Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending Offset-Based Response-Time Analysis for Mixed Messages in Controller Area Network
2013 (English)In: IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, Article number 6648056- p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The existing offset-based response-time analysis for mixed messages in Controller Area Network (CAN) assumes the jitter and deadline of a message to be smaller or equal to the transmission period. However, practical systems may contain messages whose release jitter and deadlines can be greater than their periods, e.g., in the gateway nodes. We extend the existing response-time analysis for mixed messages in CAN that are scheduled with offsets and have arbitrary jitter and deadlines. Mixed messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols for CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The extended analysis is applicable to any higher-level protocol for CAN that uses periodic, sporadic and mixed transmission modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Keyword
Controller Area Network, response-time analysis, automotive networks
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20093 (URN)10.1109/ETFA.2013.6648056 (DOI)2-s2.0-84890618637 (Scopus ID)9781479908622 (ISBN)
Conference
2013 IEEE 18th International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, ETFA 2013; Cagliari; Italy; 10 September 2013 through 13 September 2013
Note

Submitted to:

18th IEEE conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation, 10-13 September 2013, Cagliari, Italy

Available from: 2013-07-03 Created: 2013-07-03 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved
5. MPS-CAN Analyzer: Integrated Implementation of Response-Time Analyses for Controller Area Network
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MPS-CAN Analyzer: Integrated Implementation of Response-Time Analyses for Controller Area Network
2014 (English)In: Journal of systems architecture, ISSN 1383-7621, E-ISSN 1873-6165, Vol. 60, no 10, 828-841 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a new response-time analyzer for Controller Area Network (CAN) that integrates and implements a number of response-time analyses which address various transmission modes and practical limitations in the CAN controllers. The existing tools for the response-time analysis of CAN support only periodic and sporadic messages. They do not analyze mixed messages which are partly periodic and partly sporadic. These messages are implemented by several higher-level protocols based on CAN that are used in the automotive industry. The new analyzer supports periodic, sporadic as well as mixed messages. It can analyze the systems where periodic and mixed messages are scheduled with offsets. It also supports the analysis of all types of messages while taking into account several queueing policies and buffer limitations in the CAN controllers such as abortable or non-abortable transmit buffers. Moreover, the tool supports the analysis of mixed, periodic and sporadic messages in the heterogeneous systems where Electronic Control Units (ECUs) implement different types of queueing policies and have different types of buffer limitations in the CAN controllers. We conduct a case study of a heterogeneous application from the automotive domain to show the usability of the tool. Moreover, we perform a detailed evaluation of the implemented analyses.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24973 (URN)10.1016/j.sysarc.2014.05.001 (DOI)000349277600004 ()2-s2.0-84910686028 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2016-01-18Bibliographically approved
6. Support for End-to-End Response-Time and Delay Analysis in the Industrial Tool Suite: Implementation Issues, Experiences and a Case Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Support for End-to-End Response-Time and Delay Analysis in the Industrial Tool Suite: Implementation Issues, Experiences and a Case Study
2013 (English)In: Computer Science and Information Systems, ISSN 1820-0214, Vol. 10, no 1, 453-482 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper we discuss the implementation of the state-of-the-art end-to-end response-time and delay analysis as two individual plug-ins for the existing industrial tool suite Rubus-ICE. The tool suite is used for the development of software for vehicular embedded systems by several international companies. We describe and solve the problems encoun-tered and highlight the experiences gained during the process of imple-mentation, integration and evaluation of the analysis plug-ins. Finally, we provide a proof of concept by modeling the automotive-application case study with the existing industrial model (the Rubus Component Model), and analyzing it with the implemented analysis plug-ins.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17415 (URN)10.2298/CSIS120614011M (DOI)000316000800019 ()2-s2.0-84874625529 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2014-05-09Bibliographically approved
7. Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems: End-to-end Timing Models Extraction at Various Abstraction Levels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Component-Based Vehicular Distributed Embedded Systems: End-to-end Timing Models Extraction at Various Abstraction Levels
2014 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to perform the end-to-end response-time and delay analyses of a system, its end-to-end timing model should be available. The majority of existing model- and component-based development approaches for vehicular distributed embedded systems extract the end-to-end timing model at an abstraction level and development phase that is close to the system implementation. We present a method to extract the end-to-end timing models from the systems at a higher abstraction level. At the higher level, the method extracts timing information from system models that are developed with EAST-ADL and Timing Augmented Description Language (TADL2) using the TIMMO methodology. At the lower level, the method exploits the Rubus component model to extract the timing information that cannot be clearly specified at the higher level such as trigger paths in distributed chains. We also discuss challenges and issues faced during extraction of the timing models. Further, we present guidelines and solutions to address these challenges.

Series
MRTC Reports, ISSN 1404-3041
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-24974 (URN)MDH-MRTC-285/2014-1-SE (ISRN)
Projects
Synthesizing Predictable Software for Distributed Embedded Systems
Available from: 2014-05-09 Created: 2014-05-09 Last updated: 2014-08-29Bibliographically approved

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