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Storyboarding: Framing and Reframing Opportunities in the Front-Front end of Innovation
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation. (Design and visualization)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0835-8261
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This research proposes that design and visual thinking in combination with narrative theory contribute to enhance knowledge of innovation processes and support managers in their work. In particular, the focus is on the use of Storyboarding to support a better definition of a project’s brief. Innovation studies have shown that the initial phases of innovation processes (typically called the “front end of innovation”) are crucial for success. A proper definition of a brief, that occurs at the front of the front end, is therefore one of the most relevant events in innovation. This study investigates the early phases of innovation by developing and evaluating a new method for developing a brief.

First, an explorative approach has been used in order to develop knowledge of challenges in the front end of innovation and how design thinking, visual thinking and narratives can bring new insights in teamwork. In this explorative search the use of case studies has been employed. Then, the explorative search has focused onthe use of Storyboarding as a tool for reflection, and in particular for igniting dynamics of framing and reframing of innovation problems. Finally, in order to create a deeper knowledge in the use of storyboarding three hypotheses has been evaluated, four experiments has been conducted with the involvement of more than 60 people defining innovation briefs. In these experiments, storyboarding (visual and narrative) has been used to support “thinking” that leads to the brief. In other words, storyboarding has been seen as a process to enable innovation teams to think differently or more precisely, rather than just a tool to represent or to communicate the brief. The experiments show that using storyboarding has effects that can support innovation management. First, storyboarding is useful if management wants to “stimulate” a reflection on meaning when developing a brief, i.e. when they want an innovation team to consider both utilitarian and emotional/symbolic factors in an innovation process. Second, Storyboarding brings a narrower focus, compared to traditional written briefs, within the “area of interest” brought up by management, which sometimes may be asked for when the organization is in search for reframing the direction of innovation.

Abstract [sv]

Denna avhandling föreslår att design och visuellt tänkande i kombination med narrativ teori kan bidra till en bättre förståelse och ledning av innovationsprocesser. Framför allt med fokus på användningen av storyboarding för att stödja en bättre definition av ett projekts uppdragsbeskrivning, eller som det kallas en ”brief”. Tidigare innovationsforskning har visat att de inledande faserna av innovationsprocesser (vanligen kallad “the front end of innovation”) är av avgörande betydelse för att innovationer skall nå framgång. En ordentligt utformad ”brief”, formulerad tidigt, i de inledande faserna av innovationsprocessen är således en av de mest relevanta händelserna för framgångsrikt innovationsarbete. Denna forskning bidrar till kunskap i de tidiga faserna av innovationsprocessen genom att utveckla och utvärdera en ny metod för att utveckla en ”brief”, storyboarding.

Först så har en explorativ metodik använts för att skapa förståelse för de tidiga faserna av innovation och hur metoder och teorier från design, visuellt tänkande och narrativ kan ge nya insikter i teamarbete. I denna explorativa del så har fallstudier använts som forskningsstrategi. Därefter så har mitt sökande efter förståelse fokuserats på användningen av storyboarding som ett verktyg för reflektion, och i synnerhet att formulera och omformulera inramningen av möjligheter för innovation. Slutligen, för att skapa en djupare förståelse av storyboarding, så har tre hypoteser utvärderats med hjälp av ett antal experiment med mer än 60 personers deltagande där team utvecklar en ”brief”. I dessa experiment så har Storyboarding använts för att stödja teamens “tänkande” för att utveckla en ”brief”. Med andra ord så har Storyboarding setts som en process för att möjliggöra för team att tänka annorlunda eller mer exakt, snarare än bara ett verktyg för att representera eller för att kommunicera en ”brief”. Experimenten visar att användningen av Storyboarding har ett antal effekter som kan stödja ledning av innovation. För det första kan vi se att Storyboarding kan vara användbart om man vill “stimulera” reflektion kopplat till innebörd (meaning) när man utvecklar en ”brief”, dvs. när man vill att ett team ska överväga både funktionella så väl som känslomässiga/symboliska faktorer i en innovationsprocess. För det andra så skapar storyboarding en ”smalare” definition, jämfört med traditionella skriftliga ”briefs”, inom det av ledningen valda fokusområde. Detta kan vara önskvärt när ledningen söker efter nya möjligheter för innovation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2013. , 163 p.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 142
Keyword [en]
Storyboard, innovation management, visualization, design thinking, reflective practice, narrative, visual thinking, framing, meaning, sketching
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20882ISBN: 978-91-7485-117-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-20882DiVA: diva2:640464
Public defence
2013-09-19, Raspen, Smedjegatan 37, Eskilstuna, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Visualization in Reflective Practice - Support for Management
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Visualization in Reflective Practice - Support for Management
2012 (English)In: Design Management Journal, ISSN 1045-7194, Vol. 7, no 1, 62-73 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17428 (URN)10.1111/j.1948-7177.2012.00033.x (DOI)
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2016-05-13Bibliographically approved
2. Demystifying Innovation and Design - the Importanze of Visualization in Ideation and Conceptual Design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Demystifying Innovation and Design - the Importanze of Visualization in Ideation and Conceptual Design
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of DESIGN 2012, the 12th International Design Conference, Dubrovnik, Croatia, vol. 1, 2012, 1627-1635 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper will discuss how design and design thinking can contribute to an innovative development process in a conscious, controlled, and cost effective way. The subject will be reviewed from a theoretical and a practical point of view. In order to analyse and build an understanding of the design thinking phenomenon in practice, the paper will analyse a case study based on interviews at IDEO, a company successful in its work with innovative development using design thinking and comparing this with generic success factors and Schön’s paradigm of the reflective practice.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17429 (URN)978-953-7738-18-1 (ISBN)978-953-7738-17-4 (ISBN)
Conference
12th International Design Conference, Design 2012,May 21-24, 2012, Dubrovnik, Croatia
Funder
XPRES - Initiative for excellence in production research
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. A Narrative Approach Towards Understanding Innovation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Narrative Approach Towards Understanding Innovation
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of 18th International Product Development Management Conference, 2011Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13581 (URN)
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2013-12-03
4. The Use of Storyboard to Capture Experience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Use of Storyboard to Capture Experience
2011 (English)In: Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Vol. 10: Impacting Society Through Engineering Design, Design Society , 2011, 331-340 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today, product realization is becoming more squeezed in time and the need to capture experience from previous projects is an important factor for being successful in developing new products and services. This paper aims to investigate the use of storyboard to highlight earlier experiences from a narrative theory perspective and in relation to contemporary cognitive theories regarding how external representations facilitate collaborative work. This paper will discuss and come up with suggestions as to why storyboard can be a supportive method through the use of narrative theories. One of the objectives of the actual research project is to assist industry in developing strategies and methods to capture “lessons learned” in previous projects and use earlier experiences to avoid repeating mistakes. This will then release working capacity to be used for creativity and innovations instead. The conclusion of the paper presents storyboard as a supportive method for capturing earlier experience from a product realization project. It also argues that it is valid to borrow the concept focalizer from narrative theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Design Society, 2011
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13580 (URN)2-s2.0-84858819492 (Scopus ID)978-190467030-8 (ISBN)
Conference
18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 11; Copenhagen; 15 August 2011 through18 August 2011
Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
5. Storyboarding: Framing the “frame” of opportunity
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storyboarding: Framing the “frame” of opportunity
Show others...
2013 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The design brief is commonly a written description of a scope for a design problem that requires some kind of visual design. The exploration of opportunities before formulating the design brief results in framing and reframing the problem to create a common shared understanding of the problem. In this paper the applicability of Storyboard, the actual making of the storyboard, and its values to the front-front end of innovation is examined. Experiments has been performed in order to test three hypotheses and validate the results, in total four experiments was performed consisting of 25 teams developing 17 concepts. The three hypotheses focus, regarding type of innovation, scope and level of ambiguity, creates understanding of the values storyboarding can add with regards to framing opportunity for innovation in the front-front end of innovation. The result shows that storyboarding contribute to a narrow focus in creating the brief. Regarding the innovation type the hypothesis could not be confirmed, but storyboarding enables a reflection on both meaning and function. There were also some indications on ambiguity in the brief, but this hypothesis was not confirmed.

Keyword
storyboarding, framing, early design phases, innovation, human behaviour in design
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20886 (URN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Engineering Design, Seoul, Korea, 19-22 August 2013
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-12-07Bibliographically approved
6. Exploring storyboarding in prebrief activities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring storyboarding in prebrief activities
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED: Volume 7 DS75-07, 2013,, 2013, 11-20 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Creating ideas is no longer seen as a challenge within companies, creative sessions and brainstorming is widespread in most companies. However, when creating a design brief there is a lack of tools and methods finding problems and framing situations of interest. This paper examines the characteristics of storyboarding, the making of the storyboard, in pre-brief activities. In an explorative study 54 teams participating in an idea development workshop is analyzed. The workshop was developed using theories from design, visual thinking and narrative, using visual tools in every step with a focus on framing a situation of interest. This study provides an initial understanding of storyboarding in a new area and tentatively suggests that storyboarding stimulate creativity and reflection on emotions in the situation of interest. It also seems like storyboarding stimulates teams in organizing and discussing raw data widely. Storyboarding seems promising as a method but needs to be compared to the traditional way of describing a brief, a written document. An experiment is suggested to evaluate the differences between pre-brief activities made with storyboarding compared to written.

Keyword
storyboarding, innovation, framing, human behavior in design, design methods
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20885 (URN)2-s2.0-84897656410 (Scopus ID)ISBN: 9781-904670506 (ISBN)
Conference
19th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 2013; Seoul; South Korea; 19 August 2013 through 22 August 2013; Code 102496
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-11-12Bibliographically approved
7. Storyboarding: Framing and reframing the design brief
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Storyboarding: Framing and reframing the design brief
2013 (English)In: DS 75-7: Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED13), Design for Harmonies, Vol.7: Human Behaviour in Design, Seoul, Korea, 19-22.08.2013, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents findings from an explanatory experiment, developing understandingabout Storyboarding in the front front end of innovation. The experiment set-up is to test howStoryboard is different from the common way of working before creating a design brief,writing documents, and to create a research agenda in order to explore this phenomena indepth. The experiment was performed in the context of a multidisciplinary conceptdevelopment course with eight teams. These teams were divided in two groups where onegroup created a Storyboard brief and the other a written brief. As results three hypotheses aredeveloped for further research. Also we conclude that Storyboard seems to be more promisingto support innovation projects that need focusing in a narrower area, but in that area moreopen to freedom of interpretation and reframing of a problem at its roots.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Innovation and Design
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-20884 (URN)
Conference
20th International Product Development Management Conference, Paris, France, 23-25 June 2013.
Funder
Knowledge Foundation
Available from: 2013-08-13 Created: 2013-08-13 Last updated: 2015-12-08Bibliographically approved

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