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Architecture-Based Verification of Dependable Embedded Systems
Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1844-7874
2013 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Quality assurance of dependable embedded systems is becoming increasingly difficult, as developers are required to build more complex systems on tighter budgets. As systems become more complex, system architects must make increasingly complex architecture design decisions. The process of making the architecture design decisions of an intended system is the very first, and the most significant, step of ensuring that the developed system will meet its requirements, including requirements on its ability to tolerate faults. Since the decisions play a key role in the design of a dependable embedded system, they have a comprehensive effect on the development process and the largest impact on the developed system. Any faulty architecture design decision will, consequently, propagate throughout the development process, and is likely to lead to a system not meeting the requirements, an unacceptable level of dependability and costly corrections.

Architecture design decisions are in turn critical with respect to quality and dependability of a system, and the cost of the development process. It is therefore crucial to prevent faulty architecture design decisions and, as early as practicable, detect and remove faulty decisions that have not successfully been prevented. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) helps developers to cope with the increasing complexity by formal and standardized means of communication and understanding. Furthermore, the availability of a formal description enables automated and formal analysis of the architecture design.

The contribution of this licentiate thesis is an architecture quality assurance framework for safety-critical, performance-critical and mission-critical embedded systems specified by the Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL). The framework is developed through the adaption of formal methods, in particular traditional model checking and model-based testing techniques, to AADL, by defining formal verification criteria for AADL, and a formal AADL-semantics. Model checking of AADL models provides evidence of the completeness, consistency and correctness of the model, and allows for automated avoidance of faulty architecture design decisions, costly corrections and threats to quality and dependability. In addition, the framework can automatically generate test suites from AADL models to test a developed system with respect to the architecture design decisions. A successful test suite execution provides evidence that the architecture design has been implemented correctly. Methods for selective regression verification are included in the framework to cost-efficiently re-verify a modified architecture design, such as after a correction of a faulty design decision. 

Abstract [sv]

Kvalitetssäkring av tillförlitliga inbyggda system är en ständigt växande utmaning då utvecklare av sådana system är tvungna att bygga allt mer komplexa system inom allt mer begränsade budgetar. Då komplexiteten av systemen ökar måste systemarkitekter göra allt mera komplicerade beslut om systemens arkitekturdesign. Processen att besluta arkitekturdesignen av ett tilltänkt system är det allra första, och det mest signifikanta, steget att försäkra att det utvecklade systemet kommer uppnå dess krav, inklusive krav på dess möjlighet att tolerera defekter. Då dessa designbeslut dessutom har en nyckelroll i designen av ett tillförlitligt inbyggt system har de en omfattande effekt på utvecklingsprocessen samt den största påverkan på det utvecklade systemet. På grund av detta kommer ett felaktigt beslut om arkitekturdesignen propagera igenom hela utvecklingsprocessen och sannolikt resultera i ett system som inte uppnår kraven, får en oacceptabel tillförlitlighetsnivå, och kostsamma korrigeringar. De är därmed kritiska med hänsyn till kvaliteten och tillförlitligheten av ett inbyggt system, och kostnaden av utvecklingsprocessen. Således är det kritiskt att förhindra felaktiga beslut om arkitekturdesign och, så tidigt som möjligt, detektera och avlägsna felaktiga beslut som inte har lyckats att förhindras.

Användningen av språk för arkitekturbeskrivning hjälper utvecklare att hantera den ökande komplexiteten genom standardiserade kommunikationsmedel och förståelsemedel. Dessutom möjliggör en formell beskrivning automatiserad och formell analys av arkitekturdesignen.

Bidraget av denna licentiatavhandling är ett formellt kvalitetssäkringsramverk för säkerhetskritiska, prestandakritiska och uppdragskritiska inbyggda system specificerade i arkitekturbeskrivningsspråket ”Architecture Analysis and Design Language” (AADL). Ramverket är utvecklat genom adaptionen av formella metoder, i synnerhet traditionella modellkontrolltekniker och modellbaserad testningstekniker, till AADL, med hjälp av att definiera formella verifikationskriterier för AADL och en formell AADL-semantik. Modellkontroll av AADL-modeller analyserar modellens fullständighet, konsistens och korrekthet och möjliggör automatisk undvikande av felaktiga arkitekturdesignbeslut, kostsamma korrigeringar och hot mot kvalitet och tillförlitlighet. Därutöver kan ramverket automatiskt generera testsviter från AADL-modeller för att testa ett utvecklat system mot den bestämda arkitekturdesignen. En lyckad testsvitexekvering garanterar att arkitekturdesignen är korrekt implementerad. Metoder för selektiv regressionsverifiering är inkluderade i ramverket för att på ett kostnadseffektivt tillvägagångssätt verifiera en, tidigare verifierad, arkitekturdesign som har blivit modifierad, såsom efter en korrigering av ett felaktigt designbeslut.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University , 2013.
Series
Mälardalen University Press Licentiate Theses, ISSN 1651-9256 ; 168
Keyword [en]
architecture-based verification, dependable embedded systems, AADL, architecture quality assurance, UPPAAL
National Category
Computer Science Embedded Systems
Research subject
Computer Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-18993ISBN: 978-91-7485-112-0 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-18993DiVA: diva2:621628
Presentation
2013-06-12, Gamma, Mälardalen University, Västerås, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-16 Created: 2013-05-14 Last updated: 2015-11-04Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Developing dependable software-intensive systems: AADL vs. EAST-ADL
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing dependable software-intensive systems: AADL vs. EAST-ADL
2011 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6652, Springer, 2011, 103-117 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Dependable software-intensive systems, such as embedded systems for avionics and vehicles are often developed under severe quality, schedule and budget constraints. As the size and complexity of these systems dramatically increases, the architecture design phase becomes more and more significant in order to meet these constraints. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provides an important basis for mutual communication, analysis and evaluation activities. Hence, selecting an ADL suitable for such activities is of great importance. In this paper we compare and investigate the two ADLs - AADL and EAST-ADL. The level of support provided to developers of dependable software-intensive systems is compared, and several critical areas of the ADLs are highlighted. Results of using an extended comparison framework showed many similarities, but also one clear distinction between the languages regarding the perspectives and the levels of abstraction in which systems are modeled. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6652
Keyword
AADL, Architecture description languages, Dependable systems, EAST-ADL, Software-intensive systems, Software intensive systems, Ada (programming language), Embedded software, Embedded systems
National Category
Computer and Information Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-16053 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-21338-0_8 (DOI)2-s2.0-79960264797 (Scopus ID)9783642213373 (ISBN)
Note

16th Ada-Europe International Conference on Reliable Software Technologies, Ada-Europe 2011, 20 June 2011 through 24 June 2011, Edinburgh

Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2016-05-17Bibliographically approved
2. An Architecture-Based Verification Technique for AADL Specifications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Architecture-Based Verification Technique for AADL Specifications
2011 (English)In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, vol. 6903 / [ed] Crnkovic, I; Gruhn, V; Book, M, Berlin: Springer-Verlag , 2011, 105-113 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Quality assurance processes of software-intensive systems are an increasing challenge as the complexity of these systems dramatically increases. The use of Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) provide an important basis for evaluation. The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is an ADL developed for designing software intensive systems. In this paper, we propose an architecture-based verification technique covering the entire development process by adapting a combination of model-checking and model-based testing approaches to AADL specifications. The technique reveals inconsistencies of early design decisions and ensures a system's conformity with its AADL specification. The objective and criteria (test-selection) of the verification technique is derived from traditional integration testing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2011
Series
Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743 ; 6903
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-13590 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-23798-0_11 (DOI)000306397800011 ()2-s2.0-80053202420 (Scopus ID)978-364223797-3 (ISBN)
Note

5th European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA 2011) Location: Essen, GERMANY Date: SEP 13-16, 2011

Available from: 2011-12-15 Created: 2011-12-15 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved
3. Automated Verification of AADL-Specifications Using UPPAAL
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Automated Verification of AADL-Specifications Using UPPAAL
2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 14th IEEE International Symposium on High Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 2012, 130-138 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is used to represent architecture design decisions of safety-critical and real-time embedded systems. Due to the far-reaching effects these decisions have on the development process, an architecture design fault is likely to have a significant deteriorating impact through the complete process. Automated fault avoidance of architecture design decisions therefore has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of the development while increasing the dependability of the end product. To provide means for automated fault avoidance when developing systems specified in AADL, a formal verification technique has been developed to ensure completeness and consistency of an AADL specification as well as its conformity with the end product. The approach requires the semantics of AADL to be formalized and implemented. We use the methodology of semantic anchoring to contribute with a formal and implemented semantics of a subset of AADL through a set of transformation rules to timed automata constructs. In addition, the verification technique, including the transformation rules, is validated using a case study of a safety-critical fuel-level system developed by a major vehicle manufacturer.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-17372 (URN)10.1109/HASE.2012.22 (DOI)2-s2.0-84871966304 (Scopus ID)978-1-4673-4742-6 (ISBN)
Conference
IEEE 14th International Symposium on High-Assurance Systems Engineering (HASE), 25-27 Oct. 2012, Omaha, NE, USA
Available from: 2012-12-20 Created: 2012-12-20 Last updated: 2013-12-03Bibliographically approved

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