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A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production: A case study from a Finnish province
University of Eastern Finland.
Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
University of Eastern Finland.
University of Eastern Finland.
2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 102, p. 676-686Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A regional model for sustainable biogas electricity production was formulated and tested for a Finnishprovince, North-Savo. By using the model the aim was to support decision making for reducing greenhousegas (GHG) emissions and increasing renewable energy (RE) production in the studied region inthe biogas electricity production system. The system boundary of the model included transportation ofwaste, biogas production, heat and electricity production, as well as the delivery of heat and digestateto the end users. When electricity production was maximized in the studied region, the electricity productionand GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and 24 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. WhenGHG emissions were minimized, the electricity production and GHG emissions were 20 GW h/year and23 kt/year of CO2 equivalent, respectively. By producing electricity of 20 GW h/year, the maximumGHG reductions were roughly 74% of the theoretical maximum GHG emissions of 90 kt/year of CO2 equivalentin both cases. The regional electricity production potential of 20 GW h/year was only 21% of themaximum electricity production potential of 94 GW h/year. The locations of biogas plants, regional relativeGHG emissions, potential feedstocks and regional electricity production were optimized in bothcases in the studied region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2013. Vol. 102, p. 676-686
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15962DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.08.018ISI: 000314190800073Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84870763824OAI: oai:DiVA.org:mdh-15962DiVA, id: diva2:563353
Available from: 2012-10-29 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Regional Energy Systems with Retrofitted Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regional Energy Systems with Retrofitted Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Plants
2012 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fossil fuel depletion, economic development, urban expansion and climate change present tough challenges to municipal- and regional-scale energy systems. Regional energy system planning, including waste treatment, renewable energy supply, energy efficiency, and climate change, are considered essential to meet these challenges and move toward a sustainable society. This thesis includes studies on energy system from municipal waste, potential for a fossil fuel-independent regional energy system with increased renewable energy products using waste as one of energy sources, and the performance of biomass-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A top-down method is adopted to organize the studies, from national waste-to-energy (WtE) scenarios to individual energy plants.

The first study considers the overall potential contribution of WtE to energy supply and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation in Sweden until 2050 under several different scenarios. Depending on WtE scenario considered, the study shows that WtE can supply energy between 38 and 186 TWh and mitigate between CO2 of 1 and 12 Mt per year by 2050 based on the baseline of year 2010.

At a regional level, static and dynamic optimization models with a focus on WtE are developed for two regions in Sweden and Finland. The former is used to investigate the possibilities of optimal positioning of new energy plants, retrofitting existing energy plants and planting energy crops. The latter case study is on regional heat and power production using biogas generated from agricultural and livestock wastes. Centralized biogas production units perform better than distributed production regarding energy and carbon balance though the net energy output is negligible. However, a significant GHG emission can be reduced compared to the present status.

Retrofitting existing conventional CHP plants is another option for improving regional energy system. The study shows that integrating heat-demanded processes such as drying, bioethanol and pellet production with existing CHP plants can improve overall energy efficiency and power output, increase annual operation time and reduce production cost as well as mitigate GHG emissions.

 It is recommended that building new WtE/energy plants at optimum sites, upgrading the existing energy plants, expanding the agricultural/forestry waste/residues output (biomass) and planting more energy crops shall be taken into considerations for the future regional energy systems.

Abstract [sv]

Utarmning av fossila bränslekällor, ekonomisk utveckling, städernas utbredning och klimatförändring är svåra utmaningar för kommunala- och regionala energisystem. Planering av det regionala energisystemet, inklusive avfallshantering, förnyelsebara energikällor, energieffektivisering och hänsyn till klimatförändringar, anses avgörande för att möta dessa utmaningar och gå mot ett hållbart samhälle. Denna avhandling innehåller studier av energisystem centrerad kring hushållsavfall, potentialet för fossilbränslefria regionala energisystem som utnyttjar ökad andel förnyelsebara energiprodukter med avfall som en energikälla och prestandautvärdering av ett biomassa-eldat kraftvärmeverk. Studierna har organiserats efter storlek på system, från nationella avfall-till-energi scenarier till enskilda kraftverk.

 

Den första studien behandlar övergripande möjligheten att genom avfall-till-energi bidra till energiförsörjningen och begränsa utsläppet av växthusgaser i Sverige till 2050 under flera olika scenarier. Beroendet på avfall-till-energiscenario visar studien att genom att utnyttja avfall kan mellan 38 och 186 TWh energi levereras och dessutom kan koldioxidutsläppen reduceras med 1-12 miljoner ton till år 2050 med 2010 som basår.

 

På den regionala nivån, statiska och dynamiska optimeringsmodeller, med fokus på avfall-till-energi, är utvecklats för två regioner, en i Sverige och en i Finland. Det första modellen används för hitta den optimala placeringen av nya energianläggningar, anpassning av befintliga anläggningar och placering av odlingar av energigrödor. Den senare ingår i en fallstudie av den regionala kraft- och värmeproduktionen genom utnyttjande av biogas producerad från jordbruksavfall och djurgödsel. Centraliserade biogasanläggningar presterar bättre än decentraliserad anläggningar när det gäller energi – och kolbalanser även om i båda fallen så är skillnaden mellan konsumerad mängd bränsle, värme och el och producerad värme och el försumbar. Däremot kan en betydande mängd av växthusgasutsläppet i båda fallen undvikas jämfört med nuläget.

 

Anpassning av befintliga konventionella kraftvärmeverk är ett annat alternativ för att förbättra det regionala energisystemet. Studien visar att genom att integrera värmekrävande processer såsom torkning, bioetanol- och pelletsproduktion med befintliga kraftvärmeverk kan den totala energieffektiviten och uteffekten förbättras, öka den årliga drifftiden och minska produktionskostnaderna och utsläppen av växthusgaser.

 

Rekommendationen är att för de framtida regionala energisystemen överväga att bygga nya avfall-till-energianläggningar med optimal placering, uppgradera befintliga energianläggningar utöka insamlandet av avfall/restprodukter från jord- och skogbruk och plantera mer energigrödor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Västerås: Mälardalen University, 2012. p. 66
Series
Mälardalen University Press Dissertations, ISSN 1651-4238 ; 132
Keywords
Combined heat and power, Waste-to-Energy (WtE), Regional energy system, Greenhouse gases (GHG), Retrofitting, Optimization, Kraftvärme, Avfall-till-Energi, Regionala Energisystem, Växthusgaser, Uppgradering, Optimering.
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Energy- and Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:mdh:diva-15966 (URN)978-91-7485-085-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2012-12-10, Milos, Hogskolenplan 1, Vasteras, 13:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2012-10-31 Created: 2012-10-29 Last updated: 2012-11-15Bibliographically approved

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